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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify distinct diet trajectories after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, and to examine the characteristics associated with diet trajectories. METHODS: We analyzed 2865 Pathways Study participants who completed ≥ 2 food frequency questionnaires at the time of BC diagnosis (baseline), and at 6 and 24 months after baseline. Trajectory groups of fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake, % calories from dietary fat, and alcohol intake over 24 months were identified using group-based trajectory modeling. Associations between diet trajectories and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical factors were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Analyses identified 3 F/V trajectory groups, 4 dietary fat groups, and 3 alcohol groups. All 3 F/V trajectory groups reported slightly increased F/V intake post-diagnosis (mean increase = 0.2-0.5 serving/day), while 2 groups (48% of participants) persistently consumed < 4 servings/day of F/V. Dietary fat intake did not change post-diagnosis, with 45% of survivors maintaining a high-fat diet (> 40% of calories from fat). While most survivors consumed < 1 drink/day of alcohol at all times, 21% of survivors had 1.4-3.0 drinks/day at baseline and temporarily decreased to 0.1-0.5 drinks/day at 6 months. In multivariable analysis, diet trajectory groups were significantly associated with education (ORs: 1.93-2.49), income (ORs: 1.32-2.57), optimism (ORs: 1.93-2.49), social support (OR = 1.82), and changes in physical well-being (ORs: 0.58-0.61) and neuropathy symptoms after diagnosis (ORs: 1.29-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: Pathways Study participants reported slightly increasing F/V and decreasing alcohol intake after BC diagnosis. Nearly half of survivors consumed insufficient F/V and excessive dietary fat. It is important to prioritize nutrition counseling and education in BC survivors.

2.
Radiat Res ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609677

RESUMO

Assessment of health effects from low-dose radiation exposures in patients undergoing diagnostic imaging is an active area of research. High-quality dosimetry information pertaining to these medical exposures is generally not readily available to clinicians or epidemiologists studying radiation-related health risks. The purpose of this study was to provide methods for organ dose estimation in pediatric patients undergoing four common diagnostic fluoroscopy procedures: the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series, the lower gastrointestinal (LGI) series, the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and the modified barium swallow (MBS). Abstracted X-ray film data and physician interviews were combined to generate procedure outlines detailing X-ray beam projections, imaged anatomy, length of X-ray exposure, and presence and amount of contrast within imaged anatomy. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations were completed for each of the four diagnostic fluoroscopy procedures across the 162-member (87 males and 75 females) University of Florida/National Cancer Institute pediatric phantom library, which covers variations in both subject height and weight. Absorbed doses to 28 organs, including the active marrow and bone endosteum, were assigned for all 162 phantoms by procedure. Additionally, we provide dose coefficients (DCs) in a series of supplementary tables. The DCs give organ doses normalized to procedure-specific dose metrics, including: air kerma-area product (µGy/mGy · cm2), air kerma at the reference point (µGy/µGy), number of spot films (SF) (µGy/number of SFs) and total fluoroscopy time (µGy/s). Organs accumulating the highest absorbed doses per procedure were as follows: kidneys between 0.9-25.4 mGy, 1.1-16.6 mGy and 1.1-9.7 mGy for the UGI, LGI and VCUG procedures, respectively, and salivary glands between 0.2-3.7 mGy for the MBS procedure. Average values of detriment-weighted dose, a phantom-specific surrogate for the effective dose based on ICRP Publication 103 tissue-weighting factors, were 0.98 mSv, 1.16 mSv, 0.83 mSv and 0.15 mSv for the UGI, LGI, VCUG and MBS procedures, respectively. Scalable database of organ dose coefficients by patient sex, height and weight, and by procedure exposure time, reference point air kerma, kerma-area product or number of spot films, allows clinicians and researchers to compute organ absorbed doses based on their institution-specific and patient-specific dose metrics. In addition to informing on patient dosimetry, this work has the potential to facilitate exposure assessments in epidemiological studies designed to investigate radiation-related risks.

