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1.
Hum Reprod ; 36(1): 199-210, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432329

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is recreational and residential sun exposure associated with risk of endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Tanning bed use in early adulthood, sunscreen use and history of sunburns were associated with a greater risk of endometriosis; however, higher residential UV exposure was associated with a lower endometriosis risk. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous research has reported an association between endometriosis and skin cancer, with evidence of shared risk factors between the two diseases. We investigated the potential associations between ultraviolet radiation and endometriosis risk. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective cohort of 116 429 female US nurses aged 25-42 years at enrolment in 1989. Participants completed self-administered biennial questionnaires through June 2015. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS: We investigated self-reported measures of recreational sun-exposure and geocoded residential UV exposure in childhood and adulthood in relation to risk of laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis among premenopausal white women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: During follow-up, 4791 incident cases of laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis were reported among 1 252  248 person-years. Tanning bed use during high school/college (≥6 times per year vs. never use: HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40; Ptrend = 0.04) and at ages 25-35 (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.12-1.39; Ptrend ≤ 0.0001), number of sunburns during adolescence (Ptrend = 0.03) and percentage of time using sunscreen in adulthood (Ptrend = 0.002) were positively associated with risk of endometriosis. In contrast, residential UV level at birth (highest vs. lowest quintile: HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72-0.92; Ptrend = 0.0001), at age 15 (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.70-0.88; Ptrend ≤ 0.0001) and at age 30 (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.82-0.99; Ptrend = 0.21) were associated with a decreased risk of endometriosis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Self-reported endometriosis diagnosis may be prone to misclassification; however, we restricted our definition to laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis, which has been shown to have high validity compared to medical records. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our results suggest that tanning bed use in early adulthood increases endometriosis risk, potentially through a harmful effect of ultraviolet A wavelengths, and that residential UV exposure reduces risk, possibly via optimal vitamin D synthesis. These findings should be investigated further to enhance our understanding of endometriosis aetiology. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This project was supported by NICHD grants HD48544 and HD52473, HD57210, NIH grant CA50385, CA176726. M.K. was supported by a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (#PIOF-GA-2011-302078) and is grateful to the Philippe Foundation and the Bettencourt-Schueller Foundation for their financial support. H.R.H. is supported by the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (K22 CA193860). The authors have nothing to disclose. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

2.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219744

RESUMO

To investigate whether risk factors for keratinocyte carcinomas (KCs), namely pigmentary traits and sun exposure, are associated with risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). E3N is a prospective cohort of French women aged 40-65 years at inclusion in 1990. Cancer data were collected at baseline and updated every 2-3 years. Hazard Ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between pigmentary traits and sun exposure, and risk of CLL/NHL were estimated using Cox models. With a median follow-up of 24 years, 622 incident cases of CLL/NHL were ascertained among the 92,097 included women. The presence of nevi was associated with CLL/NHL risk: HR for "many or very many nevi" relative to "no nevi": 1.56 [1.15; 2.11]. Such association with number of nevi appears to be mostly limited to risk of CLL: HR for "many or very many nevi": 3.00 [1.38; 6.52]; versus 1.32 [0.94; 1.84] for NHL. Women whose skin was highly sensitive to sunburn also had a higher risk of CLL: HR = 1.96 [1.21; 3.18], while no increase in risk of NHL was observed. Skin or hair color, number of freckles, and average daily ultraviolet (UV) dose during spring and summer in location of residence at birth or at inclusion (kJ/m2 ) were not associated with CLL/NHL risk. Some pigmentary traits (presence of nevi and skin sensitivity), but not sun exposure, were associated with CLL/NHL. These observations suggest that CLL may share some constitutional risk factors with keratinocyte cancers.

