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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) has shown promise in assessing disease activity in coronary arteries, but currently used measures of activity - such as maximum target to background ratio (TBRmax) - are defined by single pixel count values. We aimed to develop a novel coronary-specific measure of 18F-NaF PET reflecting activity throughout the entire coronary vasculature (coronary microcalcification activity [CMA]). METHODS: Patients with recent myocardial infarction and multi-vessel coronary artery disease underwent 18F-NaF PET and coronary CT angiography. We assessed the association between coronary 18F-NaF uptake (both TBRmax and CMA) and coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) as well as low attenuation plaque (LAP, attenuation < 30 Hounsfield units) volume. RESULTS: In 50 patients (64% males, 63 ± 7 years), CMA and TBRmax were higher in vessels with LAP compared to those without LAP (1.09 [0.02, 2.34] versus 0.0 [0.0, 0.0], p < 0.001 and 1.23 [1.16, 1.37] versus 1.04 [0.93, 1.11], p < 0.001). Compared to a TBRmax threshold of 1.25, CMA > 0 had a higher diagnostic accuracy for detection of LAP: sensitivity of 93.1 (83.3-98.1)% versus 58.6 (44.9-71.4)% and a specificity of 95.7 (88.0-99.1)% versus 80.0 (68.7-88.6)% (both p < 0.001). 18F-NaF uptake assessed by CMA correlated more closely with LAP (r = 0.86, p < 0.001) than the CT calcium score (r = 0.39, p < 0.001), with these associations outperforming those observed for TBRmax values (LAP r = 0.63, p < 0.001; CT calcium score r = 0.30, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Automated assessment of disease activity across the entire coronary vasculature is feasible using 18F-NaF CMA, providing a single measurement that has closer agreement with CT markers of plaque vulnerability than more traditional measures of plaque activity.

3.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(1): 58-66, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211387

RESUMO

AIMS: In patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and high-risk plaques (HRPs) on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), we sought to define qualitative and quantitative CTA predictors of abnormal coronary 18F-sodium fluoride uptake (18F-NaF) by positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients undergoing coronary CTA were screened for HRP. Those who presented with ≥3 CTA adverse plaque features (APFs) including positive remodelling; low attenuation plaque (LAP, <30 HU), spotty calcification; obstructive coronary stenosis ≥50%; plaque volume >100 mm3 were recruited for 18F-NaF PET. In lesions with stenosis ≥25%, quantitative plaque analysis and maximum 18F-NaF target to background ratios (TBRs) were measured. Of 55 patients, 35 (64%) manifested coronary 18F-NaF uptake. Of 68 high-risk lesions 49 (70%) had increased PET tracer activity. Of the APFs, LAP had the highest sensitivity (39.4%) and specificity (98.3%) for predicting 18F-NaF uptake. TBR values were higher in lesions with LAP compared to those without [1.6 (1.3-1.8) vs. 1.1 (1.0-1.3), P = 0.01]. On adjusted multivariable regression analysis, LAP (both qualitative and quantitative) was independently associated with plaque TBR [LAP qualitative: ß = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.65; P < 0.001] and (LAP volume: ß = 0.20 per 10 mm3, 95% CI 0.13-0.27; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In stable CAD patients with HRP, LAP is predictive of 18F-NaF coronary uptake, but 18F-NaF is often seen in the absence of LAP. If 18F-NaF uptake is shown to be associated with adverse outcomes and becomes clinically used, the presence of LAP may define patients who would not benefit from the added testing.

4.
Br J Radiol ; : 20190797, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804143

RESUMO

Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) has emerged as a promising non-invasive imaging modality to identify high-risk and ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. By visualizing microcalcification, 18F-NaF PET holds clinical promise in refining how we evaluate coronary artery disease, shifting our focus from assessing disease burden to atherosclerosis activity. In this review, we provide an overview of studies that have utilized 18F-NaF PET for imaging atherosclerosis. We discuss the associations between traditional coronary artery disease measures (risk factors) and 18F-NaF plaque activity. We also present the data on the histological validation as well as show how 18F-NaF uptake is associated with plaque morphology on intravascular and CT imaging. Finally, we discuss the technical challenges associated with 18F-NaF coronary PET highlighting recent advances in this area.