3.
JAMA ; 322(9): 843-856, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479136

RESUMO

Importance: Medical imaging increased rapidly from 2000 to 2006, but trends in recent years have not been analyzed. Objective: To evaluate recent trends in medical imaging. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of patterns of medical imaging between 2000 and 2016 among 16 million to 21 million patients enrolled annually in 7 US integrated and mixed-model insurance health care systems and for individuals receiving care in Ontario, Canada. Exposures: Calendar year and country (United States vs Canada). Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine imaging. Annual and relative imaging rates by imaging modality, country, and age (children [<18 years], adults [18-64 years], and older adults [≥65 years]). Results: Overall, 135 774 532 imaging examinations were included; 5 439 874 (4%) in children, 89 635 312 (66%) in adults, and 40 699 346 (30%) in older adults. Among adults and older adults, imaging rates were significantly higher in 2016 vs 2000 for all imaging modalities other than nuclear medicine. For example, among older adults, CT imaging rates were 428 per 1000 person-years in 2016 vs 204 per 1000 in 2000 in US health care systems and 409 per 1000 vs 161 per 1000 in Ontario; for MRI, 139 per 1000 vs 62 per 1000 in the United States and 89 per 1000 vs 13 per 1000 in Ontario; and for ultrasound, 495 per 1000 vs 324 per 1000 in the United States and 580 per 1000 vs 332 per 1000 in Ontario. Annual growth in imaging rates among US adults and older adults slowed over time for CT (from an 11.6% annual percentage increase among adults and 9.5% among older adults in 2000-2006 to 3.7% among adults in 2013-2016 and 5.2% among older adults in 2014-2016) and for MRI (from 11.4% in 2000-2004 in adults and 11.3% in 2000-2005 in older adults to 1.3% in 2007-2016 in adults and 2.2% in 2005-2016 in older adults). Patterns in Ontario were similar. Among children, annual growth for CT stabilized or declined (United States: from 10.1% in 2000-2005 to 0.8% in 2013-2016; Ontario: from 3.3% in 2000-2006 to -5.3% in 2006-2016), but patterns for MRI were similar to adults. Changes in annual growth in ultrasound were smaller among adults and children in the United States and Ontario compared with CT and MRI. Nuclear medicine imaging declined in adults and children after 2006. Conclusions and Relevance: From 2000 to 2016 in 7 US integrated and mixed-model health care systems and in Ontario, rates of CT and MRI use continued to increase among adults, but at a slower pace in more recent years. In children, imaging rates continued to increase except for CT, which stabilized or declined in more recent periods. Whether the observed imaging utilization was appropriate or was associated with improved patient outcomes is unknown.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/tendências , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Diagnóstico por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Cintilografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cintilografia/tendências , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia/tendências , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000000512, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients who undergo cystectomy due to bladder cancer can elect an ileal conduit or a neobladder for urinary diversion. Decision regret related to this choice is an important and undesirable patient reported outcome. Our objective was to compare the severity of decision regret experienced by patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort study of patients who underwent cystectomy from 2013 to 2015. We applied multivariable linear regression to examine associations of the urinary diversion method (neobladder vs ileal conduit) with decision regret measured with the DRS (Decision Regret Scale) 6 and 18 months after cystectomy. Covariates included demographic and clinical characteristics, health care utilization and complications after cystectomy, quality of life and factors related to the decision making process, including informed and shared decision making, and goal concordance. RESULTS: Of the 192 patients in our cohort 141 received an ileal conduit and 51 received a neobladder. We observed no significant difference in the DRS score in patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit at 6 or 18 months (b=-1.28, 95% CI -9.07-6.53, vs b=-1.55, 95% CI -12.48-9.38). However, informed decision making was negatively related to decision regret at 6 and 18 months (b=-13.08, 95% CI -17.05--9.11, and b=-8.54, 95% CI -4.26--2.63, respectively). Quality of life was negatively associated with decision regret at 18 months (b=-5.50, 95% CI -8.95--2.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with cystectomy who were more informed about bladder reconstruction options experienced less regret independent of the method selected. Efforts to inform and prepare patients for the bladder reconstruction decision may help prevent decision regret.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e197249, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339541

