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1.
Vaccine ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pertussis persists in Manitoba despite the universal availability of pertussis vaccines. Recent cases have included previously vaccinated individuals, raising concerns about declining vaccine effectiveness (VE). We measured pertussis VE and duration of protection using Manitoba's provincial immunization and communicable disease registries. METHODS: Using a nested case-control design, individuals with laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Manitoba diagnosed between April 1, 1992, and March 31, 2015, were matched to up to five population-based controls on age, gender, geography, and case physician or number of physician visits. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate VE against pertussis for both the whole-cell (wP) and acellular (aP) pertussis vaccines. Duration of protection was assessed using time since last dose. RESULTS: Data on 534 eligible cases and 2614 controls were available for analysis. The adjusted VE estimate for aP-containing vaccines was 85% (95%CI: 74-91%); VE was 89% (66-96%) one to three years after the last vaccination. The adjusted VE of wP-containing vaccines was -15% (-91-31%) during a large outbreak in 1994 and 1995 compared to 35% (-26-66%) during non-outbreak years. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates suggest that the aP vaccine was effective in preventing pertussis since its introduction in Manitoba. VE was lower during a large outbreak, highlighting the importance of separately analyzing outbreak periods when estimating pertussis VE over time.

3.
Vaccine ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza causes significant annual morbidity and mortality, particularly in older adults, for whom influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is also lower. Immunizing one group (e.g., children) against influenza may indirectly protect another group (e.g., older adults) against influenza and its complications. METHODS: We updated previous systematic reviews on indirect protection against influenza by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE for relevant human studies published until January 4, 2017. We abstracted and critically appraised English language publications that reported or provided information to calculate indirect VE against influenza, as a percentage, in non-institutional settings. We developed a term called 'estimated actual protection' to explore the relationship between indirect protection and the product of direct VE and relative vaccine coverage. We calculated estimated actual protection for a subset of studies that reported coverage and indirect VE for: laboratory-confirmed influenza; outpatient care for respiratory illness; influenza-associated emergency visits; or influenza-associated hospitalizations. We ran linear mixed models to compare estimated actual protection against indirect VE for the four outcomes, and graphed the data. RESULTS: Of 2320 unique records identified, we abstracted and appraised 26 articles describing 24 studies. The majority of included studies reported at least one outcome suggesting that immunizing one group reduced influenza-related outcomes in another group. Critical appraisal of the abstracted studies identified recurring methodological weaknesses, such as lack of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Our exploratory analyses of 18 studies indicated a positive but not statistically significant relationship between estimated actual protection and indirect protection for each of the four outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review and exploratory analyses suggest influenza immunization provides some level of indirect protection. However, our critical appraisal highlights the need for a standardized and consistently applied approach to measuring indirect protection against influenza to fill existing knowledge gaps. Additionally, the concept of estimated actual protection requires validation.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029708, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575570

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The appropriateness of using routinely collected laboratory data combined with administrative data for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is still being explored. This paper outlines a protocol to estimate influenza VE using linked laboratory and administrative data which could act as a companion to estimates derived from other methods. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use the test-negative design to estimate VE for each influenza type/subtype and season. Province-wide individual-level records of positive and negative influenza tests at the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health in Alberta will be linked, by unique personal health numbers, to administrative databases and vaccination records held at the Ministry of Health in Alberta to determine covariates and influenza vaccination status, respectively. Covariates of interests include age, sex, immunocompromising chronic conditions and healthcare setting. Cases will be defined based on an individual's first positive influenza test during the season, and potential controls will be defined based on an individual's first negative influenza test during the season. One control for each case will be randomly selected based on the week the specimen was collected. We will estimate VE using multivariable logistic regression. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Alberta's Health Research Ethics Board-Health Panel under study ID Pro00075997. Results will be disseminated by public health officials in Alberta.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annual influenza immunization is recommended for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by all major COPD clinical practice guidelines. We sought to determine the seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations among older adults with COPD. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative study of influenza VE in community-dwelling older adults with COPD in Ontario, Canada using health administrative data and respiratory specimens collected from patients tested for influenza during the 2010-11 to 2015-16 influenza seasons. Influenza vaccination was ascertained from physician and pharmacist billing claims. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of influenza vaccination in people with, compared to those without, laboratory-confirmed influenza. RESULTS: Receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine was associated with an adjusted 22% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15%-27%) reduction in laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalization. Adjustment for potential misclassification of vaccination status increased this to 43% (95% CI, 35%-52%). Vaccine effectiveness was not found to vary by patient- or influenza-related variables. CONCLUSIONS: During the studied influenza seasons, influenza vaccination was at least modestly effective in reducing laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations in people with COPD. The imperfect effectiveness emphasizes the need for better influenza vaccines and other preventive strategies.