5.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 18F-Fluoride uptake denotes calcification activity in aortic stenosis and atherosclerosis. While PET/MR has several advantages over PET/CT, attenuation correction of PET/MR data is challenging, limiting cardiovascular application. We compared PET/MR and PET/CT assessments of 18F-fluoride uptake in the aortic valve and coronary arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: 18 patients with aortic stenosis or recent myocardial infarction underwent 18F-fluoride PET/CT followed immediately by PET/MR. Valve and coronary 18F-fluoride uptake were evaluated independently. Both standard (Dixon) and novel radial GRE) MR attenuation correction (AC) maps were validated against PET/CT with results expressed as tissue-to-background ratios (TBRs). Visually, aortic valve 18F-fluoride uptake was similar on PET/CT and PET/MR. TBRMAX values were comparable with radial GRE AC (PET/CT 1.55±0.33 vs. PET/MR 1.58 ± 0.34, P = 0.66; 95% limits of agreement - 27% to + 25%) but performed less well with Dixon AC (1.38 ± 0.44, P = 0.06; bias (-)14%; 95% limits of agreement - 25% to + 53%). In native coronaries, 18F-fluoride uptake was similar on PET/MR to PET/CT regardless of AC approach. PET/MR identified 28/29 plaques identified on PET/CT; however, stents caused artifact on PET/MR making assessment of 18F-fluoride uptake challenging. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular PET/MR demonstrates good visual and quantitative agreement with PET/CT. However, PET/MR is hampered by stent-related artifacts currently limiting clinical application.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762536

RESUMO

Background: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) allows quantification of stenosis. However, such quantitative analysis is not part of clinical routine. We evaluated the feasibility of utilizing deep learning for quantifying coronary artery disease from CTA. Methods: A total of 716 diseased segments in 156 patients (66 ± 10 years) who underwent CTA were analyzed. Minimal luminal area (MLA), percent diameter stenosis (DS), and percent contrast density difference (CDD) were measured using semi-automated software (Autoplaque) by an expert reader. Using the expert annotations, deep learning was performed with convolutional neural networks using 10-fold cross-validation to segment CTA lumen and calcified plaque. MLA, DS and CDD computed using deep-learning-based approach was compared to expert reader measurements. Results: There was excellent correlation between the expert reader and deep learning for all quantitative measures (r=0.984 for MLA; r=0.957 for DS; and r=0.975 for CDD, p<0.001 for all). The expert reader and deep learning method was not significantly different for MLA (median 4.3 mm2 for both, p=0.68) and CDD (11.6 vs 11.1%, p=0.30), and was significantly different for DS (26.0 vs 26.6%, p<0.05); however, the ranges of all the quantitative measures were within inter-observer variability between 2 expert readers. Conclusions: Our deep learning-based method allows quantitative measurement of coronary artery disease segments accurately from CTA and may enhance clinical reporting.

7.
Am J Transplant ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758640

RESUMO

Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is an increasingly important complication after cardiac transplant. We assessed the additive diagnostic benefit of quantitative plaque analysis in patients undergoing coronary computed tomography-angiography (CCTA). Consecutive patients undergoing CCTA for CAV surveillance were identified. Scans were visually interpreted for coronary stenosis. Semiautomated software was used to quantify noncalcified plaque (NCP), as well as its components. Optimal diagnostic cut-offs for CAV, with coronary angiography as gold standard, were defined using receiver operating characteristic curves. In total, 36 scans were identified in 17 patients. CAV was present in 17 (46.0%) reference coronary angiograms, at a median of 1.9 years before CCTA. Median NCP (147 vs 58, P < .001), low-density NCP (median 4.5 vs 0.9, P = .003), fibrous plaque (median 76.1 vs 31.1, P = .003), and fibrofatty plaque (median 63.6 vs 27.6, P < .001) volumes were higher in patients with CAV, whereas calcified plaque was not (median 0.0 vs 0.0, P = .510). Visual assessment of CCTA alone was 70.6% sensitive and 100% specific for CAV. The addition of total NCP volume increased sensitivity to 82.4% while maintaining 100% specificity. NCP volume is significantly higher in patients with CAV. The addition of quantitative analysis to visual interpretation improves the sensitivity for detecting CAV without reducing specificity.

