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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited studies have investigated racial/ethnic survival disparities for breast cancer (BC) defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status in a multiethnic population. METHODS: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed associations of race/ethnicity with ER/PR-specific BC mortality in 10,366 Californian women diagnosed with BC from 1993-2009. We evaluated joint associations of race/ethnicity, healthcare, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors with mortality. RESULTS: Among women with ER/PR+ BC, BC-specific mortality was similar among Hispanic and Asian American women, but higher among African American women (hazard ratio (HR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.63) compared to non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. BC-specific mortality was modified by surgery type, hospital type, education, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), smoking history, and alcohol consumption. Among African American women, BC-specific mortality was higher among those treated at non-accredited hospitals (HR 1.57, CI 1.21-2.04) and those from lower SES neighborhoods (HR 1.48, CI 1.16-1.88) compared to NHW women without these characteristics. BC-specific mortality was higher among African American women with at least some college education (HR 1.42, CI 1.11-1.82) compared to NHW women with similar education. For ER-/PR- disease, BC-specific mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity and associations of race/ethnicity with BC-specific mortality varied only by neighborhood SES among African American women. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic survival disparities are more striking for ER/PR+ than ER-PR- BC. Social determinants and lifestyle factors may explain some of the survival disparities for ER/PR+ BC. IMPACT: Addressing these factors may help reduce the higher mortality of African American women with ER/PR+ BC.

2.
Food Sci Nutr ; 8(10): 5673-5682, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133569

RESUMO

Cruciferous vegetables are primary sources of dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs), a group of phytochemicals showing promising cancer-chemopreventive activities in multiple cancer models. However, no study has thoroughly examined how cooking affects the yields of ITCs from cruciferous vegetables. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based cyclocondensation assay was performed to examine the ITC yields from four major cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and kale) under six cooking conditions (stir-frying, steaming, microwaving, boiling, stewing, and chip-baking for kale only) and measured the level of ITCs under the raw condition for a comprehensive list of cruciferous vegetables and ITC-containing condiments. A wide range of ITC yields was found across vegetables and condiments. Cooking significantly altered the ITC yields, showing an averagely four-fold increase by lightly cooking (stir-frying, steaming, and microwaving) and a 58% decrease by heavily cooking (boiling, stewing, and chip-baking). These findings will provide the evidence-based cooking guidance on cruciferous vegetable consumption and help better estimate dietary ITC exposure in epidemiologic studies.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2026930, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216141

RESUMO

Importance: In response to calls to reduce unnecessary diagnostic testing with computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE), there have been growing efforts to create and implement decision rules for PE testing. It is unclear if the use of advanced imaging tests for PE has diminished over time. Objective: To assess the use of advanced imaging tests, including chest computed tomography (CT) (ie, all chest CT except for CTPA), CTPA, and ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan, for PE from 2004 to 2016. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study of adults by age group (18-64 years and ≥65 years) enrolled in 7 US integrated and mixed-model health care systems. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify years with statistically significant changes in imaging rates and to calculate average annual percentage change (growth) from 2004 to 2007, 2008 to 2011, and 2012 to 2016. Analyses were conducted between June 11, 2019, and March 18, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of chest CT, CTPA, and V/Q scan by year and age, as well as annual change in rates over time. Results: Overall, 3.6 to 4.8 million enrollees were included each year of the study, for a total of 52 343 517 person-years of follow-up data. Adults aged 18 to 64 years accounted for 42 223 712 person-years (80.7%) and those 65 years or older accounted for 10 119 805 person-years (19.3%). Female enrollees accounted for 27 712 571 person-years (52.9%). From 2004 and 2016, chest CT use increased by 66.3% (average annual growth, 4.4% per year), CTPA use increased by 450.0% (average annual growth, 16.3% per year), and V/Q scan use decreased by 47.1% (decreasing by 4.9% per year). The use of CTPA increased most rapidly from 2004 to 2006 (44.6% in those aged 18-64 years and 43.9% in those ≥65 years), with ongoing rapid growth from 2006 to 2010 (annual growth, 19.8% in those aged 18-64 years and 18.3% in those ≥65 years) and persistent but slower growth in the most recent years (annual growth, 4.3% in those aged 18-64 years and 3.0% in those ≥65 years from 2010 to 2016). The use of V/Q scanning decreased steadily since 2004. Conclusions and Relevance: From 2004 to 2016, rates of chest CT and CTPA for suspected PE continued to increase among adults but at a slower pace in more contemporary years. Efforts to combat overuse have not been completely successful as reflected by ongoing growth, rather than decline, of chest CT use. Whether the observed imaging use was appropriate or was associated with improved patient outcomes is unknown.