RESUMO

Importance: The use of medical imaging has sharply increased over the last 2 decades. Imaging rates during pregnancy have not been quantified in a large, multisite study setting. Objective: To evaluate patterns of medical imaging during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 US integrated health care systems and in Ontario, Canada. Participants included pregnant women who gave birth to a live neonate of at least 24 weeks' gestation between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2016, and who were enrolled in the health care system for the entire pregnancy. Exposures: Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, conventional radiography, angiography and fluoroscopy, and nuclear medicine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Imaging rates per pregnancy stratified by country and year of child's birth. Results: A total of 3 497 603 pregnancies in 2 211 789 women were included. Overall, 26% of pregnancies were from US sites. Most (92%) were in women aged 20 to 39 years, and 85% resulted in full-term births. Computed tomography imaging rates in the United States increased from 2.0 examinations/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 11.4/1000 pregnancies in 2007, remained stable through 2010, and decreased to 9.3/1000 pregnancies by 2016, for an overall increase of 3.7-fold. Computed tomography rates in Ontario, Canada, increased more gradually by 2.0-fold, from 2.0/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 6.2/1000 pregnancies in 2016, which was 33% lower than in the United States. Overall, 5.3% of pregnant women in US sites and 3.6% in Ontario underwent imaging with ionizing radiation, and 0.8% of women at US sites and 0.4% in Ontario underwent CT. Magnetic resonance imaging rates increased steadily from 1.0/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 11.9/1000 pregnancies in 2016 in the United States and from 0.5/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 9.8/1000 pregnancies in 2016 in Ontario, surpassing CT rates in 2013 in the United States and in 2007 in Ontario. In the United States, radiography rates doubled from 34.5/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 72.6/1000 pregnancies in 1999 and then decreased to 47.6/1000 pregnancies in 2016; rates in Ontario slowly increased from 36.2/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 44.7/1000 pregnancies in 2016. Angiography and fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine use rates were low (5.2/1000 pregnancies), but in most years, higher in Ontario than the United States. Imaging rates were highest for women who were younger than 20 years or aged 40 years or older, gave birth preterm, or were black, Native American, or Hispanic (US data only). Considering advanced imaging only, chest imaging of pregnant women was more likely to use CT in the United States and nuclear medicine imaging in Ontario. Conclusions and Relevance: The use of CT during pregnancy substantially increased in the United States and Ontario over the past 2 decades. Imaging rates during pregnancy should be monitored to avoid unnecessary exposure of women and fetuses to ionizing radiation.

6.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 19(4): 225-235.e2, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928413

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: GATA3 is a critical transcription factor in maintaining the differentiated state of luminal mammary epithelial cells. We sought to determine the prognostic and predictive roles of GATA3 genotypes for breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 2 breast cancer cohorts, including the SWOG S8897 trial where patients were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (CAF [cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil] vs. CMF [cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil]) or untreated, and the observational Pathways Study. RESULTS: In the S8897 trial, rs3802604 and rs568727 were associated with disease-free survival and overall survival in the treated group, regardless of chemotherapy regimen. The GG genotype of rs3802604 conferred poorer overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-4.05) and disease-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.99) compared with the AA genotype. Similar associations were found for rs568727. In contrast, no association with either SNP was found in the untreated group. Subgroup analyses indicated that these 2 SNPs more strongly influenced outcomes in the patients who also received tamoxifen. However, the associations in the subgroup with tamoxifen treatment were not replicated in the Pathways Study, possibly owing to substantial differences between the 2 patient cohorts, such as chemotherapy regimen and length of follow-up. Results from joint analyses across these 2 cohorts were marginally significant, driven by the results in S8897. Bioinformatic analyses support potential functional disruption of the GATA3 SNPs in breast tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides some evidence for the predictive value of GATA3 genotypes for breast cancer adjuvant therapies. Future replication studies in appropriate patient populations are warranted.

7.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 17(2): 211-218, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959223

