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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360726

RESUMO

Fungal diseases pose a major threat to ornamental plants, with an increasing percentage of pathogen-driven host losses. In ornamental plants, management of the majority of fungal diseases primarily depends upon chemical control methods that are often non-specific. Host basal resistance, which is deficient in many ornamental plants, plays a key role in combating diseases. Despite their economic importance, conventional and molecular breeding approaches in ornamental plants to facilitate disease resistance are lagging, and this is predominantly due to their complex genomes, limited availability of gene pools, and degree of heterozygosity. Although genetic engineering in ornamental plants offers feasible methods to overcome the intrinsic barriers of classical breeding, achievements have mainly been reported only in regard to the modification of floral attributes in ornamentals. The unavailability of transformation protocols and candidate gene resources for several ornamental crops presents an obstacle for tackling the functional studies on disease resistance. Recently, multiomics technologies, in combination with genome editing tools, have provided shortcuts to examine the molecular and genetic regulatory mechanisms underlying fungal disease resistance, ultimately leading to the subsequent advances in the development of novel cultivars with desired fungal disease-resistant traits, in ornamental crops. Although fungal diseases constitute the majority of ornamental plant diseases, a comprehensive overview of this highly important fungal disease resistance seems to be insufficient in the field of ornamental horticulture. Hence, in this review, we highlight the representative mechanisms of the fungal infection-related resistance to pathogens in plants, with a focus on ornamental crops. Recent progress in molecular breeding, genetic engineering strategies, and RNAi technologies, such as HIGS and SIGS for the enhancement of fungal disease resistance in various important ornamental crops, is also described.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Fungos Mitospóricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906764

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is an economically important ornamental crop across the globe. As floral color is the major factor determining customer selection, manipulation of floral color has been a major objective for breeders. Anthocyanins are one of the main pigments contributing to a broad variety of colors in the ray florets of chrysanthemum. Manipulating petal pigments has resulted in the development of a vast range of floral colors. Although the candidate genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis have been well studied, the genetic and transcriptional control of floral color remains unclear. Despite advances in multi-omics technology, these methods remain in their infancy in chrysanthemum, owing to its large complex genome and hexaploidy. Hence, there is a need to further elucidate and better understand the genetic and molecular regulatory mechanisms in chrysanthemum, which can provide a basis for future advances in breeding for novel and diverse floral colors in this commercially beneficial crop. Therefore, this review describes the significance of anthocyanins in chrysanthemum flowers, and the mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis under genetic and environmental factors, providing insight into the development of novel colored ray florets. Genetic and molecular regulatory mechanisms that control anthocyanin biosynthesis and the various breeding efforts to modify floral color in chrysanthemum are detailed.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 337, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cymbidium goeringii belongs to the Orchidaceae, which is one of the most abundant angiosperm families. Cymbidium goeringii consist with high economic value and characteristics include fragrance and multiple flower colors. Floral scent is one of the important strategies for ensuring fertilization. However, limited genetic data is available in this non-model plant, and little known about the molecular mechanism responsible for floral scent in this orchid. Transcriptome and expression profiling data are needed to identify genes and better understand the biological mechanisms of floral scents in this species. Present transcriptomic data provides basic information on the genes and enzymes related to and pathways involved in flower secondary metabolism in this plant. RESULTS: In this study, RNA sequencing analyses were performed to identify changes in gene expression and biological pathways related scent metabolism. Three cDNA libraries were obtained from three developmental floral stages: closed bud, half flowering stage and full flowering stage. Using Illumina technique 159,616,374 clean reads were obtained and were assembled into 85,868 final unigenes (average length 1194 nt), 33.85% of which were annotated in the NCBI non redundant protein database. Among this unigenes 36,082 were assigned to gene ontology and 23,164 were combined with COG groups. Total 33,417 unigenes were assigned in 127 pathways according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. According these transcriptomic data we identified number of candidates genes which differentially expressed in different developmental stages of flower related to fragrance biosynthesis. In q-RT-PCR most of the fragrance related genes highly expressed in half flowering stage. CONCLUSIONS: RNA-seq and DEG data provided comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that could be facilitate the molecular mechanisms of floral biosynthesis pathways in three developmental phase's flowers in Cymbidium goeringii, moreover providing useful information for further analysis on C. goeringii, and other plants of genus Cymbidium.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Odorantes , Orchidaceae/genética , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Farneseno Álcool/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
4.
J Med Food ; 18(9): 1013-21, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26102094

RESUMO

Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung (JY) is a potato with dark purple flesh and contains substantial amounts of polyphenols. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of S. tuberosum L. cv JY in a mouse model of Dermatophagoides farinae body (Dfb)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD). The ethanol extract of the peel of JY (EPJ) ameliorated Dfb-induced dermatitis severity, serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine. Histological analysis of the skin also revealed that EPJ treatment significantly decreased mast cell infiltration. The suppression of dermatitis by EPJ treatment was accompanied by a decrease in the skin levels of type 2 helper T-cell cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13. The induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which leads to a systemic Th2 response, was also decreased in the skin by EPJ. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 was decreased by EPJ in Dfb-induced NC/Nga mice. The protein expression of filaggrin in the AD-like skin lesions was restored by EPJ treatment. These results suggested that EPJ may be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácaros , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antígenos , Citocinas/sangue , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Epiderme Vegetal , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 63: 53-61, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24184733

RESUMO

In this study, the authors investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the antiinflammatory effects of the chloroform fraction of the peel of 'Jayoung' (CFPJ), a color-fleshed potato, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. CFPJ inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcription level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by reducing the translocation of NF-κB depending on degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α). Furthermore, CFPJ attenuated the phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases3/6 (MKK3/6) and of p38. In colitis model, CFPJ significantly reduced the severity of colitis and the productions and protein levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in colonic tissue. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of CFPJ are associated with the suppression of NF-κB and p38 activation in macrophages, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of colitis.


Assuntos
Clorofórmio/química , Colite/prevenção & controle , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 3/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
6.
Biochem J ; 364(Pt 3): 629-34, 2002 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12049625

RESUMO

To investigate the structural characteristics and activation mechanism of the precursor caspase, genes encoding the inactive pro-form and the active mature form of caspase 6 were expressed in Escherichia coli and the proteins of both forms were purified to homogeneity. The structure of each protein was characterized by chemical cross-linking, size-exclusion chromatography, CD and fluorescence spectroscopies. The pro-form caspase 6 exhibits a dimeric structure and its overall secondary structure was found to be similar to that of the mature caspase 6. Upon the maturation of procaspase 6, the maximum fluorescence wavelength lambda(max) was red-shifted from 330 to 337 nm and the fluorescence intensity of lambda(max) was increased. This fluorescence spectral change indicates that the environment of a tryptophan residue in the substrate-binding site can be changed to a more polar one when the procaspase 6 is processed. Taken together, our results strongly demonstrate that precursor caspase 6 exists as a dimer and its overall structure is similar to that of the active caspase 6. Our results also suggest that the local conformational change at the substrate-binding site, with no drastic change in the overall structure, seems to enable precursor caspase 6 to become the active mature enzyme.


Assuntos
Caspases/química , Precursores Enzimáticos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Caspase 6 , Dicroísmo Circular , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Cinética , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Conformação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Triptofano
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