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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in non-invasive ventilation (NIV) use over time in infants born at <32 weeks' gestation and the associated clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using routinely recorded data from the National Neonatal Research Database of infants born at <32 weeks admitted to neonatal units in England and Wales from 2010 to 2017. RESULTS: In 56 537 infants, NIV use increased significantly between 2010 and 2017 (continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) from 68.5% to 80.2% in 2017 and high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) from 14% to 68%, respectively) (p<0.001)). Use of NIV as the initial mode of respiratory support also increased (CPAP, 21.5%-28.0%; HFNC, 1%-7% (p<0.001)).HFNC was used earlier, and for longer, in those who received CPAP or mechanical ventilation. HFNC use was associated with decreased odds of death before discharge (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.19, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.22). Infants receiving CPAP but no HFNC died at an earlier median chronological age: CPAP group, 22 (IQR 10-39) days; HFNC group 40 (20-76) days (p<0.001). Among survivors, HFNC use was associated with increased odds of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (aOR 2.98, 95% CI 2.81 to 3.15) and other adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: NIV use is increasing, particularly as initial respiratory support. HFNC use has increased significantly with a sevenfold increase soon after birth which was associated with higher rates of BPD. As more infants survive with BPD, we need robust clinical evidence, to improve outcomes with the use of NIV as initial and ongoing respiratory support.

2.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 2057-2066, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerosol generating medical procedures (AGMPs) are common during newborn resuscitation. Neonates with respiratory viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may pose a risk to healthcare workers. International guidelines differ on methods to minimize the risk due to limited data. OBJECTIVE: We examined the expiratory airflow dispersion during common neonatal resuscitation AGMPs using infant simulators. METHODS: Expiratory airflow dispersion in term and preterm manikins was simulated (n = 288) using fine particle smoke at tidal volumes of 5 ml/kg. Using ImageJ, we quantified dispersion during common airway procedures including endotracheal tube (ETT) and T-piece ventilation. RESULTS: Maximal expiratory dispersion distances for the unsupported airway and disconnected uncuffed ETT scenarios were 30.2 and 22.7 cm (term); 22.1 and 17.2 cm (preterm), respectively. Applying T-piece positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) via an ETT (ETTPEEP ) generated no expiratory dispersion but increased tube leak during term simulation, while ventilation breaths (ETTVENT ) caused significant expiratory dispersion and leak. There was no measurable dispersion during face mask ventilation. For term uncuffed ETT ventilation, the particle filter eliminated expiratory dispersion but increased leak. No expiratory dispersion and negligible leak were observed when combining a cuffed ETT and filter. Angulated T-pieces generated the greatest median dispersion distances of 35.8 cm (ETTPEEP ) and 23.3 cm (ETTVENT ). CONCLUSIONS: Airflow dispersion during neonatal AGMPs is greater than previously postulated and potentially could contaminate healthcare providers during resuscitation of infants infected with contagious viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. It is possible to mitigate this risk using particle filters and cuffed ETTs. Applicability in the clinical setting requires further evaluation.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Expiração , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Ressuscitação/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal , Manequins , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Pressão , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012241, 2020 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Education of family members about infant weaning practices could affect nutrition, growth, and development of children in different settings across the world. OBJECTIVES: To compare effects of family nutrition educational interventions for infant weaning with conventional management on growth and neurodevelopment in childhood. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 26 June 2018), Embase (1980 to 26 June 2018), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 26 June 2018). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and references of retrieved articles. We ran an updated search from 1 January 2018 to 12 December 2019 in the following databases: CENTRAL via CRS Web, MEDLINE via Ovid, and CINAHL via EBSCOhost. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that examined effects of nutrition education for weaning practices delivered to families of infants born at term compared to conventional management (standard care in the population) up to one year of age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently identified eligible trial reports from the literature search and performed data extraction and quality assessments for each included trial. We synthesised effect estimates using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences (RDs), and mean differences (MDs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 21 trials, recruiting 14,241 infants. Five of the trials were conducted in high-income countries and the remaining 16 were conducted in middle- and low-income countries. Meta-analysis showed that nutrition education targeted at improving weaning-related feeding practices probably increases both weight-for-age z scores (WAZ) (MD 0.15 standard deviations, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.22; 6 studies; 2551 infants; I² = 32%; moderate-certainty evidence) and height-for-age z scores (0.12 standard deviations, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.19; 7 studies; 3620 infants; I² = 49%; moderate-certainty evidence) by 12 months of age. Meta-analysis of outcomes at 18 months of age was heterogeneous and inconsistent in the magnitude of effects of nutrition education on WAZ and weight-for-height z score across studies. One trial that assessed effects of nutrition education on growth at six years reported an uncertain effect on change in height and body mass index z score. Two studies investigated effects of nutrition education on neurodevelopment at 12 to 24 months of age with conflicting results. No trials assessed effects of nutrition education on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition education for families of infants may reduce the risk of undernutrition in term-born infants (evidence of low to moderate certainty due to limitations in study design and substantial heterogeneity of included studies). Modest effects on growth during infancy may not be of clinical significance. However, it is unclear whether these small improvements in growth parameters in the first two years of life affect long-term childhood growth and development. Further studies are needed to resolve this question.