8.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(12): 2610-2620, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385011

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To improve the test-retest reproducibility of coronary plaque 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET) uptake measurements. METHODS: We recruited 20 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent repeated hybrid PET/CT angiography (CTA) imaging within 3 weeks. All patients had 30-min PET acquisition and CTA during a single imaging session. Five PET image-sets with progressive motion correction were reconstructed: (i) a static dataset (no-MC), (ii) end-diastolic PET (standard), (iii) cardiac motion corrected (MC), (iv) combined cardiac and gross patient motion corrected (2 × MC) and, (v) cardiorespiratory and gross patient motion corrected (3 × MC). In addition to motion correction, all datasets were corrected for variations in the background activities which are introduced by variations in the injection-to-scan delays (background blood pool clearance correction, BC). Test-retest reproducibility of PET target-to-background ratio (TBR) was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and coefficient of reproducibility. RESULTS: A total of 47 unique coronary lesions were identified on CTA. Motion correction in combination with BC improved the PET TBR test-retest reproducibility for all lesions (coefficient of reproducibility: standard = 0.437, no-MC = 0.345 (27% improvement), standard + BC = 0.365 (20% improvement), no-MC + BC = 0.341 (27% improvement), MC + BC = 0.288 (52% improvement), 2 × MC + BC = 0.278 (57% improvement) and 3 × C + BC = 0.254 (72% improvement), all p < 0.001). Importantly, in a sub-analysis of 18F-NaF-avid lesions with gross patient motion > 10 mm following corrections, reproducibility was improved by 133% (coefficient of reproducibility: standard = 0.745, 3 × MC = 0.320). CONCLUSION: Joint corrections for cardiac, respiratory, and gross patient motion in combination with background blood pool corrections markedly improve test-retest reproducibility of coronary 18F-NaF PET.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sex on myocardial fibrosis as assessed by using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in aortic stenosis (AS). BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported sex-related differences in the left ventricular (LV) remodeling response to pressure overload in AS. However, there are very few data regarding the effect of sex on myocardial fibrosis, a key marker of LV decompensation and adverse cardiac events in AS. METHODS: A total of 249 patients (mean age 66 ± 13 years; 30% women) with at least mild AS were recruited from 2 prospective observational cohort studies and underwent comprehensive Doppler echocardiography and CMR examinations. On CMR, T1 mapping was used to quantify extracellular volume (ECV) fraction as a marker of diffuse fibrosis, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was used to assess focal fibrosis. RESULTS: There was no difference in age between women and men (age 66 ± 15 years vs 66 ± 12 years; p = 0.78). However, women presented with a better cardiovascular risk profile than men with less hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and coronary artery disease (all, p ≤ 0.10). As expected, LV mass index measured by CMR imaging was smaller in women than in men (p < 0.0001). Despite fewer comorbidities, women presented with larger ECV fraction (median: 29.0% [25th-75th percentiles: 27.4% to 30.6%] vs. 26.8% [25th-75th percentiles: 25.1% to 28.7%]; p < 0.0001) and similar LGE (median: 4.5% [25th-75th percentiles: 2.3% to 7.0%] vs. 2.8% [25th-75th percentiles: 0.6% to 6.8%]; p = 0.20) than men. In multivariable analysis, female sex remained an independent determinant of higher ECV fraction and LGE (all, p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Women have greater diffuse and focal myocardial fibrosis independent of the degree of AS severity. These findings further emphasize the sex-related differences in LV remodeling response to pressure overload.

