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1.
Vaccine ; 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Background incidence rates are critical in pharmacovigilance to facilitate identification of vaccine safety signals. We estimated background incidence rates of 11 adverse events of special interest related to COVID-19 vaccines in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective observational study using linked health administrative databases for hospitalizations and emergency department visits among Ontario residents. We estimated incidence rates of Bell's palsy, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, febrile convulsions, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, Kawasaki disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, acute myocardial infarction, and anaphylaxis during five pre-pandemic years (2015-2019) and 2020. RESULTS: The average annual population was 14 million across all age groups with 51% female. The pre-pandemic mean annual rates per 100,000 population during 2015-2019 were 191 for acute myocardial infarction, 43.9 for idiopathic thrombocytopenia, 28.8 for anaphylaxis, 27.8 for Bell's palsy, 25.0 for febrile convulsions, 22.8 for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 11.3 for myocarditis/pericarditis, 8.7 for pericarditis, 2.9 for myocarditis, 2.0 for Kawasaki disease, 1.9 for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and 1.7 for transverse myelitis. Females had higher rates of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis and anaphylaxis while males had higher rates of myocarditis, pericarditis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Bell's palsy, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome increased with age. The mean rates of myocarditis and/or pericarditis increased with age up to 79 years; males had higher rates than females: from 12 to 59 years for myocarditis and ≥12 years for pericarditis. Febrile convulsions and Kawasaki disease were predominantly childhood diseases and generally decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimated background rates will permit estimating numbers of expected events for these conditions and facilitate detection of potential safety signals following COVID-19 vaccination.

2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac156, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531374

RESUMO

Background: For both the current and future pandemics, there is a need for high-throughput drug screening methods to identify existing drugs with potential preventive and/or therapeutic activity. Epidemiologic studies could complement laboratory-focused efforts to identify possible therapeutic agents. Methods: We performed a pharmacopeia-wide association study (PWAS) to identify commonly prescribed medications and medication classes that are associated with the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in older individuals (≥65 years) in long-term care homes (LTCHs) and the community, between 15 January 2020 and 31 December 2020, across the province of Ontario, Canada. Results: A total of 26 121 cases and 2 369 020 controls from LTCHs and the community were included in this analysis. Many of the drugs and drug classes evaluated did not yield significant associations with SARS-CoV-2 detection. However, some drugs and drug classes appeared to be significantly associated with reduced SARS-CoV-2 detection, including cardioprotective drug classes such as statins (weighted odds ratio [OR], 0.91; standard P < .01, adjusted P < .01) and ß-blockers (weighted OR, 0.87; standard P < .01, adjusted P = .01), along with individual agents ranging from levetiracetam (weighted OR, 0.70; standard P < .01, adjusted P < .01) to fluoxetine (weighted OR, 0.86; standard P = .013, adjusted P = .198) to digoxin (weighted OR, 0.89; standard P < .01, adjusted P = .02). Conclusions: Using this epidemiologic approach, which can be applied to current and future pandemics, we have identified a variety of target drugs and drug classes that could offer therapeutic benefit in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may warrant further validation. Some of these agents (eg, fluoxetine) have already been identified for their therapeutic potential.

3.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441151

RESUMO

Background: We estimated COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes among individuals with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases in Ontario, Canada. Methods: In this population-based analysis, we used a test-negative design across four immune-mediated inflammatory disease population-based cohorts, comprising individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. We identified all SARS-CoV-2 tests done in these populations between March 1 and Nov 22, 2021 (a period in which there was rapid uptake of vaccines, and the alpha [B.1.1.7] and delta [B.1.617.2] SARS-CoV-2 variants were predominantly circulating in Canada) and separately assessed outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes (hospitalisation due to COVID-19 and death due to COVID-19) for each disease group. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effectiveness of one, two, and three doses of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech], or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) among individuals at the time of SARS-CoV-2 testing. Findings: Between March 1 and Nov 22, 2021, we identified 2127 (5·9%) test-positive cases among 36 145 individuals (26 476 [73·2%] were female and 9669 [26·8%] were male) with rheumatoid arthritis tested, 476 (6·1%) test-positive cases among 7863 individuals (4130 [52·5%] were female and 3733 [47·5%] were male) with ankylosing spondylitis tested, 3089 (6·5%) test-positive cases among 47 199 individuals (26 062 [55·2%] were female and 21 137 [44·8%] were male) with psoriasis tested, and 1702 (5·4%) test-positive cases among 31 311 individuals (17 716 [56·6%] were female and 13 595 [43·4%] were male) with inflammatory bowel disease tested. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness of two doses against infection was 83% (95% CI 80-86) in those with rheumatoid arthritis, 89% (83-93) among those with ankylosing spondylitis, 84% (81-86) among those with psoriasis, and 79% (74-82) among those with inflammatory bowel disease. After two vaccine doses, effectiveness against infection generally peaked 31-60 days after vaccination and waned gradually with each additional month. Vaccine effectiveness against severe outcomes after two doses was 92% (95% CI 88-95) in those with rheumatoid arthritis, 97% (83-99) among those with ankylosing spondylitis, 92% (86-95) among those with psoriasis, and 94% (88-97) among those with inflammatory bowel disease. Vaccine effectiveness after a third dose against infection was similar to or higher than after the second dose (ranging from 76% [47-89] to 96% [72-99]), although due to a paucity of events, estimates could not be calculated for some subgroups for severe outcomes. Interpretation: Two vaccine doses were found to be highly effective against both SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease during the study period. Research is needed to determine the durability of effectiveness of three doses over time, particularly against emerging variants. Funding: Public Health Agency of Canada.