Assuntos
Família , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Desmame , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Viés , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Morte do Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Nascimento a Termo
5.
Semin Perinatol ; 43(7): 151159, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443906

RESUMO

Early enteral feeding is a potentially modifiable risk factor for necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and late onset sepsis (LOS), however enteral feeding practices for preterm infants are highly variable. High-quality evidence is increasingly available to guide early feeding in preterm infants. Meta-analyses of randomised trials indicate that early trophic feeding within 48 h after birth and introduction of progressive enteral feeding before 4 days of life at an advancement rate above 24 ml/kg/day can be achieved in clinically stable very preterm and very low birthweight (VLBW) infants, without higher mortality or incidence of NEC. This finding may not be generalisable to high risk infants such as those born small for gestational age (SGA) or following absent/reversed end diastolic flow velocity (AREDFV) detected antenatally on placental Doppler studies, due to the small number of such infants in existing trials. Trials targeting such high-risk preterm infants have demonstrated that progressive enteral feeding started in the first 4 days is safe and does not lead to higher NEC or mortality; however, there is a paucity of data to guide feeding advancement in such infants. There is little trial evidence to support bolus or continuous gavage feeding as being superior in clinically stable preterm infants. Trials that examine enteral feeding are commonly unblinded for technical and practical reasons, which increases the risk of bias in such trials, specifically when considering potentially subjective outcome such as NEC and LOS; future clinical trials should focus on objective, primary outcome measures such as all-cause mortality, long term growth and neurodevelopment. Alternatively, important short-term outcomes such as NEC could be used with blinded assessment.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Sepse/dietoterapia , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Enterocolite Necrosante/dietoterapia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças do Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD012240, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weaning refers to the period of introduction of solid food to complement breast milk or formula milk. Preterm infants are known to acquire extrauterine growth restriction by the time of discharge from neonatal units. Hence, the postdischarge and weaning period are crucial for optimal growth. Optimisation of nutrition during weaning may have long-term impacts on outcomes in preterm infants. Family members of preterm infants may require nutrition education to promote ideal nutrition practices surrounding weaning in preterm infants who are at high risk of nutritional deficit. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of nutrition education of family members in supporting weaning in preterm infants with respect to their growth and neurodevelopment compared with conventional management. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 26 June 2018), Embase (1980 to 26 June 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 26 June 2018). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs and quasi-RCTs were eligible for inclusion if they examined the effects of nutrition education of family members as compared to conventional management for weaning of preterm infants up to one year of corrected gestational age. We defined prematurity as less than 37 completed weeks of gestation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently screened potential studies for inclusion and planned to identify, extract data, and assess the quality of eligible studies. We resolved any differences in opinion through discussion with a third review author and consensus among all three review authors. MAIN RESULTS: No eligible trials looking at the impact of nutrition education of family members in weaning of preterm infants fulfilled the inclusion criteria of this systematic review. Two studies investigating the ideal timing for weaning in premature infants reported conflicting results, AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to assess the impact of nutrition education of family members in weaning of preterm infants as there were no eligible studies. This may be due to the lack of evidence to determine the ideal weaning strategies for preterm infants with regards to the time of initiating weaning and type of solids to introduce. Trials are needed to assess the many aspects of infant weaning in preterm infants. Long-term neurodevelopment and metabolic outcomes should also be assessed in addition to growth parameters.