10.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 26(5): 1667-1673, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309460

RESUMO

This mini-review highlights cardiovascular studies that were presented during the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) 2019 annual meeting in Anaheim, California. The aim is to provide the readers insight to noteworthy studies related to the fields of nuclear cardiology presented during the conference. Although cardiovascular applications of positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are not the primary focus of the SNMMI, several scientific teams working in this field presented their latest findings in Anaheim. While this review is directed to the benefit of those who were not able to attend the annual meeting, we believe that a general overview may also be useful for those who did attend as it is often difficult to get exposure to all the high-quality abstracts presented at this large conference.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(10): 1107-1119, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioprosthetic aortic valve degeneration is increasingly common, often unheralded, and can have catastrophic consequences. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess whether 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) can detect bioprosthetic aortic valve degeneration and predict valve dysfunction. METHODS: Explanted degenerate bioprosthetic valves were examined ex vivo. Patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves were recruited into 2 cohorts with and without prosthetic valve dysfunction and underwent in vivo contrast-enhanced CT angiography, 18F-fluoride PET, and serial echocardiography during 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: All ex vivo, degenerate bioprosthetic valves displayed 18F-fluoride PET uptake that colocalized with tissue degeneration on histology. In 71 patients without known bioprosthesis dysfunction, 14 had abnormal leaflet pathology on CT, and 24 demonstrated 18F-fluoride PET uptake (target-to-background ratio 1.55 [interquartile range (IQR): 1.44 to 1.88]). Patients with increased 18F-fluoride uptake exhibited more rapid deterioration in valve function compared with those without (annualized change in peak transvalvular velocity 0.30 [IQR: 0.13 to 0.61] vs. 0.01 [IQR: -0.05 to 0.16] ms-1/year; p < 0.001). Indeed 18F-fluoride uptake correlated with deterioration in all the conventional echocardiographic measures of valve function assessed (e.g., change in peak velocity, r = 0.72; p < 0.001). Each of the 10 patients who developed new overt bioprosthesis dysfunction during follow-up had evidence of 18F-fluoride uptake at baseline (target-to-background ratio 1.89 [IQR: 1.46 to 2.59]). On multivariable analysis, 18F-fluoride uptake was the only independent predictor of future bioprosthetic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: 18F-fluoride PET-CT identifies subclinical bioprosthetic valve degeneration, providing powerful prediction of subsequent valvular dysfunction and highlighting patients at risk of valve failure. This technique holds major promise in the diagnosis of valvular degeneration and the surveillance of patients with bioprosthetic valves. (18F-Fluoride Assessment of Aortic Bioprosthesis Durability and Outcome [18F-FAABULOUS]; NCT02304276).


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica , Bioprótese , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Falha de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Calcinose/diagnóstico , Calcinose/etiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacologia
12.
PET Clin ; 14(2): 271-279, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826024

RESUMO

Cardiac PET provides high sensitivity and high negative predictive value in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathies. Cardiac, respiratory as well as bulk patient motion have detrimental effects on thoracic PET imaging, in particular on cardiovascular PET imaging where the motion can affect the PET images quantitatively as well as qualitatively. Gating can ameliorate the unfavorable impact of motion additionally enabling evaluation of left ventricular systolic function. In this article, the authors review the recent advances in gating approaches and highlight the advances in data-driven approaches, which hold promise in motion detection without the need for complex hardware setup.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem de Sincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem de Sincronização Respiratória/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Imagem Multimodal/tendências , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/tendências , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/tendências , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(10): 2000-2010, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the association between increased lesion peri-coronary adipose tissue (PCAT) density and coronary 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) in stable patients with high-risk coronary plaques (HRPs) shown on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). BACKGROUND: Coronary 18F-NaF uptake reflects the rate of calcification of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. Increased PCAT density is associated with vascular inflammation. Currently, the relationship between increased PCAT density and 18F-NaF uptake in stable patients with HRPs on coronary CTA has not been characterized. METHODS: Patients who underwent coronary CTA were screened for HRP, which was defined by 3 concurrent plaque features: positive remodeling; low attenuation plaque (LAP) (<30 Hounsfield units [HU]) and spotty calcification; and obstructive coronary stenosis ≥50% (plaque volume >100 mm3). Patients with HRPs were recruited to undergo 18F-NaF PET/CT. In lesions with stenosis ≥25%, quantitative plaque analysis, mean PCAT density, maximal coronary motion-corrected 18F-NaF standard uptake values (SUVmax), and target-to-background ratios (TBR) were measured. RESULTS: Forty-one patients (age 65 ± 6 years; 68% men) were recruited. Fifty-one lesions in 23 patients (56%) showed increased coronary 18F-NaF activity. Lesions with 18F-NaF uptake had higher surrounding PCAT density than those without 18F-NaF uptake (-73 HU; interquartile range -79 to -68 HU vs. -86 HU; interquartile range -94 to -80 HU; p < 0.001). 18F-NaF TBR and SUVmax were correlated with PCAT density (r = 0.63 and r = 0.68, respectively; all p < 0.001). On adjusted multiple regression analysis, increased lesion PCAT density and LAP volume were associated with 18F-NaF TBR (ß = 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.17 to 0.34; p < 0.001 for PCAT, and ß = 0.07; 95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.11; p = 0.002 for LAP). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HRP features on coronary CTA, increased density of PCAT was associated with focal 18F-NaF PET uptake. Simultaneous assessment of these imaging biomarkers by 18F-NaF PET and CTA might refine cardiovascular risk prediction in stable patients with HRP features.