4.
JAMA Surg ; 155(10): 942-949, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805015

RESUMO

Importance: Given the risks of postoperative morbidity and its consequent economic burden and impairment to patients undergoing colon resection, evaluating risk factors associated with complications will allow risk stratification and the targeting of supportive interventions. Evaluation of muscle characteristics is an emerging area for improving preoperative risk stratification. Objective: To examine the associations of muscle characteristics with postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), readmission, and mortality in patients with colon cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 1630 patients who received a diagnosis of stage I to III colon cancer from January 2006 to December 2011 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated health care system. Preliminary data analysis started in 2017. Because major complication data were collected between 2018 and 2019, the final analysis using the current cohort was conducted between 2019 and 2020. Exposures: Low skeletal muscle index (SMI) and/or low skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) levels were assessed using preoperative computerized tomography images. Main Outcomes and Measures: Length of stay, any complication (≥1 predefined complications) or major complications (Clavien-Dindo classification score ≥3), 30-day mortality and readmission up to 30 days postdischarge, and overall mortality. Results: The mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 64.0 (11.3) years and 906 (55.6%) were women. Patients with low SMI or low SMD were more likely to remain hospitalized 7 days or longer after surgery (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.68; OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84, respectively) and had higher risks of overall mortality (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.13-1.74; hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.85, respectively). Additionally, patients with low SMI were more likely to have 1 or more postsurgical complications (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65) and had higher risk of 30-day mortality (OR, 4.85; 95% CI, 1.23-19.15). Low SMD was associated with higher odds of having major complications (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.44-4.04). Conclusions and Relevance: Low SMI and low SMD were associated with longer LOS, higher risk of postsurgical complications, and short-term and long-term mortality. Research should evaluate whether targeting potentially modifiable factors preoperatively, such as preserving muscle mass, could reverse the observed negative associations with postoperative outcomes.

5.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(6): e517-e528, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer survival are well documented, but the influence of health care institutions is unclear. We therefore examined the effect of hospital characteristics on survival. METHODS: Harmonized data pooled from 5 case-control and prospective cohort studies within the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium were linked to the California Cancer Registry and the California Neighborhoods Data System. The study included 9,701 patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2007. First reporting hospitals were classified by hospital type-National Cancer Institute (NCI) -designated cancer center, American College of Surgeons (ACS) Cancer Program, other-and hospital composition of the neighborhood socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity of patients with cancer. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for clinical and patient-level prognostic factors were used to examine the influence of hospital characteristics on survival. RESULTS: Fewer than one half of women received their initial care at an NCI-designated cancer center (5%) or ACS program (38%) hospital. Receipt of initial care in ACS program hospitals varied by race/ethnicity-highest among non-Latina White patients (45%), and lowest among African Americans (21%). African-American women had superior breast cancer survival when receiving initial care in ACS hospitals versus other hospitals (non-ACS program and non-NCI-designated cancer center; hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.83). Other hospital characteristics were not associated with survival. CONCLUSION: African American women may benefit significantly from breast cancer care in ACS program hospitals; however, most did not receive initial care at such facilities. Future research should identify the aspects of ACS program hospitals that are associated with higher survival and evaluate strategies by which to enhance access to and use of high-quality hospitals, particularly among African American women.