Assuntos
Família , Alimentos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Desmame , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD003211, 2017 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is common in infants, and feed thickeners are often used to manage it in infants as they are simple to use and perceived to be harmless. However, conflicting evidence exists to support the use of feed thickeners. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of feed thickeners in infants up to six months of age with GOR in terms of reduction in a) signs and symptoms of GOR, b) reflux episodes on pH probe monitoring or intraluminal impedance or a combination of both, or c) histological evidence of oesophagitis. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 22 November 2016), Embase (1980 to 22 November 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 22 November 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials if they examined the effects of feed thickeners as compared to unthickened feeds (no treatment or placebo) in treating GOR in term infants up to six months of age or six months of corrected gestational age for those born preterm. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently identified eligible studies from the literature search. Two review authors independently performed data extraction and quality assessments of the eligible studies. Differences in opinion were resolved by discussion with a third review author, and consensus was reached among all three review authors. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Eight trials recruiting a total of 637 infants met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The infants included in the review were mainly formula-fed term infants. The trials were of variable methodological quality. Formula-fed term infants with GOR on feed thickeners had nearly two fewer episodes of regurgitation per day (mean difference -1.97 episodes per day, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.32 to -1.61; 6 studies, 442 infants, moderate-certainty evidence) and were 2.5 times more likely to be asymptomatic from regurgitation at the end of the intervention period (risk ratio 2.50, 95% CI 1.38 to 4.51; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome 5, 95% CI 4 to 13; 2 studies, 186 infants, low-certainty evidence) when compared to infants with GOR on unthickened feeds. No studies reported failure to thrive as an outcome. We found low-certainty evidence based on 2 studies recruiting 116 infants that use of feed thickeners improved the oesophageal pH probe parameters of reflux index (i.e. percentage of time pH < 4), number of reflux episodes lasting longer than 5 minutes, and duration of longest reflux episode. No major side effects were reported with the use of feed thickeners. Information was insufficient to conclude which type of feed thickener is superior. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is a physiological self resolving phenomenon in infants that does not necessarily require any treatment. However, we found moderate-certainty evidence that feed thickeners should be considered if regurgitation symptoms persist in term bottle-fed infants. The reduction of two episodes of regurgitation per day is likely to be of clinical significance to caregivers. Due to the limited information available, we were unable to assess the use of feed thickeners in infants who are breastfeeding or preterm nor could we conclude which type of feed thickener is superior.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/uso terapêutico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Monitoramento do pH Esofágico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 16(2): 145-54, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23943839

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) is validated to measure nicotine dependence in nonpregnant smokers, and in these smokers, mean salivary and serum cotinine levels are related by a ratio of 1.25. However, as nicotine metabolism increases during gestation, these findings may differ in pregnancy. We investigated the validity of HSI in pregnancy by comparing this with 3 biochemical measures; in a search for a less-invasive cotinine measure in pregnancy, we also explored the relationship between mean blood and salivary cotinine levels. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses using baseline data from the Smoking, Nicotine, and Pregnancy Trial. Participants were 16-46 years old, 12-24 weeks gestation, smoked more than 5 cigarettes per day, and had exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) readings of at least 8 ppm. Linear regression was used to examine correlations between HSI and blood cotinine and salivary cotinine and exhaled CO. Correlation between blood and salivary cotinine was investigated using linear regression through the origin. RESULTS: HSI scores were associated with blood cotinine (R² = 0.20, n = 662, p < .001), salivary cotinine (R² = 0.11, n = 967, p < .001), and exhaled CO (R² = 0.13, n = 1,050, p < .001). Salivary and blood cotinine levels, taken simultaneously, were highly correlated (R² = 0.91, n = 628, p < .001) and the saliva:blood level ratio was 1.01 (95% CI 0.99-1.04). CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between HSI and biochemical measures in pregnancy were comparable with those obtained outside pregnancy, suggesting that HSI has similar validity in pregnant smokers. Salivary and blood cotinine levels are roughly equivalent in pregnant smokers.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Cotinina/análise , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Saliva/química , Tabagismo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cotinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina/análise , Nicotina/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/metabolismo , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
10.
Histopathology ; 57(2): 212-9, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20716163

RESUMO

AIMS: Histological grade assessed on needle core biopsy (NCB) moderately concurs with the grade in the surgical excision specimen (SES) (kappa-values between 0.35 and 0.65). A major cause of the discrepancy is underestimation of mitoses in the NCB specimen. The aim was to determine the best method of assessing proliferation on NCB. METHODS AND RESULTS: Proliferative activity of 101 invasive carcinomas of the breast on NCB and SES was assessed using mitotic counts on routine haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections and immunohistochemical markers Mib-1 and phosphorylated histone H3 (PPH3). H&E mitotic count in SES was considered as the gold standard. H&E mitotic count was found to be underestimated on NCB when compared with that in SES (P < 0.001), but no significant difference was detected between NCB and SES regarding Mib-1 (P = 0.13) or PPH3 (P = 0.073). Using receiver-operating characteristic curve, Mib-1 on NCB was found to agree with the gold standard significantly better than routine H&E on NCB. CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical markers in NCB showed better concordance with H&E mitotic count in SES (gold standard) than routine H&E mitotic count in NCB. Further refinement of cut-offs and scoring methods is needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Índice Mitótico/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Biópsia por Agulha , Feminino , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
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