15.
J Nucl Med ; 60(4): 530-535, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213848

RESUMO

Coronary 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) PET identifies ruptured plaques in patients with recent myocardial infarction and localizes to atherosclerotic lesions with active calcification. Most studies to date have performed the PET acquisition 1 h after injection. Although qualitative and semiquantitative analysis is feasible with 1-h images, residual blood-pool activity often makes it difficult to discriminate plaques with 18F-NaF uptake from noise. We aimed to assess whether delayed PET performed 3 h after injection improves image quality and uptake measurements. Methods: Twenty patients (67 ± 7 y old, 55% male) with stable coronary artery disease underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA) and PET/CT both 1 h and 3 h after the injection of 266.2 ± 13.3 MBq of 18F-NaF. We compared the visual pattern of coronary uptake, maximal background (blood pool) activity, noise, SUVmax, corrected SUVmax (cSUVmax), and target-to-background (TBR) ratio in lesions defined by CTA on 1-h versus 3-h 18F-NaF PET. Results: On 1-h PET, 26 CTA lesions with 18F-NaF PET uptake were identified in 12 (60%) patients. On 3-h PET, we detected 18F-NaF PET uptake in 7 lesions that were not identified on 1-h PET. The median cSUVmax and TBRs of these lesions were 0.48 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.44-0.51) and 1.45 (IQR, 1.39-1.52), respectively, compared with -0.01 (IQR, -0.03-0.001) and 0.95 (IQR, 0.90-0.98), respectively, on 1-h PET (both P < 0.001). Across the entire cohort, 3-h PET SUVmax was similar to 1-h PET measurements (1.63 [IQR, 1.37-1.98] vs. 1.55 [IQR, 1.43-1.89], P = 0.30), and the background activity was lower (0.71 [IQR, 0.65-0.81] vs. 1.24 [IQR, 1.05-1.31], P < 0.001). On 3-h PET, TBR, cSUVmax, and noise were significantly higher (respectively: 2.30 [IQR, 1.70-2.68] vs. 1.28 [IQR, 0.98-1.56], P < 0.001; 0.38 [IQR, 0.27-0.70] vs. 0.90 [IQR, 0.64-1.17], P < 0.001; and 0.10 [IQR, 0.09-0.12] vs. 0.07 [IQR, 0.06-0.09], P = 0.02). Median cSUVmax and TBR increased by 92% (range, 33%-225%) and 80% (range, 20%-177%), respectively. Conclusion: Blood-pool activity decreases on delayed imaging, facilitating the assessment of 18F-NaF uptake in coronary plaques. Median TBR increases by 80%, leading to the detection of more plaques with significant uptake than are detected using the standard 1-h protocol. A greater than 1-h delay may improve the detection of 18F-NaF uptake in coronary artery plaques.