3.
Hum Reprod Update ; 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is an often chronic, inflammatory gynaecologic condition affecting 190 million women worldwide. Studies have reported an elevated cancer risk among patients with endometriosis. However, prior research has included methodologic issues that impede valid and robust interpretation. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between endometriosis and cancer risk and analysed the results by methodologic characteristics. We discuss the implications of cancer screening in patients and management challenges faced by clinicians. SEARCH METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase databases for eligible studies from inception through 24 October 2019. We included cohort and case-control studies examining the association between endometriosis and cancer risk; cross-sectional studies and case reports were excluded. Publications had to present risk/rate/odds estimates with 95% CI. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate summary relative risks (SRR) and CIs. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed by the Q test and I2 statistics, and publication bias using Egger's and Begg's tests. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies were assessed using the risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. OUTCOMES: Forty-nine population-based case-control and cohort studies were included. Twenty-six studies were scored as having a 'serious'/'critical' risk of bias, and the remaining 23 'low'/'moderate'. Cancer-specific analyses showed a positive association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer risk (SRR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.68-2.22; n = 24 studies) that was strongest for clear cell (SRR = 3.44, 95% CI = 2.82-4.42; n = 5 studies) and endometrioid (SRR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.82-2.98; n = 5 studies) histotypes (Pheterogeneity < 0.0001), although with significant evidence of both heterogeneity across studies and publication bias (Egger's and Begg's P-values < 0.01). A robust association was observed between endometriosis and thyroid cancer (SRR = 1.39, 95% CI =1.24-1.57; n = 5 studies), a very small association with breast cancer (SRR = 1.04, 95% CI =1.00-1.09; n = 20 studies) and no association with colorectal cancer (SRR = 1.00, 95% CI =0.87-1.16; n = 5 studies). The association with endometrial cancer was not statistically significant (SRR = 1.23, 95% CI =0.97-1.57; n = 17 studies) overall and wholly null when restricted to prospective cohort studies (SRR = 0.99, 95% CI =0.72-1.37; n = 5 studies). The association with cutaneous melanoma was also non-significant (SRR = 1.17, 95% CI =0.97-1.41; n = 7 studies) but increased in magnitude and was statistically significant when restricted to studies with low/moderate risk of bias (SRR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.24-2.36, n = 2 studies). The most robust finding both in terms of statistical significance and magnitude of effect was an inverse association with cervical cancer (SRR = 0.68, 95% CI =0.56-0.82; n = 4 studies); however, this result has a high potential to reflect heightened access to detection of dysplasia for women who reached an endometriosis diagnosis and is thus likely not causal. Several additional cancer types were explored based on <4 studies. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Endometriosis was associated with a higher risk of ovarian and thyroid, and minimally (only 4% greater risk) with breast cancer, and with a lower risk of cervical cancer. However, this meta-analysis confirms that: a majority of studies had severe/critical risk of bias; there is impactful heterogeneity across studies-and for ovarian cancer, publication bias; and causal inference requires temporality, which in many studies was not considered. We discuss the implications of these potential associations from the perspectives of patients with endometriosis, clinicians involved in their care, and scientists investigating their long-term health risks.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 1057-1067, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710289