RESUMO

As next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has become widely used to identify genetic causal variants for various diseases and traits, a number of packages for checking NGS data quality have sprung up in public domains. In addition to the quality of sequencing data, sample quality issues, such as gender mismatch, abnormal inbreeding coefficient, cryptic relatedness, and population outliers, can also have fundamental impact on downstream analysis. However, there is a lack of tools specialized in identifying problematic samples from NGS data, often due to the limitation of sample size and variant counts. We developed SeqSQC, a Bioconductor package, to automate and accelerate sample cleaning in NGS data of any scale. SeqSQC is designed for efficient data storage and access, and equipped with interactive plots for intuitive data visualization to expedite the identification of problematic samples. SeqSQC is available at http://bioconductor.org/packages/SeqSQC.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Software , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(3): 615-625, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia and low skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) have been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, factors contributing to these 2 muscle abnormalities are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of medical and demographic characteristics with muscle abnormalities among patients with nonmetastatic CRC. METHODS: Patients with stage I-III invasive CRC (2006-11) who had diagnostic computed tomography (CT) available from Kaiser Permanente Northern California electronic medical records were included. CT-assessed sarcopenia and low SMD were defined according to optimal stratification. Logistic regressions including age, stage, site, total adipose tissue (TAT), race/ethnicity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, smoking history, alcohol use, and Charlson Comorbidity Score were performed to identify characteristics associated with muscle abnormalities. RESULTS: The study included 3262 patients (49.9% females) with a mean ± SD age of 62.6 ± 11.4 y. Sarcopenia and low SMD were highly prevalent (42.4% and 29.6%, respectively). Age and sex interactions were noted for muscle mass, but not SMD. Age was associated with higher odds of muscle abnormalities in a dose-response manner. Compared with those aged ≤50 y, patients aged 70-80 y had considerably higher odds (OR: 6.19; 95% CI: 4.72, 8.11) of sarcopenia, and low SMD (OR: 17.81; 95% CI: 11.73, 27.03). High TAT was related to a higher odds of low SMD (OR: 9.62; 95% CI: 7.37, 12.56), but lower odds of sarcopenia (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.71). Compared with Caucasians, African Americans had lower odds of sarcopenia and low SMD. Patients with a higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio had higher odds of having both muscle abnormalities. Patients who were smokers or had any comorbidity had higher odds of low SMD, but not sarcopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle abnormalities were common in patients with nonmetastatic CRC, with great variability in muscle mass and SMD across age, TAT, and race/ethnicity. Factors associated with muscle abnormalities may be used to facilitate risk stratification and the guidance of targeted strategies to counteract these abnormalities.

9.
Cancer Med ; 8(4): 1845-1853, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864286

RESUMO

Young black women are at higher risk of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); however, a majority of the genetic studies on cancer predisposition were carried out in White populations. The underrepresentation of minority racial/ethnic populations in cancer genetic studies may have led to disproportionate gaps in our knowledge of cancer predisposition genes in these populations. We surveyed the protein-truncating mutations at the exome-wide scale and in known breast cancer predisposition genes among 170 patients of multiple racial/ethnic groups with early-onset (≤age 50) TNBC from two independent cohorts. Black patients, on average, had a higher number of truncating mutations than Whites at the exome-wide level, but fewer truncating mutations in the panel of known breast cancer genes. White TNBC patients showed a strong enrichment of truncating variants in known breast cancer genes, whereas no such enrichment was found among Black patients. Our findings indicate likely more breast cancer disposition genes yet to be discovered in minority racial/ethnic groups, and the current multigene panels may result in unequal benefits from cancer genetic testing.

10.
J Urol ; 202(1): 83-89, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patient centered care aims to align treatment with patient goals, especially when treatment options have equivalent clinical outcomes. For surgeries with lasting impacts that alignment is critical. To our knowledge no psychometrically tested preference elicitation measures exist to support patients with bladder cancer treated with cystectomy, who can often choose between ileal conduit and neobladder diversions. In this study we created a scale to measure how patient goals align with each type of urinary diversion and the associated surgical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed formative research through focus groups and clinician outreach to adapt a goal dissonance measure. We mailed a survey to adult Kaiser Permanente® members who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer between January 2013 and June 2015. Eligible patients were identified through electronic health records and chart review. Surveys were mailed 5 to 7 months postoperatively. We administered our 10-item decision dissonance scale along with other decision making measures. We explored goal alignment as well as dissonance. Psychometric analysis included factor analysis, evaluation of scale scores between surgery groups and evaluation with other decision making scores. RESULTS: We identified 10 goals associated with ileal conduit or neobladder diversion. Using survey data on 215 patients our scale differentiated patient goals associated with each diversion choice. On average patients with a neobladder strongly valued neobladder aligned goals such as maintaining body integrity and volitional voiding through the urethra. Patients with an ileal conduit had neutral values on average across all goals. CONCLUSIONS: Our measure lays the foundation for a simple value elicitation approach which could facilitate shared decision making about urinary diversion choice.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Preferência do Paciente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/psicologia , Idoso , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Metas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Derivação Urinária/métodos
12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(2): 187-193, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bladder cancer is one of the top five cancers diagnosed in the U.S. with a high recurrence rate, and also one of the most expensive cancers to treat over the life-course. However, there are few observational, prospective studies of bladder cancer survivors. METHODS: The Bladder Cancer Epidemiology, Wellness, and Lifestyle Study (Be-Well Study) is a National Cancer Institute-funded, multi-center prospective cohort study of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients (Stage Ta, T1, Tis) enrolled from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) and Southern California (KPSC) health care systems, with genotyping and biomarker assays performed at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center. The goal is to investigate diet and lifestyle factors in recurrence and progression of NMIBC, with genetic profiles considered, and to build a resource for future NMIBC studies. RESULTS: Recruitment began in February 2015. As of 30 June 2018, 1,281 patients completed the baseline interview (774 KPNC, 511 KPSC) with a recruitment rate of 54%, of whom 77% were male and 23% female, and 80% White, 6% Black, 8% Hispanic, 5% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicity. Most patients were diagnosed with Ta (69%) or T1 (27%) tumors. Urine and blood specimens were collected from 67% and 73% of consented patients at baseline, respectively. To date, 599 and 261 patients have completed the 12- and 24-month follow-up questionnaires, respectively, with additional urine and saliva collection. CONCLUSIONS: The Be-Well Study will be able to answer novel questions related to diet, other lifestyle, and genetic factors and their relationship to recurrence and progression among early-stage bladder cancer patients.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Dieta , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508637