16.
J Nucl Med ; 60(6): 830-836, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442755

RESUMO

Patient motion degrades image quality, affecting the quantitative assessment of PET images. This problem affects studies of coronary lesions in which microcalcification processes are targeted. Coronary PET imaging protocols require scans of up to 30 min, introducing the risk of gross patient motion (GPM) during the acquisition. Here, we investigate the feasibility of an automated data-driven method for the detection of GPM during PET acquisition. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with stable coronary disease underwent a 30-min PET acquisition 1 h after the injection of 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) at 248 ± 10 MBq (mean ± SD) and then a coronary CT angiography scan. An automated data-driven GPM detection technique tracking the center of mass of the count rates for every 200 ms in the PET list-mode data was devised and evaluated. Two patient motion patterns were considered: sudden repositioning (motion of >0.5 mm within 3 s) and general repositioning (motion of >0.3 mm over 15 s or more). After the reconstruction of diastolic images, individual GPM frames with focal coronary uptake were coregistered in 3 dimensions, creating a GPM-compensated (GPMC) image series. Lesion motion was reported for all lesions with focal uptake. Relative differences in SUVmax and target-to-background ratio (TBR) between GPMC and non-GPMC (standard electrocardiogram-gated data) diastolic PET images were compared in 3 separate groups defined by the maximum motion observed in the lesion (<5, 5-10, and >10 mm). Results: A total of 35 18F-NaF-avid lesions were identified in 28 patients. An average of 3.5 ± 1.5 GPM frames were considered for each patient, resulting in an average frame duration of 7 ± 4 (range, 3-21) min. The mean per-patient motion was: 7 ± 3 mm (maximum, 13.7 mm). GPM correction increased SUVmax and TBR in all lesions with greater than 5 mm of motion. In lesions with 5-10 mm of motion (n = 15), SUVmax and TBR increased by 4.6% ± 5.6% (P = 0.02) and 5.8% ± 6.4% (P < 0.002), respectively. In lesions with greater than 10 mm of motion (n = 15), the SUVmax and TBR increased by 5.0% ± 5.3% (P = 0.009) and 11.5% ± 10.1% (P = 0.001), respectively. GPM correction led to the diagnostic reclassification of 3 patients (11%). Conclusion: GPM during coronary 18F-NaF PET imaging is common and may affect quantitative accuracy. Automated retrospective compensation of this motion is feasible and should be considered for coronary PET imaging.

17.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Challenges to cardiac PET-CT include patient motion, prolonged image acquisition and a reduction of counts due to gating. We compared two analytical tools, FusionQuant and OsiriX, for quantification of gated cardiac 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-fluoride) PET-CT imaging. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with aortic stenosis were included, 15 of whom underwent repeated imaging 4 weeks apart. Agreement between analytical tools and scan-rescan reproducibility was determined using the Bland-Altman method and Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). RESULTS: Image analysis was faster with FusionQuant [median time (IQR) 7:10 (6:40-8:20) minutes] compared with OsiriX [8:30 (8:00-10:10) minutes, p = .002]. Agreement of uptake measurements between programs was excellent, CCC = 0.972 (95% CI 0.949-0.995) for mean tissue-to-background ratio (TBRmean) and 0.981 (95% CI 0.965-0.997) for maximum tissue-to-background ratio (TBRmax). Mean noise decreased from 11.7% in the diastolic gate to 6.7% in motion-corrected images (p = .002); SNR increased from 25.41 to 41.13 (p = .0001). Aortic valve scan-rescan reproducibility for TBRmax was improved with FusionQuant using motion correction compared to OsiriX (error ± 36% vs ± 13%, p < .001) while reproducibility for TBRmean was similar (± 10% vs ± 8% p = .252). CONCLUSION: 18F-fluoride PET quantification with FusionQuant and OsiriX is comparable. FusionQuant with motion correction offers advantages with respect to analysis time and reproducibility of TBRmax values.