RESUMO

Citrus intake has been suggested to increase the risk of skin cancer. Although this relation is highly plausible biologically, epidemiologic evidence is lacking. We aimed to examine the potential association between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. EPIC is an ongoing multi-center prospective cohort initiated in 1992 and involving ~ 520,000 participants who have been followed-up in 23 centers from 10 European countries. Dietary data were collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up of 13.7 years, 8448 skin cancer cases were identified among 270,112 participants. We observed a positive linear dose-response relationship between total citrus intake and skin cancer risk (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18 in the highest vs. lowest quartile; Ptrend = 0.001), particularly with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20, Ptrend = 0.007) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47, Ptrend = 0.01). Citrus fruit intake was positively associated with skin cancer risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, Ptrend = 0.01), particularly with melanoma (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48; Ptrend = 0.01), although with no heterogeneity across skin cancer types (Phomogeneity = 0.21). Citrus juice was positively associated with skin cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.004), particularly with BCC (Ptrend = 0.008) and SCC (Ptrend = 0.004), but not with melanoma (Phomogeneity = 0.02). Our study suggests moderate positive linear dose-response relationships between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. Studies with available biomarker data and the ability to examine sun exposure behaviors are warranted to clarify these associations and examine the phototoxicity mechanisms of furocoumarin-rich foods.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1739-1749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty acids impact obesity, estrogens, and inflammation, which are risk factors for ovarian cancer. Few epidemiologic studies have investigated the association of fatty acids with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 1,486 incident ovarian cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for ovarian cancer risk factors were used to estimate HRs of ovarian cancer across quintiles of intake of fatty acids. False discovery rate was computed to control for multiple testing. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs of ovarian cancer across tertiles of plasma fatty acids among 633 cases and two matched controls in a nested case-control analysis. RESULTS: A positive association was found between ovarian cancer and intake of industrial trans elaidic acid [HR comparing fifth with first quintileQ5-Q1 = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.62; P trend = 0.02, q-value = 0.06]. Dietary intakes of n-6 linoleic acid (HRQ5-Q1 = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01-1.21; P trend = 0.03) and n-3 α-linolenic acid (HRQ5-Q1 = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.05-1.34; P trend = 0.007) from deep-frying fats were also positively associated with ovarian cancer. Suggestive associations were reported for circulating elaidic (OR comparing third with first tertileT3-T1 = 1.39; 95% CI = 0.99-1.94; P trend = 0.06) and α-linolenic acids (ORT3-T1 = 1.30; 95% CI = 0.98-1.72; P trend = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher intakes and circulating levels of industrial trans elaidic acid, and higher intakes of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid from deep-frying fat, may be associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer. IMPACT: If causal, eliminating industrial trans-fatty acids could offer a straightforward public health action for reducing ovarian cancer risk.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1654-1664, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant (95%) bladder cancer subtype in industrialized nations. Animal and epidemiologic human studies suggest that hormonal factors may influence urothelial carcinoma risk. METHODS: We used an analytic cohort of 333,919 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort. Associations between hormonal factors and incident urothelial carcinoma (overall and by tumor grade, tumor aggressiveness, and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma) risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean of 15 years of follow-up, 529 women developed urothelial carcinoma. In a model including number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), number of FTP was inversely associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR≥5vs1 = 0.48; 0.25-0.90; P trend in parous women = 0.010) and MHT use (compared with nonuse) was positively associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR = 1.27; 1.03-1.57), but no dose response by years of MHT use was observed. No modification of HRs by smoking status was observed. Finally, sensitivity analyses in never smokers showed similar HR patterns for the number of FTP, while no association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. Association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk remained significant only in current smokers. No heterogeneity of the risk estimations in the final model was observed by tumor aggressiveness or by tumor grade. A positive association between MTH use and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that increasing the number of FTP may reduce urothelial carcinoma risk. IMPACT: More detailed studies on parity are needed to understand the possible effects of perinatal hormone changes in urothelial cells.

8.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 54, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are lipophilic substances with endocrine-disrupting properties. To date, only few investigations, mainly retrospective case-control studies, have explored the link between internal levels of BFRs and the risk of breast cancer, leading to conflicting results. We investigated the associations between plasma concentrations of two main groups of BFRs, PBDEs (pentabromodiphenyl ethers) and PBBs (polybrominated biphenyls), and the risk of breast cancer in a nested case-control study. METHODS: A total of 197 incident breast cancer cases and 197 controls with a blood sample collected in 1994-1999 were included. Plasma levels of PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE153, BDE-154) and of PBB-153 were measured by gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Women were aged 56 years on average at blood draw. All cases, except for one, were diagnosed after menopause, with an average age at diagnosis of 68 years. Overall, we found no evidence of an association between plasma levels of PBDEs and PBB-153 and postmenopausal breast cancer risk (log-concentrations of BFRs yielding non-statistically significant ORs of 0.87 to 1.07). The analysis showed a non-linear inverse association for BDE-100 and BDE-153 and postmenopausal breast cancer risk; nevertheless, these findings were statistically significant only when the exposure was modeled as ng/L plasma (third vs. first quintile: OR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.19-0.93 and OR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.18-0.98, respectively) and not when modeled as ng/gr of lipids (OR = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.27-1.25 and OR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.25-1.17). These results were unchanged in stratified analyses by tumor hormone receptor expression or body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest no clear association between internal levels of PBDEs and PBB-153 and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. However, these findings need to be carefully interpreted, taking into account limitations due to the limited number of women included in the study, the lack of information concerning genetic susceptibility of cases, and the unavailability of exposure assessment during critical windows of susceptibility for breast cancer. More studies are warranted to further investigate the relationships between PBDE and PBB exposure and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Bifenil Polibromatos/sangue , Pós-Menopausa , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(8): 2042-2052, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243586