4.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(4): e366-e377, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People experiencing homelessness face a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission, as well as health complications and death due to COVID-19. Despite being prioritised for receiving the COVID-19 vaccine in many regions, little data are available on vaccine uptake in this vulnerable population. Using population-based health-care administrative data from Ontario, Canada-a region with a universal, publicly funded health system-we aimed to describe COVID-19 vaccine coverage (ie, the estimated percentage of people who have received a vaccine) and determinants of vaccine receipt among individuals with a recent history of homelessness. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of adults (aged ≥18 years) with a recent experience of homelessness, inadequate housing, or shelter use as recorded in routinely collected health-care databases between June 14, 2020, and June 14, 2021 (a period within 6 months of Dec 14, 2020, when COVID-19 vaccine administration was initiated in Ontario). Participants were followed up from Dec 14, 2020, to Sept 30, 2021, for the receipt of one or two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine using the province's real-time centralised vaccine information system. We described COVID-19 vaccine coverage overall and within predefined subgroups. Using modified Poisson regression, we further identified sociodemographic factors, health-care usage, and clinical factors associated with receipt of at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. FINDINGS: 23 247 individuals with a recent history of homelessness were included in this study. Participants were predominantly male (14 752 [63·5%] of 23 247); nearly half were younger than 40 years (11 521 [49·6%]) and lived in large metropolitan regions (12 123 [52·2%]); and the majority (18 226 [78·4%]) visited a general practitioner for an in-person consultation during the observation period. By Sept 30, 2021, 14 271 (61·4%; 95% CI 60·8-62·0) individuals with a recent history of homelessness had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine and 11 082 (47·7%; 47·0-48·3) had received two doses; in comparison, over the same period, 86·6% of adults in the total Ontario population had received a first dose and 81·6% had received a second dose. In multivariable analysis, factors positively associated with COVID-19 uptake were one or more outpatient visits to a general practitioner (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1·37 [95% CI 1·31-1·42]), older age (50-59 years vs 18-29 years: 1·18 [1·14-1·22], ≥60 years vs 18-29 years: 1·27 [1·22-1·31]), receipt of an influenza vaccine in either of the two previous influenza seasons (1·25 [1·23-1·28]), being identified as homeless via a visit to a community health centre versus exclusively a hospital-based encounter (1·13 [1·10-1·15]), receipt of one or more SARS-CoV-2 tests between March 1, 2020, and Sept 30, 2021 (1·23 [1·20-1·26]), and the presence of chronic health conditions (one condition: 1·05 [1·03-1·08]; two or more conditions: 1·11 [1·08-1·14]). By contrast, living in a smaller metropolitan region (aRR 0·92 [95% CI 0·90-0·94]) or rural location (0·93 [0·90-0·97]) versus large metropolitan regions were associated with lower uptake. INTERPRETATION: In Ontario, COVID-19 vaccine coverage among adults with a recent history of homelessness has lagged and, as of Sept 30, 2021, was 25 percentage points lower than that of the general adult population in Ontario for a first dose and 34 percentage points lower for a second dose. With high usage of outpatient health services among individuals with a recent history of homelessness, better utilisation of outpatient primary care structures might offer an opportunity to increase vaccine coverage in this population. Our findings underscore the importance of leveraging existing health and service organisations that are accessed and trusted by people who experience homelessness for targeted vaccine delivery. FUNDING: The Public Health Agency of Canada. TRANSLATION: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Vacinas , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
JAMA ; 327(15): 1478-1487, 2022 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323842

