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1.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565718

RESUMO

Researchers have endeavored to identify the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Though the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases remains unknown, dysregulation of the immune system in the host gastrointestinal tract is believed to be the major causative factor. Omics is a powerful methodological tool that can reveal biochemical information stored in clinical samples. Lipidomics is a subset of omics that explores the lipid classes associated with inflammation. One objective of the present systematic review was to facilitate the identification of biochemical targets for use in future lipidomic studies on inflammatory bowel diseases. The use of high-resolution mass spectrometry to observe alterations in global lipidomics might help elucidate the immunoregulatory mechanisms involved in inflammatory bowel diseases and discover novel biomarkers for them. Assessment of the characteristics of previous clinical trials on inflammatory bowel diseases could help researchers design and establish patient selection and analytical method criteria for future studies on these conditions. In this study, we curated literature exclusively from four databases and extracted lipidomics-related data from literature, considering criteria. This paper suggests that the lipidomics approach toward research in inflammatory bowel diseases can clarify their pathogenesis and identify clinically valuable biomarkers to predict and monitor their progression.

2.
Front Nutr ; 8: 722866, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513905

RESUMO

Background: Oat and its compounds have been found to have anti-inflammatory effects. Through this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to determine an evidence-based link between oat consumption and inflammatory markers. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. By the end of April 2021, we included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of oat and oat-related products through screening PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, ClinicalTrial.gov, and CENTRAL. Meta-analysis was conducted with a random-effect model on the standardized mean difference (SMD) of the change scores of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Subgroup analyses were conducted to stratify confounding variables. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was applied to report the quality of evidence. This study was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; CRD42021245844). Results: Systematic screening of five databases yielded 4,119 studies, of which 23 RCTs were finally selected. For the four systemic inflammatory markers analyzed, no significant alterations were found after oat consumption. However, oat intake was found to significantly decrease CRP levels in subjects with one or more health complications (SMD: -0.18; 95% CI: -0.36, 0.00; P = 0.05; I 2 = 10%). Furthermore, IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in subjects with dyslipidemia (SMD = -0.34; 95% CI: -0.59, -0.10; P = 0.006; I 2 = 0%). These beneficial effects might be attributed to the effects of avenanthramide and ß-glucan. Conclusions: Overall evidence supporting the alleviation of inflammatory response by oat intake was poor, calling for future studies including a larger sample size to confirm the findings.

3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5428364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367462

RESUMO

Background: Although the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR- TKI) therapy has been proven in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs presents a serious clinical problem. Hence, the identification of new therapeutic strategy is needed to treat EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC. Methods: Acquired EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancer cell lines (HCC827, H1993, and H292 cells with acquired resistance to gefitinib or erlotinib) were used for cell-based studies. IncuCyte live cell analysis system and XFp analyzer were used for the determination of cell proliferation and energy metabolism, respectively. In vivo anticancer effect of phenformin was assessed in xenografts implanting HCC827 and gefitinib-resistant HCC827 (HCC827 GR) cells. Results: HCC827 GR and erlotinib-resistant H1993 (H1993 ER) cells exhibited different metabolic properties compared with their respective parental cells, HCC827, and H1993. In EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells, glycolysis markers including the glucose consumption rate, intracellular lactate level, and extracellular acidification rate were decreased; however, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) markers including mitochondria-driven ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential, and maximal OXPHOS capacity were increased. Cell proliferation and tumor growth were strongly inhibited by biguanide phenformin via targeting of mitochondrial OXPHOS complex 1 in EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. Inhibition of OXPHOS resulted in a reduced NAD+/NADH ratio and intracellular aspartate levels. Recovery of glycolysis by hexokinase 2 overexpression in erlotinib-resistant H292 (H292 ER) cells significantly reduced the anticancer effects of phenformin. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with EGFR-TKIs causes reactivation of mitochondrial metabolism, resulting in vulnerability to OXPHOS inhibitor such as phenformin. We propose a new therapeutic option for NSCLC with acquired EGFR-TKI resistance that focuses on cancer metabolism.