6.
Environ Int ; 132: 105004, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387019

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, but the associations with incidence of major cardiovascular diseases are not fully understood, especially at low concentrations. We aimed to investigate the associations between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), redox-weighted average of NO2 and O3 (Ox) and incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our study population included all long-term residents aged 35-85 years who lived in Ontario, Canada, from 2001 to 2015 (~5.1 million). Incidence of CHF and AMI were ascertained from validated registries. We assigned estimates of annual concentrations of pollutants to the residential postal codes of subjects for each year during follow-up. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for each pollutant separately using Cox proportional hazards models. We examined the shape of concentration-response associations using shape-constrained health impact functions. From 2001 to 2015, there were 422,625 and 197,628 incident cases of CHF and AMI, respectively. In the fully adjusted analyses, the HRs of CHF corresponding to each interquartile range increase in exposure were 1.05 (95% CI: 1.04-1.05) for PM2.5, 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.04) for NO2, 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.03) for O3, and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.02-1.03) for Ox, respectively. Similarly, exposure to PM2.5, O3, and Ox were positively associated with AMI. The concentration-response relationships were different for individual pollutant and outcome combinations (e.g., for PM2.5 the relationship was supralinear with CHF, and linear with AMI).

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(30): 2795-2804, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465264

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for patients with cancer despite concerns of disease or treatment-associated immunosuppression. The objective of this study was to evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza for patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational test-negative design study of previously diagnosed patients with cancer 18 years of age and older who underwent influenza testing during the 2010-2011 to 2015-2016 influenza seasons in Ontario, Canada. We linked individual-level cancer registry, respiratory virus testing, and health administrative data to identify the study population and outcomes. Vaccination status was determined from physician and pharmacist billing claims. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate VE, adjusting for age, sex, rurality, income quintile, cancer characteristics, chemotherapy exposure, comorbidities, previous health care use, influenza season, and calendar time. RESULTS: We identified 26,463 patients with cancer who underwent influenza testing, with 4,320 test-positive cases (16%) and 11,783 (45%) vaccinated. Mean age was 70 years, 52% were male, mean time since diagnosis was 6 years, 69% had solid tumor malignancies, and 23% received active chemotherapy. VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza was 21% (95% CI, 15% to 26%), and VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization was 20% (95% CI, 13% to 26%). For patients with solid tumor malignancies, VE was 25% (95% CI, 18% to 31%), compared with 8% (95% CI, -5% to 19%) for patients with hematologic malignancies (P = .015). Active chemotherapy usage did not significantly affect VE, especially among patients with solid tumor cancer. CONCLUSION: Our results support recommendations for influenza vaccination for patients with cancer. VE was decreased for patients with hematologic malignancies, and there was no significant difference in VE among patients with solid tumor cancer receiving active chemotherapy. Strategies to optimize influenza prevention among patients with cancer are warranted.