6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(10): 1076-1085, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322901

RESUMO

Surrogate measures of infectious exposures have been consistently associated with lower childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk. However, recent reports have suggested that physician-diagnosed early-life infections increase ALL risk, thereby raising the possibility that stronger responses to infections might promote risk. We examined whether medically diagnosed infections were related to childhood ALL risk in an integrated health-care system in the United States. Cases of ALL (n = 435) diagnosed between 1994-2014 among children aged 0-14 years, along with matched controls (n = 2,170), were identified at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate risk of ALL associated with history of infections during first year of life and across the lifetime (up to diagnosis). History of infection during first year of life was not associated with ALL risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 1.21). However, infections with at least 1 medication prescribed (i.e., more "severe" infections) were inversely associated with risk (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.88). Similar associations were observed when the exposure window was expanded to include medication-prescribed infections throughout the subjects' lifetime (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.85).


Assuntos
Infecções/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Adolescente , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
7.
J Cancer Surviv ; 14(3): 393-403, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify distinct trajectories of total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior following a breast cancer diagnosis and their correlates. METHODS: The analysis examined 3000 female breast cancer survivors within Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2006 and 2013. Self-reported time spent on total MVPA and sedentary behaviors were assessed at baseline (mean = 1.8 months post-diagnosis) and at 6 and 24 months follow up. Trajectory groups were identified using group-based trajectory modeling and K-means for longitudinal data analysis. Trajectory groups were named by baseline activity level (high, medium, or low) and direction of change (increaser, decreaser, or maintainer). RESULTS: Trajectory analyses identified three MVPA trajectories [high decreaser (7%), medium decreaser (35%), low maintainer (58%)] and four sedentary behavior trajectories [high maintainer (18%), high decreaser (27%), low increaser (24%), and low maintainer (31%)]. Women with higher education (ORs: 1.63-4.37), income (OR: 1.37), dispositional optimism (ORs: 1.60-1.86), and social support (OR: 1.33) were more likely to be high or medium decreasers of MVPA (all P < 0.05). High maintainers and high decreasers of sedentary behavior were more likely to have higher education (OR: 1.84) and social support (ORs: 1.42-1.86), but lower income (OR: 0.66; all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the 24 months following breast cancer diagnosis, 42% of survivors decreased MVPA and 73% maintained or increased time on sedentary behavior. Socioeconomic status and stress coping at diagnosis predicted subsequent PA trajectory. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: It is important to prioritize exercise intervention and counseling during early stage of breast cancer survivorship, especially in survivors who are at high risk of becoming physically inactive post-diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 180(1): 187-195, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteoporosis and fragility fracture are major bone toxicities of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Except for a few small studies on bone turnover markers and reduced bone mineral density after AI treatment, data on the associations of bone markers and risk of osteoporosis or fracture from prospective studies are lacking. METHODS: In a prospective study of 1709 women on AIs, two bone turnover markers, BALP and TRACP, and two bone regulatory markers, RANKL and OPG, were measured and examined in relation to risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures during a median follow-up time of 6.1 years. RESULTS: Higher levels of BALP and TRACP were both associated with increased risk of osteoporosis and higher BALP/TRACP ratios were associated with lower risk of osteoporosis, but no associations were observed for fracture risk. Higher levels of OPG were associated with increased risk of fracture, whereas higher levels of RANKL were associated with lower risk. As a result, OPG/RANKL ratios were positively associated with fracture risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-4.61]. After controlling for age and fracture history, the associations became non-significant but a suggestive trend remained (HR = 1.80, 95% CI 0.96-3.37). CONCLUSION: Our study provides suggestive evidence for the potential utility of OPG/RANKL ratios in predicting risk of fracture in women treated with AIs for breast cancer. Further validation may be warranted.