4.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 8092-8111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335982

RESUMO

Active c-Src non-receptor tyrosine kinase localizes to the plasma membrane via N-terminal lipid modification. Membranous c-Src causes cancer initiation and progression. Even though transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5), a tetraspan(in), can be involved in this mechanism, the molecular and structural influence of TM4SF5 on c-Src remains unknown. Methods: Here, we investigated molecular and structural details by which TM4SF5 regulated c-Src devoid of its N-terminus and how cell-penetrating peptides were able to interrupt c-Src activation via interference of c-Src-TM4SF5 interaction in hepatocellular carcinoma models. Results: The TM4SF5 C-terminus efficiently bound the c-Src SH1 kinase domain, efficiently to the inactively-closed form. The complex involved protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B able to dephosphorylate Tyr530. The c-Src SH1 domain alone, even in a closed form, bound TM4SF5 to cause c-Src Tyr419 and FAK Y861 phosphorylation. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation studies predicted the directly interfacing residues, which were further validated by mutational studies. Cell penetration of TM4SF5 C-terminal peptides blocked the interaction of TM4SF5 with c-Src and prevented c-Src-dependent tumor initiation and progression in vivo. Conclusions: Collectively, these data demonstrate that binding of the TM4SF5 C-terminus to the kinase domain of inactive c-Src leads to its activation. Because this binding can be abolished by cell-penetrating peptides containing the TM4SF5 C-terminus, targeting this direct interaction may be an effective strategy for developing therapeutics that block the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Proteína Tirosina Quinase CSK/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Quinase CSK/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Genes src/genética , Genes src/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tetraspaninas/genética , Tetraspaninas/metabolismo
5.
Foods ; 10(2)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540706

RESUMO

Many studies have analyzed the effects of ß-cryptoxanthin (BCX) on osteoporosis and bone health. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at providing quantitative evidence for the effects of BCX on osteoporosis. Publications were selected and retrieved from three databases and carefully screened to evaluate their eligibility. Data from the final 15 eligible studies were extracted and uniformly summarized. Among the 15 studies, seven including 100,496 individuals provided information for the meta-analysis. A random effects model was applied to integrate the odds ratio (OR) to compare the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related complications between the groups with high and low intake of BCX. A high intake of BCX was significantly correlated with a reduced risk of osteoporosis (OR = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.90, p = 0.0002). The results remained significant when patients were stratified into male and female subgroups as well as Western and Asian cohorts. A high intake of BCX was also negatively associated with the incidence of hip fracture (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.94, p = 0.02). The results indicate that BCX intake potentially reduces the risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture. Further longitudinal studies are needed to validate the causality of current findings.

6.
Anal Methods ; 13(10): 1295-1301, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634291

RESUMO

Many natural products have demonstrated functionality as novel, green sorbents for organic compounds. However, only limited reports exist on the use of such green materials as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for select organic acids. In this study, we employed pollen grains as a hydrophilic sorbent and investigated the influence of various extraction parameters using a series of experimental designs. The chemical structure and surface properties of the prepared sorbent were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Plackett-Burman design was used to experimentally screen for parameters that significantly influenced the extraction performance. Three selected parameters were then statistically optimized by applying a central composite design combined with a response surface methodology. Phenolic acid residues were determined and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection; a mass spectrometric detector in the selected ion monitoring mode was also used for identification. As a practical example, phenolic acids in the soil were successfully separated by the developed pollen sorbent. These results therefore indicate that pollen grains can be considered as a sustainable, green, and safe alternative to bare silica for extraction and separation applications.

7.
Phytochemistry ; 183: 112630, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378718

RESUMO

Nine undescribed sesquiterpenes, which include five guaiane and four humulene-type, were isolated from the agarwood of Aquilaria malaccensis. The structures of these undescribed sesquiterpenes were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D-NMR, ECD, and X-ray diffraction (Cu Kα). The isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory effect against LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. In particular, one sesquiterpene (1α,7α-dihydroxy-8oxo-4αH,5αH-guaia-9(10),11(13)-dien-12-oate) showed significant inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 18.8 µM.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos , Thymelaeaceae , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Células RAW 264.7 , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
8.
ACS Omega ; 5(42): 27304-27313, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134693