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with cancer commonly experience depression. If not addressed, depression can lead to reduced quality of life and survival. OBJECTIVE: Given the introduction of national initiatives to improve management of psychiatric symptoms among patients with cancer, we examined patterns of depression detection and treatment over time, and with respect to patient characteristics. METHODS: This cross-sectional study linked data from the Pathways Study, a prospective cohort study of women diagnosed with breast cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) between 2005-2013, with data from KPNC's electronic medical record. Pathways participants eligible for this analysis had no known prior depression but reported depressive symptoms at baseline. We used modified Poisson regression to assess the association of cancer diagnosis year and other patient characteristics with receipt of a documented clinician response to depressive symptoms (depression diagnosis, mental health referral, or antidepressant prescription). RESULTS: Of the 725 women in our sample, 34% received a clinician response to depression. We observed no statistically significant association of breast cancer diagnosis year with clinician response. Characteristics associated with clinician response included Asian race (aRR, Asian vs. White: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.29-0.68), and depression severity (aRR, mild-moderate vs. severe depression: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.11- 1.88). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients in our sample did not receive a clinician response to their study-reported depression, and rates of response do not appear to have improved over time. Asian women, and those with less severe depression, appeared to be at increased risk of having unmet mental health care needs.

14.
Ethn Dis ; 28(4): 565-574, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405302

RESUMO

Background: It is unknown how subsequent breast cancer outcomes vary by biologic subtype and race/ethnicity in a diverse cohort of breast cancer survivors. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6,154 insured breast cancer survivors (AJCC TNM stages 0-IV) diagnosed between 1996-2007 and followed them through 1/1/2010 for subsequent breast cancer events (recurrence, contralateral breast cancer, metastasis, mortality). We compared subsequent breast cancer rates by race/ethnicity groups and biologic subtype (luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, and triple negative). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for sociodemographics, cancer treatments, and tumor characteristics. Results: The cohort was diverse: 62.4% non-Hispanic White, 13.2% Hispanic, 14.9% African American, and 9.5% Asian. We identified 1,456 subsequent breast cancer events over 22,830 person-years. Although certain Asian women had higher crude subsequent breast cancer rates compared with Whites, within each biologic subtype category, these disparities disappeared in the multivariable analyses. After accounting for race/ethnicity, compared with women with luminal A tumors (reference), women with luminal B (adjusted HR=3.65, 95% CI: 3.08-4.32), HER2-enriched (adjusted HR=2.81, 95% CI: 2.25-3.51) and triple negative (adjusted HR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.54) tumors had statistically increased risks of subsequent breast cancer. Factors that were statistically significantly associated with increased risk included higher stage, larger tumor size, positive lymph nodes, and no adjuvant endocrine or chemotherapy (all P<.025). Discussion: Our data suggest that disparities in subsequent breast cancer outcomes were more strongly associated with tumor characteristics and non-use of adjuvant treatments than race/ethnicity.