18.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(12): e008325, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the feasibility of utilizing previously acquired computed tomography angiography (CTA) with subsequent positron-emission tomography (PET)-only scan for the quantitative evaluation of 18F-NaF PET coronary uptake. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients (age 67.1±6.9 years; 76% males) underwent CTA (CTA1) and combined 18F-NaF PET/CTA (CTA2) imaging within 14 [10, 21] days. We fused CTA1 from visit 1 with 18F-NaF PET (PET) from visit 2 and compared visual pattern of activity, maximal standard uptake (SUVmax) values, and target to background ratio (TBR) measurements on (PET/CTA1) fused versus hybrid (PET/CTA2). On PET/CTA2, 226 coronary plaques were identified. Fifty-eight coronary segments from 28 (62%) patients had high 18F-NaF uptake (TBR >1.25), whereas 168 segments had lesions with 18F-NaF TBR ≤1.25. Uptake in all lesions was categorized identically on coregistered PET/CTA1. There was no significant difference in 18F-NaF uptake values between PET/CTA1 and PET/CTA2 (SUVmax, 1.16±0.40 versus 1.15±0.39; P=0.53; TBR, 1.10±0.45 versus 1.09±0.46; P=0.55). The intraclass correlation coefficient for SUVmax and TBR was 0.987 (95% CI, 0.983-0.991) and 0.986 (95% CI, 0.981-0.992). There was no fixed or proportional bias between PET/CTA1 and PET/CTA2 for SUVmax and TBR. Cardiac motion correction of PET scans improved reproducibility with tighter 95% limits of agreement (±0.14 for SUVmax and ±0.15 for TBR versus ±0.20 and ±0.20 on diastolic imaging; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Coronary CTA/PET protocol with CTA first followed by PET-only allows for reliable and reproducible quantification of 18F-NaF coronary uptake. This approach may facilitate selection of high-risk patients for PET-only imaging based on results from prior CTA, providing a practical workflow for clinical application.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos de Flúor/farmacocinética , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacocinética , Idoso , Transporte Biológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo
19.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(10): 1514-1530, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286911

RESUMO

Heart transplantation is an accepted treatment for select patients with end-stage heart failure. Improvements to immunosuppressive therapies and patient management have increased the half-life of heart transplant patients to over 10 years. Despite this success, rejection remains the "Achilles heel" of heart transplantation. The early detection of acute rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy are paramount to avoiding graft loss. Unlike in kidney and liver transplantation, there are no clinically validated biomarkers for detecting heart transplant rejection. Existing methods for monitoring the cardiac allograft are invasive. The endomyocardial biopsy is the standard-of-care for monitoring for acute rejection but carries risks of complications, and histologic assessment is often subjective. Equally, intracoronary angiography remains the standard-of-care for detecting cardiac allograft vasculopathy, but it is invasive and less than ideally sensitive. Newer echocardiographic techniques, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and positron emission tomography are less invasive than conventional biopsy and show promise in excluding rejection thereby potentially decreasing the frequency of biopsies in low-risk patients. Intravascular ultrasonography and optical coherence tomography, although still invasive, improve on the assessment of the coronary tree through increased resolution, evaluation of the microvasculature, and visualization of the vessel wall. This review outlines the invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities that are employed in the routine care of heart transplant patients and examines newer techniques that are under evaluation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(6): e007451, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis is accompanied by progressive left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. We investigated the natural history of these processes in asymptomatic patients and their potential reversal post-aortic valve replacement (AVR). METHODS: Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with aortic stenosis underwent repeat echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in peak aortic-jet velocity, left ventricular mass index, diffuse fibrosis (indexed extracellular volume), and replacement fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]) were quantified. RESULTS: In 61 asymptomatic patients (43% mild, 34% moderate, and 23% severe aortic stenosis), significant increases in peak aortic-jet velocity, left ventricular mass index, indexed extracellular volume, and LGE mass were observed after 2.1±0.7 years, with the most rapid progression observed in patients with most severe stenosis. Patients with baseline midwall LGE (n=16 [26%]; LGE mass, 2.5 g [0.8-4.8 g]) demonstrated particularly rapid increases in scar burden (78% [50%-158%] increase in LGE mass per year). In 38 symptomatic patients (age, 66±8 years; 76% men) who underwent AVR, there was a 19% (11%-25%) reduction in left ventricular mass index (P<0.0001) and an 11% (4%-16%) reduction in indexed extracellular volume (P=0.003) 0.9±0.3 years after surgery. By contrast midwall LGE (n=10 [26%]; mass, 3.3 g [2.6-8.0 g]) did not change post-AVR (n=10; 3.5 g [2.1-8.0 g]; P=0.23), with no evidence of regression even out to 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with aortic stenosis, cellular hypertrophy and diffuse fibrosis progress in a rapid and balanced manner but are reversible after AVR. Once established, midwall LGE also accumulates rapidly but is irreversible post valve replacement. Given its adverse long-term prognosis, prompt AVR when midwall LGE is first identified may improve clinical outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01755936 and NCT01679431.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Fibrose , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Quebeque , Escócia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
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