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/etiologia , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Razão de Chances , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 179(1): 229-240, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify distinct diet trajectories after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, and to examine the characteristics associated with diet trajectories. METHODS: We analyzed 2865 Pathways Study participants who completed ≥ 2 food frequency questionnaires at the time of BC diagnosis (baseline), and at 6 and 24 months after baseline. Trajectory groups of fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake, % calories from dietary fat, and alcohol intake over 24 months were identified using group-based trajectory modeling. Associations between diet trajectories and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical factors were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Analyses identified 3 F/V trajectory groups, 4 dietary fat groups, and 3 alcohol groups. All 3 F/V trajectory groups reported slightly increased F/V intake post-diagnosis (mean increase = 0.2-0.5 serving/day), while 2 groups (48% of participants) persistently consumed < 4 servings/day of F/V. Dietary fat intake did not change post-diagnosis, with 45% of survivors maintaining a high-fat diet (> 40% of calories from fat). While most survivors consumed < 1 drink/day of alcohol at all times, 21% of survivors had 1.4-3.0 drinks/day at baseline and temporarily decreased to 0.1-0.5 drinks/day at 6 months. In multivariable analysis, diet trajectory groups were significantly associated with education (ORs: 1.93-2.49), income (ORs: 1.32-2.57), optimism (ORs: 1.93-2.49), social support (OR = 1.82), and changes in physical well-being (ORs: 0.58-0.61) and neuropathy symptoms after diagnosis (ORs: 1.29-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: Pathways Study participants reported slightly increasing F/V and decreasing alcohol intake after BC diagnosis. Nearly half of survivors consumed insufficient F/V and excessive dietary fat. It is important to prioritize nutrition counseling and education in BC survivors.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Feminino , Frutas/química , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras/química
10.
Qual Life Res ; 29(4): 879-889, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Bladder Cancer Quality of Life Study collected detailed and sensitive patient-reported outcomes from bladder cancer survivors in the period after bladder removal surgery, when participation in survey research may present a burden. This paper describes the study recruitment methods and examines the response rates and patterns of missing data. METHODS: Detailed surveys focusing on quality of life, healthcare decision-making, and healthcare expenses were mailed to patients 5-7 months after cystectomy. We conducted up to 10 follow-up recruitment calls. We analyzed survey completion rates following each contact in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, and patterns of missing data across survey content areas. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 71% (n = 269/379). This was consistent across patient clinical characteristics; response rates were significantly higher among patients over age 70 and significantly lower among racial and ethnic minority patients compared to non-Hispanic white patients. Each follow-up contact resulted in marginal survey completion rates of at least 10%. Rates of missing data were low across most content areas, even for potentially sensitive questions. Rates of missing data differed significantly by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the effort required to participate in research, this population of cancer survivors showed willingness to share detailed information about quality of life, health care decision-making, and expenses, soon after major cancer surgery. Additional contacts were effective at increasing participation. Response patterns differed by race/ethnicity and other demographic factors. Our data collection methods show that it is feasible to gather detailed patient-reported outcomes during this challenging period.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cistectomia/economia , Cistectomia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/economia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Urol ; 203(1): 159-163, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients who undergo cystectomy due to bladder cancer can elect an ileal conduit or a neobladder for urinary diversion. Decision regret related to this choice is an important and undesirable patient reported outcome. Our objective was to compare the severity of decision regret experienced by patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort study of patients who underwent cystectomy from 2013 to 2015. We applied multivariable linear regression to examine associations of the urinary diversion method (neobladder vs ileal conduit) with decision regret measured with the DRS (Decision Regret Scale) 6 and 18 months after cystectomy. Covariates included demographic and clinical characteristics, health care utilization and complications after cystectomy, quality of life and factors related to the decision making process, including informed and shared decision making, and goal concordance. RESULTS: Of the 192 patients in our cohort 141 received an ileal conduit and 51 received a neobladder. We observed no significant difference in the DRS score in patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit at 6 or 18 months (b=-1.28, 95% CI -9.07-6.53, vs b=-1.55, 95% CI -12.48-9.38). However, informed decision making was negatively related to decision regret at 6 and 18 months (b=-13.08, 95% CI -17.05--9.11, and b=-8.54, 95% CI -4.26--2.63, respectively). Quality of life was negatively associated with decision regret at 18 months (b=-5.50, 95% CI -8.95--2.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with cystectomy who were more informed about bladder reconstruction options experienced less regret independent of the method selected. Efforts to inform and prepare patients for the bladder reconstruction decision may help prevent decision regret.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
12.
Radiat Res ; 192(6): 649-661, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609677