RESUMO

Mitochondrial metabolism plays an essential role in various biological processes of cancer cells. Herein, we established an experimental procedure for the metabolic assessment of mitochondria in cancer cells. We examined procedures for mitochondrial isolation coupled with various mitochondrial extraction buffers in three major cancer cell lines (PANC1, A549, and MDA-MB-231) and identified a potentially optimal and generalized approach. The purity of the mitochondrial fraction isolated by the selected protocol was verified using specific protein markers of cellular components, and the ultrastructure of the isolated mitochondria was also analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The isolation procedure, involving a bead beater for cell lysis, a modified sucrose buffer, and differential centrifugation, appeared to be a suitable method for the extraction of mitochondria from cancer cells. Electron micrographs indicated an intact two-layer membrane and inner structures of mitochondria isolated by this procedure. Metabolomic and lipidomic analyses were conducted to examine the metabolic phenotypes of the mitochondria-enriched fractions and associated bulk cancer cells. A total of 44 metabolites, including malate and succinate, occurred at significantly higher levels in the mitochondrial fractions, whereas 51 metabolites, including citrate, oxaloacetate, and fumarate of the Krebs cycle and the oncometabolites glutamine and glutamate, were reduced in mitochondria compared to that in the corresponding bulk cells of PANC1. Similar patterns were observed in mitochondria and bulk cells of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines. A clear difference between the lipid profiles of bulk PANC1, MDA-MB-231, and A549 and corresponding mitochondrial fractions of these cell lines was detected by principal component analysis. In conclusion, we developed an experimental procedure for a large-scale metabolic assessment for suborganelle metabolic profiling and multiple omics data integration in cancer cells with broad applications.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050029

RESUMO

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a primary bioactive phytochemical in green tea. Its therapeutic potential in metabolic diseases has been reported; however, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-obesity effect of EGCG have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of EGCG on lipid metabolism and autophagy in adipose tissue. After 8 weeks of high-fat diet feeding, mice were treated with EGCG (20 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks to test in vivo anti-obesity effects of EGCG. EGCG treatment improved glucose tolerance and caused body weight loss. Interestingly, reduced adipose tissue mass was more prominent in visceral compared to subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Mechanistically, EGCG treatment increased autophagic flux in white adipose tissue through the AMP-activated protein kinase-mediated signaling pathway. Adipocyte-specific knockout of Beclin1 mitigated the effects of EGCG on visceral adipose tissue mass and glucose tolerance, indicating that the anti-obesity effect of EGCG requires Beclin1-dependent autophagy. Collectively, our data demonstrated that EGCG has anti-obesity effects through the upregulation of Beclin1-dependent autophagy and lipid catabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT).


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/genética , Autofagia/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/fisiologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Catequina/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 399: 123005, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937704

RESUMO

There is a growing concern regarding the toxic effects of terrestrial nanoplastic contaminants. However, an all-encompassing phenotyping- and omics-based strategy for the toxicity assessment of nanoplastics with different surface properties on soil living organisms remains to be established. Herein, we devised a comprehensive phenotyping and multi-omic profiling method to examine the molecular disturbance of nanopolystyrene (PS)-exposed Caenorhabditis elegans. The exposure time was 24 h with either 1 µg/mL or 10 µg/mL of PS. We found that PS considerably affected the reproduction and locomotion, as well as increased the oxidative stress of worms regardless of their surface properties. Nevertheless, each type of PS affected the metabolome and lipidome of the nematodes differently. Uncharged PS (PS-N) triggered significant metabolic disturbances, whereas the metabolic influences from PS-NH2 and PS-COOH were subtle. The dysregulated transcriptome profiles of PS-N were strongly associated with the metabolic pathways. Besides, the altered expression of several genes associated with autophagy and longevity was observed. Collectively, we demonstrated that comprehensive phenotyping and omics-based profiling establish a practical framework that allows us to gain deeper insights into the maladaptive consequences of PS in nematodes. It can be utilized for the evaluation of other environmental contaminants in the terrestrial ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poliestirenos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Longevidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858896