RESUMO

Importance: There is limited comparative epidemiological evidence on outcomes associated with COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy; monitoring pregnancy outcomes in large populations is required. Objective: To evaluate peripartum outcomes following COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada, using a birth registry linked with the provincial COVID-19 immunization database. All births between December 14, 2020, and September 30, 2021, were included. Exposures: COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, COVID-19 vaccination after pregnancy, and no vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: Postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery (overall and emergency cesarean delivery), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and low newborn 5-minute Apgar score (<7). Linear and robust Poisson regression was used to generate adjusted risk differences (aRDs) and risk ratios (aRRs), respectively, comparing cumulative incidence of outcomes in those who received COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy with those vaccinated after pregnancy and those with no record of COVID-19 vaccination at any point. Inverse probability of treatment weights were used to adjust for confounding. Results: Among 97 590 individuals (mean [SD] age, 31.9 [4.9] years), 22 660 (23%) received at least 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy (63.6% received dose 1 in the third trimester; 99.8% received an mRNA vaccine). Comparing those vaccinated during vs after pregnancy (n = 44 815), there were no significantly increased risks of postpartum hemorrhage (incidence: 3.0% vs 3.0%; aRD, -0.28 per 100 individuals [95% CI, -0.59 to 0.03]; aRR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.82-1.02]), chorioamnionitis (0.5% vs 0.5%; aRD, -0.04 per 100 individuals [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.09]; aRR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.70-1.21]), cesarean delivery (30.8% vs 32.2%; aRD, -2.73 per 100 individuals [95% CI, -3.59 to -1.88]; aRR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.89-0.95]), NICU admission (11.0% vs 13.3%; aRD, -1.89 per 100 newborns [95% CI, -2.49 to -1.30]; aRR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.80-0.90]), or low Apgar score (1.8% vs 2.0%; aRD, -0.31 per 100 newborns [95% CI, -0.56 to -0.06]; aRR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.73-0.97]). Findings were qualitatively similar when compared with individuals who did not receive COVID-19 vaccination at any point (n = 30 115). Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, compared with vaccination after pregnancy and with no vaccination, was not significantly associated with increased risk of adverse peripartum outcomes. Study interpretation should consider that the vaccinations received during pregnancy were primarily mRNA vaccines administered in the second and third trimester.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Corioamnionite , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Corioamnionite/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Período Periparto , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas
7.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(3): 379-385, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132198

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) are more transmissible and may have the potential for increased disease severity and decreased vaccine effectiveness. We estimated the effectiveness of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty), mRNA-1273 (Moderna Spikevax) and ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca Vaxzevria) vaccines against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalization or death caused by the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2) VOC in Ontario, Canada, using a test-negative design study. We identified 682,071 symptomatic community-dwelling individuals who were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 15,269 individuals with a COVID-19 hospitalization or death. Effectiveness against symptomatic infection ≥7 d after two doses was 89-92% against Alpha, 87% against Beta, 88% against Gamma, 82-89% against Beta/Gamma and 87-95% against Delta across vaccine products. The corresponding estimates ≥14 d after one dose were lower. Effectiveness estimates against hospitalization or death were similar to or higher than against symptomatic infection. Effectiveness against symptomatic infection was generally lower for older adults (≥60 years) than for younger adults (<60 years) for most of the VOC-vaccine combinations. Our findings suggest that jurisdictions facing vaccine supply constraints may benefit from delaying the second dose in younger individuals to more rapidly achieve greater overall population protection; however, older adults would likely benefit most from minimizing the delay in receiving the second dose to achieve adequate protection against VOC.


Assuntos
/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , /administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , /genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Thromb Res ; 211: 114-122, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35149396