RESUMO

Assessment of health effects from low-dose radiation exposures in patients undergoing diagnostic imaging is an active area of research. High-quality dosimetry information pertaining to these medical exposures is generally not readily available to clinicians or epidemiologists studying radiation-related health risks. The purpose of this study was to provide methods for organ dose estimation in pediatric patients undergoing four common diagnostic fluoroscopy procedures: the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series, the lower gastrointestinal (LGI) series, the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and the modified barium swallow (MBS). Abstracted X-ray film data and physician interviews were combined to generate procedure outlines detailing X-ray beam projections, imaged anatomy, length of X-ray exposure, and presence and amount of contrast within imaged anatomy. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations were completed for each of the four diagnostic fluoroscopy procedures across the 162-member (87 males and 75 females) University of Florida/National Cancer Institute pediatric phantom library, which covers variations in both subject height and weight. Absorbed doses to 28 organs, including the active marrow and bone endosteum, were assigned for all 162 phantoms by procedure. Additionally, we provide dose coefficients (DCs) in a series of supplementary tables. The DCs give organ doses normalized to procedure-specific dose metrics, including: air kerma-area product (µGy/mGy · cm2), air kerma at the reference point (µGy/µGy), number of spot films (SF) (µGy/number of SFs) and total fluoroscopy time (µGy/s). Organs accumulating the highest absorbed doses per procedure were as follows: kidneys between 0.9-25.4 mGy, 1.1-16.6 mGy and 1.1-9.7 mGy for the UGI, LGI and VCUG procedures, respectively, and salivary glands between 0.2-3.7 mGy for the MBS procedure. Average values of detriment-weighted dose, a phantom-specific surrogate for the effective dose based on ICRP Publication 103 tissue-weighting factors, were 0.98 mSv, 1.16 mSv, 0.83 mSv and 0.15 mSv for the UGI, LGI, VCUG and MBS procedures, respectively. Scalable database of organ dose coefficients by patient sex, height and weight, and by procedure exposure time, reference point air kerma, kerma-area product or number of spot films, allows clinicians and researchers to compute organ absorbed doses based on their institution-specific and patient-specific dose metrics. In addition to informing on patient dosimetry, this work has the potential to facilitate exposure assessments in epidemiological studies designed to investigate radiation-related risks.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Doses de Radiação , Radiometria/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bário/farmacocinética , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo , Radiografia , Distribuição Tecidual
13.
JAMA ; 322(9): 843-856, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479136