8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87009, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although growing evidence links air pollution to stroke incidence, less is known about the effect of air pollution on atrial fibrillation (AF), an important risk factor for stroke. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the associations between air pollution and incidence of AF and stroke. We also sought to characterize the shape of pollutant-disease relationships. METHODS: The population-based cohort comprised 5,071,956 Ontario residents, age 35­85 y and without the diagnoses of both outcomes on 1 April 2001 and was followed up until 31 March 2015. AF and stroke cases were ascertained using health administrative databases with validated algorithms. Based on annual residential postal codes, we assigned 5-y running average concentrations of fine particulate matter ([Formula: see text]), nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), and ozone ([Formula: see text]) from satellite-derived data, a land-use regression model, and a fusion-based method, respectively, as well as redox-weighted averages of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) for each year. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of AF and stroke with each of these pollutants, adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level variables. We used newly developed nonlinear risk models to characterize the shape of pollutant­disease relationships. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2015, we identified 313,157 incident cases of AF and 122,545 cases of stroke. Interquartile range increments of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] were associated with increases in the incidence of AF [HRs (95% CIs): 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), 1.02 (1.01, 1.03), 1.01 (1.00, 1.02), and 1.01 (1.01, 1.02), respectively] and the incidence of stroke [HRs (95% CIs): 1.05 (1.03, 1.07), 1.04 (1.01, 1.06), 1.05 (1.03, 1.06), and 1.05 (1.04, 1.06), respectively]. Associations of similar magnitude were found in various sensitivity analyses. Furthermore, we found a near-linear association for stroke with [Formula: see text], whereas [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]-, and [Formula: see text] relationships exhibited sublinear shapes. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution was associated with stroke and AF onset, even at very low concentrations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4883.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a link between air pollution and dementia. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be a potential determinant of dementia. This motivated us to quantify the contribution of CVD to the association between air pollution and dementia. METHODS: A cohort of Canadian-born residents of Ontario, who participated in the 1996-2003 Canadian Community Health Surveys, was followed through 2013 or until dementia diagnosis. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was estimated with a 3-year average and 5-year lag before dementia diagnosis. Incident CVD was evaluated as a mediator. We used multi-level Cox proportional and Aalen additive hazard regression models, adjusting for individual- and neighbourhood-level risk factors to estimate associations with NO2 and PM2.5. We estimated the total, direct and indirect effects of air pollution on dementia through cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: This study included 34 391 older adults. At baseline, the mean age of this cohort was 59 years. The risk of dementia was moderately higher among those more exposed to NO2 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.19; and 100 additional cases per 100 000 [standard error (SE) <100x10-5]) and PM2.5 [(HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.99-1.64; 200 additional cases per 100 000] [SE 100x10-5]) after adjusting for covariates; however, these estimates are imprecise. A greater proportion of the relationship between PM2.5 and dementia was mediated through CVD than NO2 for both scales. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest some of the association between air pollution and dementia is mediated through CVD, indicating that improving cardiovascular health may prevent dementia in areas with higher exposure to air pollution.

10.
BMJ ; 366: l4151, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether any association exists between exposure to 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccination during pregnancy and negative health outcomes in early childhood. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Population based birth registry linked with health administrative databases in the province of Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All live births from November 2009 through October 2010 (n=104 249) were included, and children were followed until 5 years of age to ascertain study outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of immune related (infectious diseases, asthma), non-immune related (neoplasms, sensory disorders), and non-specific morbidity outcomes (urgent or inpatient health services use, pediatric complex chronic conditions) were evaluated from birth to 5 years of age; under-5 childhood mortality was also assessed. Propensity score weighting was used to adjust hazard ratios, incidence rate ratios, and risk ratios for potential confounding. RESULTS: Of 104 249 live births, 31 295 (30%) were exposed to pH1N1 influenza vaccination in utero. No significant associations were found with upper or lower respiratory infections, otitis media, any infectious diseases, neoplasms, sensory disorders, urgent and inpatient health services use, pediatric complex chronic conditions, or mortality. A weak association was observed between prenatal pH1N1 vaccination and increased risk of asthma (adjusted hazard ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.09) and decreased rates of gastrointestinal infections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.94, 0.91 to 0.98). These results were unchanged in sensitivity analyses accounting for any potential differential healthcare seeking behavior or access between exposure groups. CONCLUSIONS: No associations were observed between exposure to pH1N1 influenza vaccine during pregnancy and most five year pediatric health outcomes. Residual confounding may explain the small associations observed with increased asthma and reduced gastrointestinal infections. These outcomes should be assessed in future studies.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecção/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304979

RESUMO

Lung and female breast cancers are highly prevalent worldwide. Although the association between exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and lung cancer has been recognized, there is less evidence for associations with other common air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and ozone (O3 ). Even less is known about potential associations between these pollutants and breast cancer. We conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate the associations of chronic exposure to PM2.5 , NO2 , O3 and redox-weighted average of NO2 and O3 (Ox ) with incident lung and breast cancer, using the Ontario Population Health and Environment Cohort (ONPHEC), which includes all long-term residents aged 35-85 years who lived in Ontario, Canada, 2001-2015. Incident lung and breast cancers were ascertained using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Annual estimates of exposures were assigned to the residential postal codes of subjects for each year during follow-up. We used Cox proportional-hazards models adjusting for personal- and neighborhood-level covariates. Our cohorts for lung and breast cancer analyses included ~4.9 million individuals and ~2.5 million women, respectively. During follow-up, 100,146 incident cases of lung cancer and 91,146 incident cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. The fully adjusted analyses showed positive associations of lung cancer incidence with PM2.5 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02 [95% CI: 1.01-1.05] per 5.3 µg/m3 ) and NO2 (HR = 1.05 [95% CI: 1.03-1.07] per 14 ppb). No associations with lung cancer were observed for O3 or Ox . Relationships between PM2.5 and NO2 with lung cancer exhibited a sublinear shape. We did not find compelling evidence linking air pollution to breast cancer.