15.
Urology ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative contributions of patient and surgeon factors for predicting selection of ileal conduit (IC), neobladder (NB), or continent pouch (CP) urinary diversions (UD) for patients diagnosed with muscle-invasive/high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. This information is needed to enhance research comparing cancer survivors' outcomes across different surgical treatment options. METHODS: Bladder cancer patients age ≥21 years with cystectomy/UD performed from 1/2010 to 6/2015 in three Kaiser Permanente regions were included. All patient and surgeon data were obtained from electronic health records. A mixed effects logistic regression model was used treating surgeon as a random effect and region as a fixed effect. RESULTS: Of 991 eligible patients, 794 (80%) received IC. 169 surgeons performed the surgeries and accounted for a sizeable proportion of the variability in patient receipt of UD (ICC=.26). The multilevel model with only patient factors showed good fit (AUC=.93, Hosmer-Lemeshow test p=.44), and older age, female sex, eGFR<45, 4+ comorbidity index score, and stage III/IV tumors were associated with higher odds of receiving an IC vs. NB/CP. However, including surgeon factors (annual cystectomy volume, specialty training, clinical tenure) had no association (p=.29). CONCLUSIONS: In this community setting, patient factors were major predictors of UD received. Surgeons also played a substantial role, yet clinical training and experience were not major predictors. Surgeon factors such as beliefs about UD options and outcomes should be explored.

16.
Urology ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine intravesical chemotherapy (IVC) use according to non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patient disease risk, and the contributions of multilevel factors to variation in proficient use among patients with low-intermediate disease. METHODS: This study included 988 patients diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in an integrated health system in Northern California from 2015-2017. We calculated IVC receipt by disease risk, and among patients with low-intermediate risk disease, assessed the relationship between multilevel factors and IVC receipt using a logistic regression model with random intercepts for provider and service area, and patient-, provider-, and service area-level fixed effects. We further assessed the association of provider- and service area-level factors with IVC use by examining intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Similar proportions of low-intermediate (36%) and high-risk (34%) patients received IVC. In the multivariate analysis, including low-intermediate risk patients, service area volume was strongly and statistically significantly associated with IVC use (adjusted odds ratio, high- vs low-volume: 0.08, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.01-0.58). Provider- and service area-level intraclass correlation coefficients were large, (38%, P = .0009 and 39% P = .03, respectively) indicating that much of the variance in IVC use was explained by factors at these levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight opportunities to improve proficient use of IVC. Future research should assess provider- and practice-level barriers to IVC use among low-intermediate risk patients.

17.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 9(4): 664-672, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle abnormalities such as low muscle mass and low muscle radiodensity are well known risk factors for unfavourable cancer prognosis. However, little is known in regard to the degree and impact of longitudinal changes in muscle mass and radiodensity within the context of cancer. Here, we explore the relationship between muscle wasting and mortality in a large population-based study of patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A total of 1924 patients with stage I-III CRC who underwent surgical resection in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Health System were included. Muscle mass and radiodensity were quantified using computed tomography images obtained at diagnosis and after approximately 14 months. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality among patients with the largest deterioration in muscle mass (≥2 SD; ≥11.4% loss from baseline), as compared with those who remained stable (±1 SD; 0.0 ± 5.7%) was 2.15 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.59-2.92; P < 0.001]. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality among patients who experienced the largest deterioration in muscle radiodensity (≥2 SD; ≥20.2% loss from baseline), as compared with those who remained stable (±1 SD; 0.0 ± 10.1%) was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.20-2.15; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stage I-III CRC, muscle wasting is a risk factor for mortality, independent of change in body mass and other body composition parameters.