RESUMO

Black ginseng has various pharmacological activities, but only few studies have compared its pharmacological effects with those of red ginseng. We conducted an integrative systematic literature evaluation and developed a non-inferiority test based on the multivariate modeling approach to compare the pharmacological effects of red ginseng and black ginseng. We searched reported studies on the pharmaceutical effects and composition of ginsenosides and assigned numeric scores using nonlinear principal component analysis, based on discretization measures for the included publications. Downstream weighted linear regression models were constructed to study the eight major biological activities that are generally known to be exhibited by red ginseng. Our statistical model, based on available ordinal information gathered from previous literature, helped in comparing the overlapping effects of black ginseng. Black ginseng showed antioxidant effects comparable to those of red ginseng; however, this variant was inferior to red ginseng in enhancing immunity, relieving fatigue, alleviating depression/anxiety, decreasing body fat, and reducing blood pressure. We have showed a cost-efficient method to indirectly evaluate the biological effects of ginseng products using data from published articles. This method can also be used to compare the nutritional and medicinal value of herbal medicines that share similar compositions of bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Modelos Teóricos , Panax , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Análise de Componente Principal , Pesquisa
12.
Molecules ; 25(13)2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645855

RESUMO

Panax vietnamensis (PV), a wild Panax species discovered in Vietnam in 1973, has been increasingly overexploited due to its economic value and therapeutic uses. This resulted in the development of PV cultivation to meet the market demand. There is little information on the accumulation of saponins in PV during cultivation, but this information could serve as an indication of the appropriate harvest time. In this study we developed an HPLC-UV/ELSD method to simultaneously determine the content of 10 characteristic saponins in PV from 2-7 years old, including G-Rb1, G-Rd, G-Rg1, G-Re, N-R1, M-R1, M-R2, V-R2, V-R11, and p-RT4. The result indicated that from 2 to 5 years, the content of saponins in PV rhizome and radix increase 3.02 and 4.2 times, respectively, whereas from 5 to 7 years, no significant changes were observed. Hence, our study suggests that after 5 years of growth could be considered as an appropriate time for PV to be harvested. Among the analyzed saponins, G-Rg1, G-Rb1, G-Rd, and especially M-R2 were the major saponins that contributed to the change of PV's saponin content through the years. In addition, the developed and validated HPLC method was proven to be reliable and effective for quality control of PV.


Assuntos
Panax/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rizoma/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Saponinas/análise
13.
Metabolites ; 10(2)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013105

RESUMO

Despite the tremendous success, pitfalls have been observed in every step of a clinical metabolomics workflow, which impedes the internal validity of the study. Furthermore, the demand for logistics, instrumentations, and computational resources for metabolic phenotyping studies has far exceeded our expectations. In this conceptual review, we will cover inclusive barriers of a metabolomics-based clinical study and suggest potential solutions in the hope of enhancing study robustness, usability, and transferability. The importance of quality assurance and quality control procedures is discussed, followed by a practical rule containing five phases, including two additional "pre-pre-" and "post-post-" analytical steps. Besides, we will elucidate the potential involvement of machine learning and demonstrate that the need for automated data mining algorithms to improve the quality of future research is undeniable. Consequently, we propose a comprehensive metabolomics framework, along with an appropriate checklist refined from current guidelines and our previously published assessment, in the attempt to accurately translate achievements in metabolomics into clinical and epidemiological research. Furthermore, the integration of multifaceted multi-omics approaches with metabolomics as the pillar member is in urgent need. When combining with other social or nutritional factors, we can gather complete omics profiles for a particular disease. Our discussion reflects the current obstacles and potential solutions toward the progressing trend of utilizing metabolomics in clinical research to create the next-generation healthcare system.

14.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059482

RESUMO

Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) is the most widely consumed herbal plant in Asia and is well-known for its various pharmacological properties. Many studies have been devoted to this natural product. However, polysaccharide's components of ginseng and their biological effects have not been widely studied. In this study, white ginseng neutral polysaccharide (WGNP) and white ginseng acidic polysaccharide (WGAP) fractions were purified from P. ginseng roots. The chemical properties of WGNP and WGAP were investigated using various chromatography and spectroscopy techniques, including high-performance gel permeation chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultra-violet detector. The antioxidant, anti-radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using Caenorhabditis elegans as the model organism. Our in vitro data by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), reducing power, ferrous ion chelating, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity suggested that the WGAP with significantly higher uronic acid content and higher molecular weight exhibits a much stronger antioxidant effect as compared to that of WGNP. Similar antioxidant activity of WGAP was also confirmed in vivo by evaluating internal reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, WGAP may be used as a natural antioxidant with potent scavenging and metal chelation properties.