12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(7)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215507

RESUMO

Surveys suggest that clinicians diverge from guidelines when treating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease (PD). To determine prescribing patterns, we conducted a cohort study of adults >66 years of age in Ontario, Canada, with MAC or Mycobacterium xenopi PD during 2001-2013. Using linked laboratory and health administrative databases, we studied the first treatment episode (>60 continuous days of >1 of a macrolide, ethambutol, rifamycin, fluoroquinolone, linezolid, inhaled amikacin, or, for M. xenopi, isoniazid). Treatment was prescribed for 24% MAC and 15% of M. xenopi PD patients. Most commonly prescribed was the recommended combination of macrolide, ethambutol, and rifamycin, for 47% of MAC and 36% of M. xenopi PD patients. Among MAC PD patients, 20% received macrolide monotherapy and 33% received regimens associated with emergent macrolide resistance. Although the most commonly prescribed regimen was guidelines-recommended, many regimens prescribed for MAC PD were associated with emergent macrolide resistance.

13.
Vaccine ; 37(31): 4392-4400, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linking data on laboratory specimens collected during clinical practice with health administrative data permits highly powered vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies to be conducted at relatively low cost, but bias from using convenience samples is a concern. We evaluated the validity of using such data for estimating VE. METHODS: We created the Flu and Other Respiratory Viruses Research (FOREVER) Cohort by linking individual-level data on respiratory virus laboratory tests, hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and physician services. For community-dwelling adults aged > 65 years, we assessed the presence and magnitude of information and selection biases, generated VE estimates under various conditions, and compared our VE estimates with those from other studies. RESULTS: We included 65,648 unique testing episodes obtained from 54,434 individuals during the 2010-11 to 2015-16 influenza seasons. To examine information bias, we found the proportion testing positive for influenza for patients with unknown interval from illness onset to specimen collection was more similar to patients for whom illness onset date was ≤ 7 days before specimen collection than to patients for whom illness onset was > 7 days before specimen collection. To assess the presence of selection bias, we found the likelihood of influenza testing was comparable between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, although the adjusted odds ratios were significantly greater than 1 for some healthcare settings and during some influenza seasons. Over 6 seasons, VE estimates ranged between 36% (95%CI, 27-44%) in 2010-11 and 5% (95%CI, -2, 11%) in 2014-15. VE estimates were similar under a range of conditions, but were consistently higher when accounting for misclassification of vaccination status through a quantitative sensitivity analysis. VE estimates from the FOREVER Cohort were comparable to those from other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Routinely collected laboratory and health administrative data contained in the FOREVER Cohort can be used to estimate influenza VE in community-dwelling older adults.

14.
Vaccine ; 37(30): 4140-4146, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pertussis is still frequently reported in Canada. In Alberta, pertussis incidence ranged from 1.8 to 20.5 cases per 100,000 persons for 2004-2015. Most cases occurred in those aged <15 years. In Alberta, acellular formulations replaced whole-cell in 1997. We investigated pertussis vaccine effectiveness (VE) using a test-negative design (TND) study. METHODS: We included all persons who had a real-time PCR laboratory test for Bordetella pertussis between January 1, 2010 and August 31, 2015, in the province of Alberta, Canada. Vaccination history was obtained from Alberta's immunization repository. Vaccination status was classified as complete, incomplete, or unvaccinated, based on the province's vaccination schedule. Persons who had received ≥one dose of whole cell vaccine were excluded from analysis. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for pertussis infection by time since last vaccination. We adjusted for vaccination status, age, sex, neighbourhood income, urban/rural status, and the presence of a co-morbid condition. VE was calculated as [(1 - aOR) * 100]. RESULTS: Of the 12,149 tests available, 936 (7.7%) were positive for Bordetella pertussis. Among the full cohort, VE was 90% (95% CI 87-92%) at 1 year, 81% (95% CI 77-85%) at 1-3 years, 76% (95% CI 68-82%) at 4-7 years, and 37% (95% CI 11-56%) at 8 or more years since a last dose of acellular pertussis vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Pertussis VE was highest in the first year after vaccination, then declined noticeably as years since a last vaccination increased. Our results suggest that a large number of adolescents and adults are susceptible to infection with Bordetella pertussis. Regular boosters throughout childhood, adolescence, and during pregnancy may be needed.