RESUMO

A substantial proportion of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises in the fallopian tube and other epithelia of the upper genital tract; these epithelia may incur damage and neoplastic transformation after sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pelvic inflammatory disease. We investigated the hypothesis that past STI infection, particularly Chlamydia trachomatis, is associated with higher EOC risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort including 791 cases and 1669 matched controls. Serum antibodies against C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) 16, 18 and 45 were assessed using multiplex fluorescent bead-based serology. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing women with positive vs. negative serology. A total of 40% of the study population was seropositive to at least one STI. Positive serology to C. trachomatis Pgp3 antibodies was not associated with EOC risk overall, but with higher risk of the mucinous histotype (RR = 2.30 [95% CI = 1.22-4.32]). Positive serology for chlamydia heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60-1) was associated with higher risk of EOC overall (1.36 [1.13-1.64]) and with the serous subtype (1.44 [1.12-1.85]). None of the other evaluated STIs were associated with EOC risk overall; however, HSV-2 was associated with higher risk of endometrioid EOC (2.35 [1.24-4.43]). The findings of our study suggest a potential role of C. trachomatis in the carcinogenesis of serous and mucinous EOC, while HSV-2 might promote the development of endometrioid disease.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1325-1333, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011733

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) incidence rates vary ~10-fold worldwide, in part due to variation in EC risk factor profiles. Using an EC risk model previously developed in the European EPIC cohort, we evaluated the prevention potential of modified EC risk factor patterns and whether differences in EC incidence between a European population and low-risk countries can be explained by differences in these patterns. Predicted EC incidence rates were estimated over 10 years of follow-up for the cohort before and after modifying risk factor profiles. Risk factors considered were: body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 ), use of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and oral contraceptives (OC) (potentially modifiable); and, parity, ages at first birth, menarche and menopause (environmentally conditioned, but not readily modifiable). Modeled alterations in BMI (to all ≤23 kg/m2 ) and HT use (to all non-HT users) profiles resulted in a 30% reduction in predicted EC incidence rates; individually, longer duration of OC use (to all ≥10 years) resulted in a 42.5% reduction. Modeled changes in not readily modifiable exposures (i.e., those not contributing to prevention potential) resulted in ≤24.6% reduction in predicted EC incidence. Women in the lowest decile of a risk score based on the evaluated exposures had risk similar to a low risk countries; however, this was driven by relatively long use of OCs (median = 23 years). Our findings support avoidance of overweight BMI and of HT use as prevention strategies for EC in a European population; OC use must be considered in the context of benefits and risks.