Assuntos
Ácidos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Ácidos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos
15.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041324

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of a Wnt/ß-catenin pathway results in nuclear accumulation of ß-catenin in colon cancer. Inhibiting ß-catenin is one strategy for treating colon cancer. Here, we identified Z-ajoene, a sulfur containing compound isolated from crushed garlic, as an inhibitor of colon cancer cell growth. Z-Ajoene repressed ß-catenin response transcriptional activity, intracellular ß-catenin levels, and its representative target protein levels (c-Myc and cyclin D1) in SW480 colon cancer cells. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of decreased ß-catenin levels, we examined the effect of Z-ajoene on ß-catenin phosphorylation, which is involved in ß-catenin degradation. Z-Ajoene promoted the phosphorylation of ß-catenin at Ser45 in a casein kinase 1α (CK1α)-dependent manner, which is an essential step in ß-catenin degradation in the cytosol. These findings indicate that Z-ajoene from garlic may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent by modulating CK1α activity and the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Caseína Quinase Ialfa/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Alho/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Sulfóxidos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935866

RESUMO

Clinical applications of ginger with an expectation of clinical benefits are receiving significant attention. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion in terms of the clinical effects of ginger in all reported areas. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guideline, randomized controlled trials on the effects of ginger were investigated. Accordingly, 109 eligible papers were fully extracted in terms of study design, population characteristics, evaluation systems, adverse effects, and main outcomes. The reporting quality of the included studies was assessed based on the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized trials and integrated together with studies that investigated the same subjects. The included studies that examined the improvement of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, inflammation, metabolic syndromes, digestive function, and colorectal cancer's markers were consistently supported, whereas other expected functions were relatively controversial. Nevertheless, only 43 clinical trials (39.4%) met the criterion of having a 'high quality of evidence.' In addition to the quality assessment result, small populations and unstandardized evaluation systems were the observed shortcomings in ginger clinical trials. Further studies with adequate designs are warranted to validate the reported clinical functions of ginger.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengibre , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Náusea/etiologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vômito/etiologia
17.
Autophagy ; 16(11): 1949-1973, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913745

RESUMO

Lipotoxicity, induced by saturated fatty acid (SFA)-mediated cell death, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The KEAP1 (kelch like ECH associated protein 1)-NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) pathway is a pivotal defense mechanism against lipotoxicity. We previously reported that SQSTM1/p62 has a cytoprotective role against lipotoxicity through activation of the noncanonical KEAP1- NFE2L2 pathway in hepatocytes. However, the underlying mechanisms and physiological relevance of this pathway have not been clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate that NFE2L2-mediated induction of SQSTM1 activates the noncanonical KEAP1-NFE2L2 pathway under lipotoxic conditions. Furthermore, we identified that SQSTM1 induces ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1) phosphorylation by facilitating the interaction between AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and ULK1, leading to macroautophagy/autophagy induction, followed by KEAP1 degradation and NFE2L2 activation. Accordingly, the activity of this SQSTM1-mediated noncanonical KEAP1-NFE2L2 pathway conferred hepatoprotection against lipotoxicity in the livers of conventional sqstm1- and liver-specific sqstm1-knockout mice. Moreover, this pathway activity was evident in the livers of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver. This axis could thus represent a novel target for NAFLD treatment. Abbreviations: ACACA: acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha; ACTB: actin beta; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; CM-H2DCFDA:5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; CQ: chloroquine; CUL3: cullin 3; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; FASN: fatty acid synthase; GSTA1: glutathione S-transferase A1; HA: hemagglutinin; Hepa1c1c7: mouse hepatoma cells; HMOX1/HO-1: heme oxygenase 1; KEAP1: kelch like ECH associated protein 1; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NAC: N-acetyl-L-cysteine; NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NASH: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NFE2L2/NRF2: nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2; NQO1: NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1; PA: palmitic acid; PARP: poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1; PRKAA1/2: protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunits alpha1/2; RBX1: ring-box 1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SESN2: sestrin 2; SFA: saturated fatty acid; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; SREBF1: sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; TUNEL: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase.