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulation may improve outcomes in patients with COVID-19 when started early in the course of illness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study using linked administrative datasets of outpatients aged ≥65 years old testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 between January 1 and December 31, 2020 in Ontario, Canada. The key exposure was anticoagulation with warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants before COVID-19 diagnosis. We calculated propensity scores and used matching weights (MWs) to reduce baseline differences between anticoagulated and non-anticoagulated patients. The primary outcome was a composite of death or hospitalization within 60 days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. We used the Kaplan-Meier method and cumulative incidence functions to estimate risk of the primary and component outcomes at 60 days. RESULTS: We studied 23,159 outpatients (mean age 78.5 years; 13,474 [58.2%] female), among whom 3200 (13.8%) deaths and 3183 (13.7%) hospitalizations occurred within 60 days of the SARS-CoV-2 test. After application of MWs, the 60-day risk of death or hospitalization was 29.2% (95% CI 27.4%-31.2%) for anticoagulated individuals and 32.1% (95% CI 30.7%-33.5%) without anticoagulation (absolute risk difference [ARD], -2.9%; p = 0.005). Anticoagulation was also associated with a lower risk of death: 18.6% (95% CI 17.0%-20.2%) with anticoagulation and 20.9% (95% CI 19.7%-22.2%) in non-anticoagulated patients (ARD -2.3%; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Among outpatients aged ≥65 years, oral anticoagulation at the time of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test was associated with a lower risk of a composite of death or hospitalization within 60 days.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
9.
Lancet Digit Health ; 4(3): e188-e199, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is the result of advanced scarring (or fibrosis) of the liver, and is often diagnosed once decompensation with associated complications has occurred. Current non-invasive tests to detect advanced liver fibrosis have limited performance, with many indeterminate classifications. We aimed to identify patients with advanced liver fibrosis of all-causes using machine learning algorithms (MLAs). METHODS: In this retrospective study of routinely collected laboratory, clinical, and demographic data, we trained six MLAs (support vector machine, random forest classifier, gradient boosting classifier, logistic regression, artificial neural network, and an ensemble of all these algorithms) to detect advanced fibrosis using 1703 liver biopsies from patients seen at the Toronto Liver Clinic (TLC) between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 20, 2014. Performance was validated using five datasets derived from patient data provided by the TLC (n=104 patients with a biopsy sample taken between March 24, 2014, and Dec 31, 2017) and McGill University Health Centre (MUHC; n=404). Patients with decompensated cirrhosis were excluded. Performance was benchmarked against aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS), transient elastography, and an independent panel of five hepatology experts (MB, GS, HK, KP, and RSK). MLA performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the percentage of determinate classifications. FINDINGS: The best MLA was an ensemble algorithm of support vector machine, random forest classifier, gradient boosting classifier, logistic regression, and neural network algorithms, which achieved 100% determinate classifications (95% CI 100·0-100·0), an AUROC score of 0·870 (95% CI 0·797-0·931) on the TLC validation set (fibrosis stages F0 and F1 vs F4), and an AUROC of 0·716 (95% CI 0·664-0·766) on the MUHC validation set (fibrosis stages F0, F1, and F2 vs F3 and F4). The ensemble MLA outperformed all routinely used biomarkers and achieved comparable performance to hepatologists as measured by AUROC and percentage of indeterminate classifications in both the TLC validation dataset (APRI AUROC score 0·719 [95% CI 0·611-0·820], 83·7% determinate [95% CI 76·0-90·4]; FIB-4 AUROC score 0·825 [95% CI 0·730-0·912], 72·1% determinate [95% CI 63·5-80·8]) and the MUHC validation dataset (APRI AUROC score 0·618 [95% CI 0·548-0·691], 75·5% determinate [95% CI 71·5-79·2]; FIB-4 AUROC score 0·717 (95% CI 0·652-0·776), 75·5% determinate [95% CI 0·713-0·797]), and achieving only slightly lower AUROC than transient elastography (0·773 [95% CI 0·699-0·834] vs 0·826 [95% CI 0·758-0·889]). INTERPRETATION: We have shown that an ensemble MLA outperforms non-imaging-based methods in detecting advanced fibrosis across different causes of liver disease. Our MLA was superior to APRI, FIB-4, and NFS with no indeterminate classifications, while achieving performance comparable to an independent panel of experts. MLAs using routinely collected data could identify patients at high-risk of advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis among patients with chronic liver disease, allowing intervention before onset of decompensation. FUNDING: Toronto General Hospital Foundation.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática , Aprendizado de Máquina , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Fibrose , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 73-82, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have examined the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on SARS-CoV-2 transmission worldwide. However, less attention has been devoted to understanding the limits of NPIs across the course of the pandemic and along a continuum of their stringency. In this study, we explore the relationship between the growth of SARS-CoV-2 cases and an NPI stringency index across Canada before the accelerated vaccine roll-out. METHODS: We conducted an ecological time-series study of daily SARS-CoV-2 case growth in Canada from February 2020 to February 2021. Our outcome was a back-projected version of the daily growth ratio in a stringency period (i.e., a 10-point range of the stringency index) relative to the last day of the previous period. We examined the trends in case growth using a linear mixed-effects model accounting for stringency period, province, and mobility in public domains. RESULTS: Case growth declined rapidly by 20-60% and plateaued within the first month of the first wave, irrespective of the starting values of the stringency index. When stringency periods increased, changes in case growth were not immediate and were faster in the first wave than in the second. In the first wave, the largest decreasing trends from our mixed effects model occurred in both early and late stringency periods, depending on the province, at a geometric mean index value of 30⋅1 out of 100. When compared with the first wave, the stringency periods in the second wave possessed little association with case growth. CONCLUSIONS: The minimal association in the first wave, and the lack thereof in the second, is compatible with the hypothesis that NPIs do not, per se, lead to a decline in case growth. Instead, the correlations we observed might be better explained by a combination of underlying behaviors of the populations in each province and the natural dynamics of SARS-CoV-2. Although there exist alternative explanations for the equivocal relationship between NPIs and case growth, the onus of providing evidence shifts to demonstrating how NPIs can consistently have flat association, despite incrementally high stringency.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Rheumatol ; 49(5): 531-536, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine uptake among individuals with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) and the Ontario general population. METHODS: We studied all residents aged ≥ 16 years who were alive and enrolled in the Ontario Health Insurance Plan as of December 14, 2020, when vaccination commenced (n = 12,435,914). Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), psoriasis (PsO), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were identified using established disease-specific case definitions applied to health administrative data. Vaccination status was extracted from the provincial COVaxON registry. Weekly cumulative proportions of first and second doses up until October 3, 2021, were expressed as the vaccinated percentage of each disease group, compared to the general Ontario population, and stratified by age. RESULTS: By October 3, 2021, the cumulative percentage with at least 1 dose was 82.1% for the general population, 88.9% for those with RA, 87.4% for AS, 90.6% for PsA, 87.3% for PsO, and 87.0% for IBD. There was also a higher total cumulative percentage with 2 doses among IMIDs (83.8-88.2%) vs the general population (77.9%). The difference was also evident when stratifying by age. Individuals with IMIDs in the youngest age group initially had earlier uptake than the general population but remain the lowest age group with 2 doses (70.6% in the general population vs. 73.7-79.2% across IMID groups). CONCLUSION: While implementation of COVID-19 vaccination programs has differed globally, these Canadian estimates are the first to reassuringly show higher COVID-19 vaccine uptake among individuals with IMIDs.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica , Artrite Reumatoide , COVID-19 , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Psoríase , Espondilite Anquilosante , Artrite Psoriásica/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia , Vacinação
12.
Hepatology ; 75(3): 673-689, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The global burden of viral hepatitis B is substantial, and monitoring infections across the care cascade is important for elimination efforts. There is little information on care disparities by immigration status, and we aimed to quantify disease burden among immigrant subgroups. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In this population-based, retrospective cohort study, we used linked laboratory and health administrative records to describe the HBV care cascade in five distinct stages: (1) lifetime prevalence; (2) diagnosis; (3) engagement with care; (4) treatment initiation; and (5) treatment continuation. Infections were identified based on at least one reactive antigen or nucleic acid test, and lifetime prevalence was estimated as the sum of diagnosed and estimated undiagnosed cases. Care cascades were compared between long-term residents and immigrant groups, including subgroups born in hepatitis B endemic countries. Stratified analyses and multivariable Poisson regression were used to identify drivers for cascade progression. Between January 1997 and December 2014, 2,014,470 persons were included, 50,475 with infections, of whom 30,118 were engaged with care, 11,450 initiated treatment, and 6554 continued treatment >1 year. Lifetime prevalence was estimated as 163,309 (1.34%) overall, 115,722 (3.42%) among all immigrants, and 50,876 (9.37%) among those from highly endemic countries. Compared to long-term residents, immigrants were more likely to be diagnosed (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 4.55; 95% CI, 4.46, 4.63), engaged with care (aRR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.09), and initiate treatment (aRR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.16). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, immigrants fared well compared to long-term residents along the care cascade, having higher rates of diagnosis and slightly better measures in subsequent cascade stages, although intensified screening efforts and better strategies to facilitate linkage to care are still needed.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B , Programas de Rastreamento , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Can J Public Health ; 113(1): 155-164, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although pertussis vaccines have been widely used for many decades, a burden of illness persists. Resurgences in Ontario, Canada, have not been substantial in the past decade, but an outbreak of pertussis occurred in Toronto between 1 October 2005 and 31 March 2006. Previous Ontario studies found high vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the initial years post-immunization. In order to explore the impact of outbreaks and external factors on VE, we investigated pertussis VE during the period 2006-2008. METHODS: We assessed pertussis VE using a frequency-matched case-control study for the period 1 March 2006 to 31 December 2008. We used logistic regression to estimate VE by age, time since last vaccination, and vaccination status according to the Ontario recommended schedule. We compared analyses including and excluding cases from Toronto, and to two recent Ontario pertussis VE studies. RESULTS: We included 1797 confirmed cases and 7188 matched controls. Most cases were under 4 years of age during the study period. Pertussis VE was 3.8% (95% CI: - 21.0, 24.0) in the period 15-364 days following the last pertussis vaccine dose, and increased with increasing time since vaccination. Pertussis VE in the first 15-364 days excluding Toronto increased to 57.1% (95% CI: 26.0, 75.1), but the trend of increasing VE with time since vaccination persisted. Although VE was higher in older (6-11 years) than younger (0-5 years) children, it was lower at 12-13 years than after 14 years. CONCLUSION: VE was lower in comparison with other studies conducted in Ontario, particularly in younger children. Various factors occurring during the study period may have influenced the results, including clinical testing of asymptomatic contacts, laboratory testing and methods and reporting practice, and a sensitive case definition. Further studies are needed to optimize methods for measuring VE to inform pertussis vaccine policy.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: Bien que les vaccins anticoquelucheux soient couramment utilisés depuis des dizaines d'années, la charge de morbidité de la coqueluche persiste. Sa réapparition en Ontario, au Canada, a été modérée au cours des 10 dernières années, mais une éclosion de coqueluche s'est produite à Toronto entre le 1er octobre 2005 et le 31 mars 2006. Des études antérieures menées en Ontario ont fait état d'une efficacité vaccinale (EV) élevée dans les premières années qui suivent l'immunisation. Pour explorer l'impact des éclosions et des facteurs externes sur l'EV, nous avons étudié l'efficacité des vaccins anticoquelucheux pour la période 2006-2008. MéTHODE: Nous avons évalué l'efficacité des vaccins anticoquelucheux à l'aide d'une étude cas-témoins assortie par fréquence pour la période du 1er mars 2006 au 31 décembre 2008. Nous avons procédé par régression logistique pour estimer l'EV selon l'âge, le temps écoulé depuis la dernière vaccination et le statut vaccinal d'après le calendrier recommandé en Ontario. Nous avons comparé les analyses en incluant et en excluant les cas de Toronto et par rapport à deux récentes études ontariennes sur l'efficacité des vaccins anticoquelucheux. RéSULTATS: Nous avons inclus 1 797 cas confirmés et 7 188 témoins assortis. La plupart des cas avaient moins de 4 ans durant la période de l'étude. L'efficacité des vaccins anticoquelucheux était de 3,8 % (IC de 95 % : -21,0, 24,0) au cours des 15 à 364 jours suivant la dernière dose de vaccin anticoquelucheux et augmentait avec le temps après la vaccination. En excluant Toronto, l'efficacité des vaccins anticoquelucheux au cours des 15 à 364 premiers jours passait à 57,1 % (IC de 95 % : 26,0, 75,1), mais la tendance d'augmentation de l'EV avec le temps après la vaccination était toujours présente. Bien que l'EV ait été supérieure chez les enfants plus vieux (6 à 11 ans) que chez les plus jeunes (0 à 5 ans), elle était plus faible chez les 12-13 ans qu'après 14 ans. CONCLUSION: Nous avons observé une EV plus faible que dans d'autres études menées en Ontario, surtout chez les jeunes enfants. Divers facteurs survenus durant la période de l'étude pourraient en avoir influencé les résultats, dont les tests cliniques menés sur les contacts asymptomatiques, les épreuves et les méthodes de laboratoire, les pratiques de déclaration et l'usage d'une définition de cas sensible. D'autres études sont nécessaires pour optimiser la méthode de mesure de l'EV afin d'éclairer la politique vaccinale contre la coqueluche.