RESUMO

Importance: Medical imaging increased rapidly from 2000 to 2006, but trends in recent years have not been analyzed. Objective: To evaluate recent trends in medical imaging. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of patterns of medical imaging between 2000 and 2016 among 16 million to 21 million patients enrolled annually in 7 US integrated and mixed-model insurance health care systems and for individuals receiving care in Ontario, Canada. Exposures: Calendar year and country (United States vs Canada). Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine imaging. Annual and relative imaging rates by imaging modality, country, and age (children [<18 years], adults [18-64 years], and older adults [≥65 years]). Results: Overall, 135 774 532 imaging examinations were included; 5 439 874 (4%) in children, 89 635 312 (66%) in adults, and 40 699 346 (30%) in older adults. Among adults and older adults, imaging rates were significantly higher in 2016 vs 2000 for all imaging modalities other than nuclear medicine. For example, among older adults, CT imaging rates were 428 per 1000 person-years in 2016 vs 204 per 1000 in 2000 in US health care systems and 409 per 1000 vs 161 per 1000 in Ontario; for MRI, 139 per 1000 vs 62 per 1000 in the United States and 89 per 1000 vs 13 per 1000 in Ontario; and for ultrasound, 495 per 1000 vs 324 per 1000 in the United States and 580 per 1000 vs 332 per 1000 in Ontario. Annual growth in imaging rates among US adults and older adults slowed over time for CT (from an 11.6% annual percentage increase among adults and 9.5% among older adults in 2000-2006 to 3.7% among adults in 2013-2016 and 5.2% among older adults in 2014-2016) and for MRI (from 11.4% in 2000-2004 in adults and 11.3% in 2000-2005 in older adults to 1.3% in 2007-2016 in adults and 2.2% in 2005-2016 in older adults). Patterns in Ontario were similar. Among children, annual growth for CT stabilized or declined (United States: from 10.1% in 2000-2005 to 0.8% in 2013-2016; Ontario: from 3.3% in 2000-2006 to -5.3% in 2006-2016), but patterns for MRI were similar to adults. Changes in annual growth in ultrasound were smaller among adults and children in the United States and Ontario compared with CT and MRI. Nuclear medicine imaging declined in adults and children after 2006. Conclusions and Relevance: From 2000 to 2016 in 7 US integrated and mixed-model health care systems and in Ontario, rates of CT and MRI use continued to increase among adults, but at a slower pace in more recent years. In children, imaging rates continued to increase except for CT, which stabilized or declined in more recent periods. Whether the observed imaging utilization was appropriate or was associated with improved patient outcomes is unknown.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/tendências , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Diagnóstico por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Cintilografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cintilografia/tendências , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia/tendências , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e197249, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339541

RESUMO

Importance: The use of medical imaging has sharply increased over the last 2 decades. Imaging rates during pregnancy have not been quantified in a large, multisite study setting. Objective: To evaluate patterns of medical imaging during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 US integrated health care systems and in Ontario, Canada. Participants included pregnant women who gave birth to a live neonate of at least 24 weeks' gestation between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2016, and who were enrolled in the health care system for the entire pregnancy. Exposures: Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, conventional radiography, angiography and fluoroscopy, and nuclear medicine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Imaging rates per pregnancy stratified by country and year of child's birth. Results: A total of 3 497 603 pregnancies in 2 211 789 women were included. Overall, 26% of pregnancies were from US sites. Most (92%) were in women aged 20 to 39 years, and 85% resulted in full-term births. Computed tomography imaging rates in the United States increased from 2.0 examinations/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 11.4/1000 pregnancies in 2007, remained stable through 2010, and decreased to 9.3/1000 pregnancies by 2016, for an overall increase of 3.7-fold. Computed tomography rates in Ontario, Canada, increased more gradually by 2.0-fold, from 2.0/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 6.2/1000 pregnancies in 2016, which was 33% lower than in the United States. Overall, 5.3% of pregnant women in US sites and 3.6% in Ontario underwent imaging with ionizing radiation, and 0.8% of women at US sites and 0.4% in Ontario underwent CT. Magnetic resonance imaging rates increased steadily from 1.0/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 11.9/1000 pregnancies in 2016 in the United States and from 0.5/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 9.8/1000 pregnancies in 2016 in Ontario, surpassing CT rates in 2013 in the United States and in 2007 in Ontario. In the United States, radiography rates doubled from 34.5/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 72.6/1000 pregnancies in 1999 and then decreased to 47.6/1000 pregnancies in 2016; rates in Ontario slowly increased from 36.2/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 44.7/1000 pregnancies in 2016. Angiography and fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine use rates were low (5.2/1000 pregnancies), but in most years, higher in Ontario than the United States. Imaging rates were highest for women who were younger than 20 years or aged 40 years or older, gave birth preterm, or were black, Native American, or Hispanic (US data only). Considering advanced imaging only, chest imaging of pregnant women was more likely to use CT in the United States and nuclear medicine imaging in Ontario. Conclusions and Relevance: The use of CT during pregnancy substantially increased in the United States and Ontario over the past 2 decades. Imaging rates during pregnancy should be monitored to avoid unnecessary exposure of women and fetuses to ionizing radiation.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Diagnóstico por Imagem/classificação , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Ontário , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiação Ionizante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 17(2): 211-218, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959223