11.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 5, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although lifestyle factors have been studied in relation to individual non-communicable diseases (NCDs), their association with development of a subsequent NCD, defined as multimorbidity, has been scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between five lifestyle factors and incident multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 291,778 participants (64% women) from seven European countries, mostly aged 43 to 58 years and free of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) at recruitment, were included. Incident multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases was defined as developing subsequently two diseases including first cancer at any site, CVD, and T2D in an individual. Multi-state modelling based on Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of developing cancer, CVD, or T2D, and subsequent transitions to multimorbidity, in relation to body mass index (BMI), smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and their combination as a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score. Cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated to compute 10-year absolute risks for transitions from healthy to cancer at any site, CVD (both fatal and non-fatal), or T2D, and to subsequent multimorbidity after each of the three NCDs. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 years, 1910 men and 1334 women developed multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases. A higher HLI, reflecting healthy lifestyles, was strongly inversely associated with multimorbidity, with hazard ratios per 3-unit increment of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.81), 0.84 (0.79 to 0.90), and 0.82 (0.77 to 0.88) after cancer, CVD, and T2D, respectively. After T2D, the 10-year absolute risks of multimorbidity were 40% and 25% for men and women, respectively, with unhealthy lifestyle, and 30% and 18% for men and women with healthy lifestyles. CONCLUSION: Pre-diagnostic healthy lifestyle behaviours were strongly inversely associated with the risk of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases, and with the prognosis of these diseases by reducing risk of multimorbidity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Estilo de Vida , Multimorbidade , Neoplasias/complicações , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
12.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Cancer ; 146(12): 3267-3280, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506954

RESUMO

Evidence suggests an influence of sex hormones on cutaneous melanoma risk, but epidemiologic findings are conflicting. We examined the associations between use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and melanoma risk in women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Information on exogenous hormone use at baseline was derived from country-specific self-administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over 1992-2015, 1,696 melanoma cases were identified among 334,483 women, whereof 770 cases among 134,758 postmenopausal women. There was a positive, borderline-significant association between OC use and melanoma risk (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.26), with no detected heterogeneity across countries (phomogeneity = 0.42). This risk increased linearly with duration of use (ptrend = 0.01). Among postmenopausal women, ever use of MHT was associated with a nonsignificant increase in melanoma risk overall (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.97-1.43), which was heterogeneous across countries (phomogeneity = 0.05). Our findings do not support a strong and direct association between exogenous hormone use and melanoma risk. In order to better understand these relations, further research should be performed using prospectively collected data including detailed information on types of hormone, and on sun exposure, which may act as an important confounder or effect modifier on these relations.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 917-928, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008526

RESUMO

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are proposed to increase breast cancer (BC) incidence. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), two perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs), are suspected to be ubiquitously present in the blood of human population worldwide. We investigated the associations between serum concentrations of these substances and BC risk. Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale is a cohort of 98,995 French women born in 1925-1950 and followed up since 1990. We sampled 194 BC cases and 194 controls from women with available blood samples. Serum concentrations of PFASs were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Adjusted conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two sided. While PFASs concentrations were not associated with BC risk overall, we found positively linear associations between PFOS concentrations and the risk of ER+ (3rd quartile: OR = 2.22 [CI = 1.05-4.69]; 4th quartile: OR = 2.33 [CI = 1.11-4.90]); Ptrend = 0.04) and PR+ tumors (3rd quartile: OR = 2.47 [CI = 1.07-5.65]; 4th quartile: OR = 2.76 [CI = 1.21-6.30]; Ptrend = 0.02). When considering receptor-negative tumors, only the 2nd quartile of PFOS was associated with risk (ER-: OR = 15.40 [CI = 1.84-129.19]; PR-: OR = 3.47 [CI = 1.29-9.15]). While there was no association between PFOA and receptor-positive BC risk, the 2nd quartile of PFOA was positively associated with the risk of receptor-negative tumors (ER-: OR = 7.73 [CI = 1.46-41.08]; PR-: OR = 3.44 [CI = 1.30-9.10]). PFAS circulating levels were differentially associated with BC risk. While PFOS concentration was linearly associated with receptor-positive tumors, only low concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were associated with receptor-negative tumors. Our findings highlight the importance of considering exposure to PFASs as a potential risk factor for BC.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Caprilatos/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(4): 314-329, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665225