14.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(2): 153-159, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether clinical and/or laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of maternal influenza during pregnancy increases the risk of seizures in early childhood. DESIGN: Analysis of prospectively collected registry data for children born between 2009 and 2013 in three high-income countries. We used Cox regression to estimate country-level adjusted HRs (aHRs); fixed-effects meta-analyses were used to pool adjusted estimates. SETTING: Population-based. PARTICIPANTS: 1 360 629 children born between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in Norway, Australia (New South Wales) and Canada (Ontario). EXPOSURE: Clinical and/or laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of maternal influenza infection during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We extracted data on recorded seizure diagnosis in secondary/specialist healthcare between birth and up to 7 years of age; additional analyses were performed for the specific seizure outcomes 'epilepsy' and 'febrile seizures'. RESULTS: Among 1 360 629 children in the study population, 14 280 (1.0%) were exposed to maternal influenza in utero. Exposed children were at increased risk of seizures (aHR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.28), and also febrile seizures (aHR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.34). There was no strong evidence of an increased risk of epilepsy (aHR 1.07, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.41). Risk estimates for seizures were higher after influenza infection during the second and third trimester than for first trimester. CONCLUSIONS: In this large international study, prenatal exposure to influenza infection was associated with increased risk of childhood seizures.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/virologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Epidemiol ; 65: 84-92, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inequities in the burden of COVID-19 were observed early in Canada and around the world, suggesting economically marginalized communities faced disproportionate risks. However, there has been limited systematic assessment of how heterogeneity in risks has evolved in large urban centers over time. PURPOSE: To address this gap, we quantified the magnitude of risk heterogeneity in Toronto, Ontario from January to November 2020 using a retrospective, population-based observational study using surveillance data. METHODS: We generated epidemic curves by social determinants of health (SDOH) and crude Lorenz curves by neighbourhoods to visualize inequities in the distribution of COVID-19 and estimated Gini coefficients. We examined the correlation between SDOH using Pearson-correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Gini coefficient of cumulative cases by population size was 0.41 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.36-0.47) and estimated for: household income (0.20, 95%CI: 0.14-0.28); visible minority (0.21, 95%CI:0.16-0.28); recent immigration (0.12, 95%CI:0.09-0.16); suitable housing (0.21, 95%CI:0.14-0.30); multigenerational households (0.19, 95%CI:0.15-0.23); and essential workers (0.28, 95%CI:0.23-0.34). CONCLUSIONS: There was rapid epidemiologic transition from higher- to lower-income neighborhoods with Lorenz curve transitioning from below to above the line of equality across SDOH. Moving forward necessitates integrating programs and policies addressing socioeconomic inequities and structural racism into COVID-19 prevention and vaccination programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Geografia , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Qual Life Res ; 31(2): 375-388, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273067