RESUMO

As next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has become widely used to identify genetic causal variants for various diseases and traits, a number of packages for checking NGS data quality have sprung up in public domains. In addition to the quality of sequencing data, sample quality issues, such as gender mismatch, abnormal inbreeding coefficient, cryptic relatedness, and population outliers, can also have fundamental impact on downstream analysis. However, there is a lack of tools specialized in identifying problematic samples from NGS data, often due to the limitation of sample size and variant counts. We developed SeqSQC, a Bioconductor package, to automate and accelerate sample cleaning in NGS data of any scale. SeqSQC is designed for efficient data storage and access, and equipped with interactive plots for intuitive data visualization to expedite the identification of problematic samples. SeqSQC is available at http://bioconductor.org/packages/SeqSQC.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Software , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 19(4): 225-235.e2, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928413

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: GATA3 is a critical transcription factor in maintaining the differentiated state of luminal mammary epithelial cells. We sought to determine the prognostic and predictive roles of GATA3 genotypes for breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 2 breast cancer cohorts, including the SWOG S8897 trial where patients were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (CAF [cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil] vs. CMF [cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil]) or untreated, and the observational Pathways Study. RESULTS: In the S8897 trial, rs3802604 and rs568727 were associated with disease-free survival and overall survival in the treated group, regardless of chemotherapy regimen. The GG genotype of rs3802604 conferred poorer overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-4.05) and disease-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.99) compared with the AA genotype. Similar associations were found for rs568727. In contrast, no association with either SNP was found in the untreated group. Subgroup analyses indicated that these 2 SNPs more strongly influenced outcomes in the patients who also received tamoxifen. However, the associations in the subgroup with tamoxifen treatment were not replicated in the Pathways Study, possibly owing to substantial differences between the 2 patient cohorts, such as chemotherapy regimen and length of follow-up. Results from joint analyses across these 2 cohorts were marginally significant, driven by the results in S8897. Bioinformatic analyses support potential functional disruption of the GATA3 SNPs in breast tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides some evidence for the predictive value of GATA3 genotypes for breast cancer adjuvant therapies. Future replication studies in appropriate patient populations are warranted.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Cancer Med ; 8(4): 1845-1853, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864286