18.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(1): 151-165, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187491

RESUMO

Slc25a17 is known as a peroxisomal solute carrier, but the in vivo role of the protein has not been demonstrated. We found that the zebrafish genome contains two slc25a17 genes that function redundantly, but additively. Notably, peroxisome function in slc25a17 knockdown embryos is severely compromised, resulting in an altered lipid composition. Along the defects found in peroxisome-associated phenotypic presentations, we highlighted that development of the swim bladder is also highly dependent on Slc25a17 function. As Slc25a17 showed substrate specificity towards coenzyme A (CoA), injecting CoA, but not NAD+ , rescued the defective swim bladder induced by slc25a17 knockdown. These results indicated that Slc25a17 acts as a CoA transporter, involved in the maintenance of functional peroxisomes that are essential for the development of multiple organs during zebrafish embryogenesis. Given high homology in protein sequences, the role of zebrafish Slc25a17 may also be applicable to the mammalian system.


Assuntos
Coenzima A/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Sacos Aéreos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sacos Aéreos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Coenzima A/genética , Sequência Conservada , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Surg Endosc ; 34(2): 954-960, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) for tumors involving segment VII has been considered a contraindication. Herein, our proposed laparoscopic technique for segment VII lesions using a rubber band retraction method and flexible laparoscope is introduced. METHODS: A combination of elastic rubber band retraction method and flexible laparoscope was applied to access segment VII lesion. The perioperative outcomes and pathologic results were compared between patients with segment VII lesions (group 1) and patients with tumors in other segments (group 2) to evaluate feasibility and safety of the proposed laparoscopic approach for segment VII lesions. RESULTS: Among 167 patients who underwent LLR from May 2014 to October 2017, the study population included 17 patients with tumors in segment VII (group 1) and 66 patients with tumors in other segments (group 2). The demographics of the two groups were comparable. One open conversion occurred in group 2 due to bleeding. The mean tumor size was 2.6 ± 1.0 and 2.5 ± 1.5 cm (p = 0.392) and surgical margin was 1.2 ± 0.7 and 1.3 ± 1.2 cm (p = 0.344) in group 1 and group 2, respectively. The mean operation time was 151 ± 63 and 131 ± 57 min (p = 0.596) and estimated mean blood loss was 294 ± 281 and 306 ± 405 mL (p = 0.610), in group 1 and group 2, respectively. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 6.1 ± 1.5 and 6.4 ± 2.7 days (p = 0.064) in group 1 and group 2. Two postoperative complications in both groups and no postoperative mortality occurred. CONCLUSION: The combination technique of rubber band retraction and flexible laparoscopic camera allowed feasible and safe LLR for segment VII lesions that showed postoperative outcomes comparable to other segment lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Colangiocarcinoma/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Laparoscópios , Laparoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hepatectomia/instrumentação , Humanos , Laparoscopia/instrumentação , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Segurança do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 135500, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759720

RESUMO

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are widely used in consumer products because of their remarkable endurance. However, their distinct stability prolongs degradation, resulting in bioaccumulation in the environment which is a severe environmental issue. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are principal constituents in the PFCs. In this study, the potential toxic effects of PFOS and PFOA were evaluated by adopting an in vivo animal model, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The uptake of PFCs was confirmed by the quantification of internal concentration in C. elegans. Metabolomics and lipidomics were applied along with reproduction assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay. In the C. elegans exposed to PFOS and PFOA, amino acids including phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were significantly affected. Also, various species that belong to glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerol were perturbed in the exposed groups. The alteration patterns of the lipidome in PFOS and PFOA treated C. elegans were significantly different. Additionally, dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA)-based ROS assay revealed increased internal ROS in PFOS (1.5 fold, p-value = 0.0067) and PFOA (1.46 fold, p-value = 0.0253) groups. Decrease in reproduction was confirmed in PFOS (0.53 fold, p-value < 0.0001) and PFOA (0.69 fold, p-value = 0.0003) by counting progeny. Collectively, our findings suggest that exposure to PFCs in C. elegans leads to perturbation of various phenotypes as well as crucial amino acid and lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Animais , Fenótipo , Testes de Toxicidade
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