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae infections remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of this review was to summarize the impact of pneumococcal disease on health state utilities (HSU) in the acute phase of illness. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, EconLit, the Health Technology Assessment Database, the National Health Economic Evaluation Database, and Tufts Cost-Effectiveness Registry (up to January 2020) for primary studies. Eligible studies elicited HSU estimates using preference-based instruments for the acute phase of infection of pneumococcal syndromes including acute otitis media, pneumonia/lower respiratory tract infections, bacteremia/sepsis, and meningitis. Two reviewers independently conducted screening, data extraction and quality appraisal. RESULTS: We screened 10,178 studies, of which 26 met our inclusion criteria. Cohort sizes ranged from 8 to 2060 respondents. The most frequently studied syndrome was pneumonia (n = 17), followed by acute otitis media (n = 9), meningitis (n = 7) and bacteremia/sepsis (n = 4). Overall, each syndrome was associated with a substantial impact on HSU. Bacteremia/sepsis (range: - 0.331 to 0.992) and meningitis (range: - 0.330 to 0.977) were generally associated with the lowest HSU, followed by pneumonia (range: - 0.054 to 0.998) and acute otitis media (range: 0.064 to 0.970). HSU estimates varied considerably by treatment setting, elicitation method and type of respondent. The only study to compare pneumococcal infections to non-pneumococcal infections in the same population revealed significantly lower HSU estimates among pneumococcal infections. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal syndromes are associated with decreased HSU estimates. Given the considerable heterogeneity in methods and source populations as well as study quality, care should be taken to select the most appropriate estimates.