18.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 9(4): 654-663, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Co-morbidities and computerized tomography-measured muscle abnormalities are both common in cancer patients and independently adversely influence clinical outcomes. Muscle abnormalities are also evident in other diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. This study examined for the first time the association between co-morbidities and muscle abnormalities in patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 3051 non-metastatic patients with Stages I-III CRC. Muscle abnormalities, measured at diagnosis, were defined as low skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) or low skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) quantified using computerized tomography images using optimal stratification. Co-morbidities included in the Charlson index were ascertained. χ2 tests were used to compare the prevalence of co-morbidities by the presence or absence of each muscle abnormality. Logistic regressions were performed to evaluate which co-morbidities predicted muscle abnormalities adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, weight change, cancer stage, cancer site, race/ethnicity, and smoking. RESULTS: Mean age was 63 years; 50% of patients were male. The prevalence of low SMI and low SMD were 43.1% and 30.2%, respectively. Co-morbidities examined were more prevalent in patients with low SMD than in those with normal SMD, and most remained independent predictors of low SMD after adjustment for covariates. Co-morbidities associated with higher odds of low SMD included myocardial infarction [odds ratio (OR) = 1.77, P = 0.023], congestive heart failure (OR = 3.27, P < 0.001), peripheral vascular disease (OR = 2.15, P = 0.002), diabetes with or without complications (OR = 1.61, P = 0.008; OR = 1.46, P = 0.003, respectively), and renal disease (OR = 2.21, P < 0.001). By contrast, only diabetes with complications was associated with lower odds of low SMI (OR = 0.64, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of muscle abnormalities was high in patients with non-metastatic CRC. Pre-existing co-morbidities were associated with low SMD, suggestive of a potential shared mechanism between fat infiltration into muscle and each of these co-morbidities.

19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 170(3): 623-631, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671113

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated associations between personal and clinical social support and non-adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) in a large, Northern California breast cancer (BC) cohort from an integrated healthcare network. METHODS: This study included 3382 women from the Pathways Study diagnosed from 2005 to 2013 with stages I-III hormone receptor-positive BC and who responded to the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support and Interpersonal Processes of Care surveys, approximately 2 months post-diagnosis. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations between tertiles of social support and non-initiation (< 2 consecutive prescription fills within a year after diagnosis). Among those who initiated treatment, we used proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations with discontinuation (≥ 90 day gap) and non-adherence (< 80% medical possession ratio). RESULTS: Of those who initiated AET (79%), approximately one-fourth either discontinued AET or were non-adherent. AET non-initiation was more likely in women with moderate (adjusted OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.96-1.46) or low (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.62) versus high personal social support (P trend = 0.02). Women with moderate (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.99-1.45) or low (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.60) personal social support were also more likely to discontinue treatment (P trend = 0.01). Furthermore, women with moderate (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.53) or low (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12-1.70) personal social support had higher non-adherence (P trend = 0.007). Associations with clinical social support and outcomes were similar. Notably, high clinical social support mitigated the risk of discontinuation when patients' personal support was moderate or low (P value = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Women with low personal or clinical social support had higher AET non-adherence. Clinician teams may need to fill support gaps that compromise treatment adherence.

20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 170(3): 593-603, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623576

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Racial/ethnic differences in cancer symptom burden are well documented, but limited research has evaluated modifiable factors underlying these differences. Our objective was to examine the role of patient-provider interactions to help explain the relationship between race/ethnicity and cancer-specific physical well-being (PWB) among women with breast cancer. METHODS: The Pathways Study is a prospective cohort study of 4505 women diagnosed with breast cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2006 and 2013. Our analysis included white, black, Hispanic, and Asian participants who completed baseline assessments of PWB, measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer, and patient-provider interactions, measured by the Interpersonal Processes of Care Survey (IPC) (N = 4002). Using step-wise linear regression, we examined associations of race/ethnicity with PWB, and changes in associations when IPC domains were added. RESULTS: We observed racial/ethnic differences in PWB, with minorities reporting lower scores than whites (beta, black: - 1.79; beta, Hispanic: - 1.92; beta, Asian: - 1.68; p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). With the addition of health and demographic covariates to the model, associations between race/ethnicity and PWB score became attenuated for blacks and Asians (beta: - 0.63, p = 0.06; beta: - 0.68, p = 0.02, respectively) and, to a lesser extent, for Hispanic women (beta: - 1.06, p = 0.0003). Adjusting for IPC domains did not affect Hispanic-white differences (beta: - 1.08, p = 0.0002), and slightly attenuated black-white differences (beta: - 0.51, p = 0.14). Asian-white differences narrowed substantially (beta: - 0.31, p = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: IPC domains, including those capturing perceived discrimination, respect, and clarity of communication, appeared to partly explain PWB differences for black and Asian women. Results highlight opportunities to improve providers' interactions with minority patients, and communication with minority patients about their supportive care needs.

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