RESUMO

Young black women are at higher risk of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); however, a majority of the genetic studies on cancer predisposition were carried out in White populations. The underrepresentation of minority racial/ethnic populations in cancer genetic studies may have led to disproportionate gaps in our knowledge of cancer predisposition genes in these populations. We surveyed the protein-truncating mutations at the exome-wide scale and in known breast cancer predisposition genes among 170 patients of multiple racial/ethnic groups with early-onset (≤age 50) TNBC from two independent cohorts. Black patients, on average, had a higher number of truncating mutations than Whites at the exome-wide level, but fewer truncating mutations in the panel of known breast cancer genes. White TNBC patients showed a strong enrichment of truncating variants in known breast cancer genes, whereas no such enrichment was found among Black patients. Our findings indicate likely more breast cancer disposition genes yet to be discovered in minority racial/ethnic groups, and the current multigene panels may result in unequal benefits from cancer genetic testing.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/etnologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Americanos Asiáticos/genética , California/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(3): 615-625, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia and low skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) have been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, factors contributing to these 2 muscle abnormalities are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of medical and demographic characteristics with muscle abnormalities among patients with nonmetastatic CRC. METHODS: Patients with stage I-III invasive CRC (2006-11) who had diagnostic computed tomography (CT) available from Kaiser Permanente Northern California electronic medical records were included. CT-assessed sarcopenia and low SMD were defined according to optimal stratification. Logistic regressions including age, stage, site, total adipose tissue (TAT), race/ethnicity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, smoking history, alcohol use, and Charlson Comorbidity Score were performed to identify characteristics associated with muscle abnormalities. RESULTS: The study included 3262 patients (49.9% females) with a mean ± SD age of 62.6 ± 11.4 y. Sarcopenia and low SMD were highly prevalent (42.4% and 29.6%, respectively). Age and sex interactions were noted for muscle mass, but not SMD. Age was associated with higher odds of muscle abnormalities in a dose-response manner. Compared with those aged ≤50 y, patients aged 70-80 y had considerably higher odds (OR: 6.19; 95% CI: 4.72, 8.11) of sarcopenia, and low SMD (OR: 17.81; 95% CI: 11.73, 27.03). High TAT was related to a higher odds of low SMD (OR: 9.62; 95% CI: 7.37, 12.56), but lower odds of sarcopenia (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.71). Compared with Caucasians, African Americans had lower odds of sarcopenia and low SMD. Patients with a higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio had higher odds of having both muscle abnormalities. Patients who were smokers or had any comorbidity had higher odds of low SMD, but not sarcopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle abnormalities were common in patients with nonmetastatic CRC, with great variability in muscle mass and SMD across age, TAT, and race/ethnicity. Factors associated with muscle abnormalities may be used to facilitate risk stratification and the guidance of targeted strategies to counteract these abnormalities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Músculo Esquelético/anormalidades , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/etnologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Urol ; 202(1): 83-89, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patient centered care aims to align treatment with patient goals, especially when treatment options have equivalent clinical outcomes. For surgeries with lasting impacts that alignment is critical. To our knowledge no psychometrically tested preference elicitation measures exist to support patients with bladder cancer treated with cystectomy, who can often choose between ileal conduit and neobladder diversions. In this study we created a scale to measure how patient goals align with each type of urinary diversion and the associated surgical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed formative research through focus groups and clinician outreach to adapt a goal dissonance measure. We mailed a survey to adult Kaiser Permanente® members who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer between January 2013 and June 2015. Eligible patients were identified through electronic health records and chart review. Surveys were mailed 5 to 7 months postoperatively. We administered our 10-item decision dissonance scale along with other decision making measures. We explored goal alignment as well as dissonance. Psychometric analysis included factor analysis, evaluation of scale scores between surgery groups and evaluation with other decision making scores. RESULTS: We identified 10 goals associated with ileal conduit or neobladder diversion. Using survey data on 215 patients our scale differentiated patient goals associated with each diversion choice. On average patients with a neobladder strongly valued neobladder aligned goals such as maintaining body integrity and volitional voiding through the urethra. Patients with an ileal conduit had neutral values on average across all goals. CONCLUSIONS: Our measure lays the foundation for a simple value elicitation approach which could facilitate shared decision making about urinary diversion choice.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Preferência do Paciente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/psicologia , Idoso , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Derivação Urinária/métodos
20.
Bladder Cancer ; 5(1): 51-61, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854413

RESUMO

Background: Bladder cancer patients who undergo cystectomy and urinary diversion face functional and quality-of-life challenges. Little is known about these patients' experiences during decision-making, surgery, and recovery, or how they vary by treatment setting. Objective: To learn about patients' experiences with treatment choice, surgical care, and recovery across health settings. Understanding patient experiences is essential to closing care gaps and developing patient-reported measures. Methods: We conducted focus groups with cystectomy patients and family caregivers at a large comprehensive health care system (N = 32 patients) and an NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center (N = 25 patients and 5 caregivers). Using standard qualitative methods, we identified themes that are not well-represented in existing research. Results: Across both systems, patients described variable experiences in decision-making about their cystectomy and urinary diversion. Some felt overwhelmed by information; others felt poorly informed. Many found self-care equipment challenging; many felt they knew little about what to expect regarding chemotherapy, recovery, and transitioning home. At times, health care personnel could not help manage patients' ostomies or catheterization equipment. Our study also contributes a grounded theoretical framework for describing meaningful domains of patient experience with cystectomy and urinary diversion. We identified a common trajectory that includes decision-making, surgery and post-operative recovery, mastery of self-care, and reintegration. Conclusions: Patients with radical cystectomy and urinary diversion report a wide variety of experiences not captured by quantitative measures. These findings demonstrate that many cystectomy patients could benefit from additional post-operative support. We offer a framework to measure patient-centered domains in future research.

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