Assuntos
Otite Média , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Lactente , Otite Média/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae
17.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111975, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478722

RESUMO

We used a large national cohort in Canada to assess the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke hospitalizations in association with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3). The study population comprised 2.7 million respondents from the 2006 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), followed for incident hospitalizations of AMI or stroke between 2006 and 2016. We estimated 10-year moving average estimates of PM2.5, NO2, and O3, annually. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the associations adjusting for various covariates. For AMI, each interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure was found to be associated with a hazard ratio of 1.026 (95% CI: 1.007-1.046) for PM2.5, 1.025 (95% CI: 1.001-1.050) for NO2, and 1.062 (95% CI: 1.041-1.084) for O3, respectively. Similarly, for stroke, an IQR increase in exposure was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.078 (95% CI: 1.052-1.105) for PM2.5, 0.995 (95% CI: 0.965-1.030) for NO2, and 1.055 (95% CI: 1.028-1.082) for O3, respectively. We found consistent evidence of positive associations between long-term exposures to PM2.5, and O3, and to a lesser degree NO2, with incident AMI and stroke hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infarto do Miocárdio , Ozônio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260809, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine 1-year attributable healthcare costs of bronchiolitis. METHODS: Using a population-based matched cohort and incidence-based cost analysis approach, we identified infants <12 months old diagnosed in an emergency department (ED) or hospitalized with bronchiolitis between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2014. We propensity-score matched infants with and without bronchiolitis on sex, age, income quintile, rurality, co-morbidities, gestational weeks, small-for-gestational-age status and pre-index healthcare cost deciles. We calculated mean attributable 1-year costs using a generalized estimating equation model and stratified costs by age, sex, income quintile, rurality, co-morbidities and prematurity. RESULTS: We identified 58,375 infants with bronchiolitis (mean age 154±95 days, 61.3% males, 4.2% with comorbidities). Total 1-year mean bronchiolitis-attributable costs were $4,313 per patient (95%CI: $4,148-4,477), with $2,847 (95%CI: $2,712-2,982) spent on hospitalizations, $610 (95%CI: $594-627) on physician services, $562 (95%CI: $556-567)] on ED visits, $259 (95%CI: $222-297) on other healthcare costs and $35 ($27-42) on drugs. Attributable bronchiolitis costs were $2,765 (95%CI: $2735-2,794) vs $111 (95%CI: $102-121) in the initial 10 days post index date, $4,695 (95%CI: $4,589-4,800) vs $910 (95%CI: $847-973) in the initial 180 days and $1,158 (95%CI: $1,104-1213) vs $639 (95%CI: $599-679) during days 181-360. Mean 1-year bronchiolitis costs were higher in infants <3 months old [$5,536 (95%CI: $5,216-5,856)], those with co-morbidities [$17,530 (95%CI: $14,683-20,377)] and with low birthweight [$5,509 (95%CI: $4,927-6,091)]. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to no bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis incurs five-time and two-time higher healthcare costs within the initial and subsequent six-months, respectively. Most expenses occur in the initial 10 days and relate to hospitalization.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Bronquiolite/epidemiologia , Bronquiolite/patologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e052019, 2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate background rates of selected thromboembolic and coagulation disorders in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective observational study using linked health administrative databases. Records of hospitalisations and emergency department visits were searched to identify cases using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Canada diagnostic codes. PARTICIPANTS: All Ontario residents. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence rates of ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation and cerebral venous thrombosis during five prepandemic years (2015-2019) and 2020. RESULTS: The average annual population was 14 million with 51% female. The mean annual rates per 100 000 population during 2015-2019 were 127.1 (95% CI 126.2 to 127.9) for ischaemic stroke, 22.0 (95% CI 21.6 to 22.3) for intracerebral haemorrhage, 9.4 (95% CI 9.2 to 9.7) for subarachnoid haemorrhage, 86.8 (95% CI 86.1 to 87.5) for deep vein thrombosis, 63.7 (95% CI 63.1 to 64.3) for pulmonary embolism, 6.1 (95% CI 5.9 to 6.3) for idiopathic thrombocytopaenia, 1.6 (95% CI 1.5 to 1.7) for disseminated intravascular coagulation, and 1.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.6) for cerebral venous thrombosis. Rates were lower in 2020 than during the prepandemic years for ischaemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis and idiopathic thrombocytopaenia. Rates were generally consistent over time, except for pulmonary embolism, which increased from 57.1 to 68.5 per 100 000 between 2015 and 2019. Rates were higher for females than males for subarachnoid haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism and cerebral venous thrombosis, and vice versa for ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage. Rates increased with age for most of these conditions, but idiopathic thrombocytopaenia demonstrated a bimodal distribution with incidence peaks at 0-19 years and ≥60 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimated background rates help contextualise observed events of these potential adverse events of special interest and to detect potential safety signals related to COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , COVID-19 , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada , Embolia Pulmonar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adolescente , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Vaccine ; 39(52): 7545-7553, 2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) burden, evaluated in Canada using reported confirmed cases in surveillance systems, is likely underestimated due to underreporting. We estimated the burden of IPD in Ontario and British Columbia (BC) by combining surveillance data with health administrative databases. METHODS: We established a cohort of 27,525 individuals in Ontario and BC. Laboratory-confirmed IPD cases were identified from Ontario's integrated Public Health Information System and the BC Centre for Disease Control Public Health Laboratory. Possible IPD cases were identified from hospitalization data in both provinces, and from emergency department visit data in Ontario. We estimated the age and sex adjusted annual incidence of IPD and pneumococcal conjugate/polysaccharide vaccine (PCV/PPV) serotype-specific IPD using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: In Ontario, 20,205 overall IPD cases, including 15,299 laboratory-confirmed cases, were identified with relatively stable age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence rates ranging from 13.7/100,000 (2005) to 13.6/100,000 (2018). In BC, 7,320 overall IPD cases, including 5,932 laboratory-confirmed cases were identified; annual incidence rates increased from 10.9/100,000 (2002) to 13.2/100,000 (2018). Older adults aged ≥ 85 years had the highest incidence rates. During 2007-2018 the incidence of PCV7 serotypes and additional PCV13 serotypes decreased while the incidence of unique PPV23 and non-vaccine serotypes increased in both provinces. CONCLUSIONS: IPD continues to cause a substantial public health burden in Canada despite publicly funded pneumococcal vaccination programs, resulting in part from an increase in unique PPV23 and non-vaccine serotypes.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Idoso , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Ontário/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Sorogrupo , Vacinação
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