RESUMO

We investigated the influence of premenopausal use of progestogens on melanoma using data from E3N (Etude Epidémiologique Auprès de Femmes de l'Education Nationale), a prospective cohort of 98,995 French women, aged 40-65 years at inclusion. We used Cox models to adjust for age and melanoma risk factors. Over 1992-2008, 540 melanoma cases were ascertained among 79,558 women. We found a modest association between self-reported progestogen use and melanoma risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.47), which was reduced after adjustment for melanoma risk factors (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). There was no heterogeneity across types of progestogens (P = 0.22), and use of multiple progestogens was positively associated with melanoma risk (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.70). Among users, we found no relationship with duration of progestogen use, age at start and last use, and time since first and last use. Although our results did not show evidence of a confounding effect of sun exposure, progestogen users had lower levels of residential sun exposure and were more likely to report sunscreen use, suggesting specific sun exposure profiles in users. Our findings do not support a strong influence of progestogens on melanoma risk. Further research is needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Melanoma/epidemiologia , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Melanoma/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/induzido quimicamente
16.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(2): 182-185, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764213

RESUMO

Cutaneous melanoma has been suspected to be influenced by female sex hormones. A review of the literature in 2018 indicated that fertility drug (FD) use was associated with increased melanoma risk among parous women only. However, most studies so far were based on a retrospective design and the current evidence is unclear. We sought to prospectively investigate the associations between FD use and melanoma risk in women. E3N is a prospective cohort of 98 995 French women aged 40-65 years at inclusion in 1990. Information on use of FDs, including duration and time of administration, was assessed through self-administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age and melanoma risk factors. Over 1990-2008, about 611 melanoma cases were ascertained among 86 653 women. Compared with never use, ever use of FDs was not associated with melanoma risk overall [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.75-1.74], or among parous women (HR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.67-1.73). Among ever users of FDs, duration of use and age at first use were not associated with melanoma risk. Associations were similar after adjustment for UV exposure, although FD users were more likely to report tanning bed use than never-users (odds ratio = 1.50; CI = 1.01-2.22) in a subsample with recreational UV exposure data. Our data do not support an association between FD use and melanoma risk, but underlie the importance of taking into consideration potential confounding from sun exposure in future research.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 759-768, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968961

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the biological mechanisms underlying this association are not fully elucidated, particularly the extent to which this relationship is mediated by sex hormone levels. Circulating concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, their free fractions and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), were examined in 430 incident BC cases and 645 matched controls among alcohol-consuming postmenopausal women nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Mediation analysis was applied to assess whether individual hormone levels mediated the relationship between alcohol intake and BC risk. An alcohol-related hormonal signature, obtained by partial least square (PLS) regression, was evaluated as a potential mediator. Total (TE), natural direct and natural indirect effects (NIE) were estimated. Alcohol intake was positively associated with overall BC risk and specifically with estrogen receptor-positive tumors with respectively TE = 1.17(95%CI: 1.01,1.35) and 1.36(1.08,1.70) for a 1-standard deviation (1-SD) increase of intake. There was no evidence of mediation by sex steroids or SHBG separately except for a weak indirect effect through free estradiol where NIE = 1.03(1.00,1.06). However, an alcohol-related hormonal signature negatively associated with SHBG and positively with estradiol and testosterone was associated with BC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25 [1.07,1.47]) for a 1-SD higher PLS score, and had a statistically significant NIE accounting for a mediated proportion of 24%. There was limited evidence of mediation of the alcohol-BC association by individual sex hormones. However, a hormonal signature, reflecting lower levels of SHBG and higher levels of sex steroids, mediated a substantial proportion of the association.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
18.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 221, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though in situ breast cancer (BCIS) accounts for a large proportion of the breast cancers diagnosed, few studies have investigated potential risk factors for BCIS. Their results suggest that some established risk factors for invasive breast cancer have a similar impact on BCIS risk, but large population-based studies on lifestyle factors and BCIS risk are lacking. Thus, we investigated the association between lifestyle and BCIS risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Lifestyle was operationalized by a score reflecting the adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations. The recommendations utilized in these analyses were the ones pertinent to healthy body weight, physical activity, consumption of plant-based foods, energy-dense foods, red and processed meat, and sugary drinks and alcohol, as well as the recommendation on breastfeeding. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the association between lifestyle score and BCIS risk. The results were presented as hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: After an overall median follow-up time of 14.9 years, 1277 BCIS cases were diagnosed. Greater adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was not associated with BCIS risk (HR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.93-1.03; per one unit of increase; multivariable model). An inverse association between the lifestyle score and BCIS risk was observed in study centers, where participants were recruited mainly via mammographic screening and attended additional screening throughout follow-up (HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.99), but not in the remaining ones (HR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: While we did not observe an overall association between lifestyle and BCIS risk, our results indicate that lifestyle is associated with BCIS risk among women recruited via screening programs and with regular screening participation. This suggests that a true inverse association between lifestyle habits and BCIS risk in the overall cohort may have been masked by a lack of information on screening attendance. The potential inverse association between lifestyle and BCIS risk in our analyses is consistent with the inverse associations between lifestyle scores and breast cancer risk reported from previous studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Avaliação Nutricional , Academias e Institutos , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
19.
J Ovarian Res ; 12(1): 116, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer Antigen 125 (CA125) is currently the best available ovarian cancer screening biomarker. However, CA125 has been limited by low sensitivity and specificity in part due to normal variation between individuals. Personal characteristics that influence CA125 could be used to improve its performance as screening biomarker. METHODS: We developed and validated linear and dichotomous (≥35 U/mL) circulating CA125 prediction models in postmenopausal women without ovarian cancer who participated in one of five large population-based studies: Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO, n = 26,981), European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, n = 861), the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII, n = 81), and the New England Case Control Study (NEC, n = 923). The prediction models were developed using stepwise regression in PLCO and validated in EPIC, NHS/NHSII and NEC. RESULT: The linear CA125 prediction model, which included age, race, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and duration, parity, hysterectomy, age at menopause, and duration of hormone therapy (HT), explained 5% of the total variance of CA125. The correlation between measured and predicted CA125 was comparable in PLCO testing dataset (r = 0.18) and external validation datasets (r = 0.14). The dichotomous CA125 prediction model included age, race, BMI, smoking status and duration, hysterectomy, time since menopause, and duration of HT with AUC of 0.64 in PLCO and 0.80 in validation dataset. CONCLUSIONS: The linear prediction model explained a small portion of the total variability of CA125, suggesting the need to identify novel predictors of CA125. The dichotomous prediction model showed moderate discriminatory performance which validated well in independent dataset. Our dichotomous model could be valuable in identifying healthy women who may have elevated CA125 levels, which may contribute to reducing false positive tests using CA125 as screening biomarker.


Assuntos
Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 993-1002, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been reported to be associated with lower cancer risk. However, while previous studies explored major single components of the MD, only 1 previous study has investigated adherence to the MD in relation to melanoma risk. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relations between adherence to the MD and the risk of skin cancer, including melanomas, basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). DESIGN: Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) is a prospective cohort of 98,995 French women aged 40-65 y in 1990. Dietary data were collected via a validated food questionnaire in 1993. Adherence to the MD was assessed using a 9-unit dietary score that incorporates intakes of fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereal products, olive oil, fish, dairy products, meat products, and alcohol. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for age and main known skin cancer risk factors. RESULTS: From 1993 to 2008, a total of 2003 skin cancer cases were ascertained among 67,332 women, including 404 melanomas, 1367 BCCs, and 232 SCCs. Score of adherence to the MD was associated with lower risk of skin cancer (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.93 for high compared with low score, Ptrend = 0.001). MD score was also inversely and linearly associated with risks of melanoma (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.96; Ptrend = 0.02) and BCC (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.90; Ptrend = 0.0006) but not SCC (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.55; Ptrend = 0.68), although with no heterogeneity across skin cancer types (Pheterogeneity = 0.23). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that adherence to the MD is associated with a lower skin cancer risk in women, particularly melanoma and BCC. If confirmed in future research, these findings may have important implications in skin cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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