15.
Vaccine ; 37(19): 2617-2623, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resurgences of pertussis have occurred in several high-income countries, often linked to waning of immunity from acellular pertussis vaccines. The degree of waning observed has varied by study design and setting. In Ontario, pertussis has not shown a substantial resurgence in the past decade. The routine immunization schedule comprises three priming doses in infancy, toddler and pre-school doses, and an adolescent dose at 14-16 years of age. METHODS: We estimated pertussis vaccine effectiveness (VE) through a case-control study of 1335 cases statutorily reported to public health in Ontario and occurring between January 1, 2009 and March 31, 2015, compared with 5340 randomly selected population controls, frequency-matched by age, primary-care provider and year of diagnosis. Pertussis cases met provincial confirmed or probable case definitions. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). RESULTS: VE against pertussis was sustained between 92% (95% confidence interval (95%CI) 88-95%) in 2-3 year olds and 90% (95%CI: 80-95%) in 8-9 year olds, but fell rapidly to 49% (95%CI: 2-73%) in children 12-13 years of age. VE following the teenage booster given at 14-16 years in Ontario reached 76% (95%CI: 52-88%) in 14-16 year olds and 78% (95%CI: -31 to 96%) in those 16-22 years old. For children who were up-to-date with the immunization schedule, VE declined from 87% (95%CI: 84-90%) during the first year to 74% (95%CI: 63-82%) after 8 or more years following their last dose of immunization. CONCLUSIONS: VE is high during the first decade of life but then falls rapidly. Protection is not fully restored by the teenage booster. Our findings are consistent with the localized outbreaks we observe in high school children and underline the importance of additional policies to protect infants.

16.
CMAJ ; 191(11): E313, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885970
17.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(4): 362-369, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory illnesses are a major contributor to pediatric hospitalizations, with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causing substantial morbidity and cost each season. We compared the characteristics and outcomes of children 0-59 months of age who were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza or RSV between 2009 and 2014 in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We included hospitalized children who were tested for influenza A, influenza B and RSV and were positive for a single virus. We characterized individuals by their demographics and healthcare utilization patterns and compared their hospital outcomes, in-hospital cost and postdischarge healthcare use by virus type and by presence of underlying comorbidities. RESULTS: We identified and analyzed 7659 hospitalizations during which a specimen tested positive for influenza or RSV. Children with RSV were the youngest whereas children with influenza B were the oldest [median ages 6 months (interquartile range: 2-17 months) and 25 months (interquartile range: 10-45 months), respectively]. Complex chronic conditions were more prevalent among children with all influenza (sub)types than RSV (31%-34% versus 20%). In-hospital outcomes were similar by virus type, but in children with comorbidities, postdischarge outcomes varied. We observed no differences in in-hospital cost between viruses or by presence of comorbidities [overall median cost: $4150 Canadian dollars (interquartile range: $3710-$4948)]. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza and RSV account for large numbers of pediatric hospitalizations. RSV and influenza were similar in terms of severity and cost in hospitalized children. Influenza vaccination should be promoted in pregnant women and young children, and a vaccine against RSV would mitigate the high burden of RSV.

19.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 46(2): 184-191, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed trends in the incidence, prevalence, and post-diagnosis mortality of parkinsonism in Ontario, Canada over 18 years. We also explored the influence of a range of risk factors for brain health on the trend of incident parkinsonism. METHODS: We established an open cohort by linking population-based health administrative databases from 1996 to 2014 in Ontario. The study population comprised residents aged 20-100 years with an incident diagnosis of parkinsonism ascertained using a validated algorithm. We calculated age- and sex-standardized incidence, prevalence, and mortality of parkinsonism, stratified by young onset (20-39 years) and mid/late onset (≥40 years). We assessed trends in incidence using Poisson regression, mortality using negative binomial regression, and prevalence of parkinsonism and pre-existing conditions (e.g., head injury) using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. To better understand trends in the incidence of mid/late-onset parkinsonism, we adjusted for various pre-existing conditions in the Poisson regression model. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2014, we identified 73,129 incident cases of parkinsonism (source population of ∼10.5 million), of whom 56% were male, mean age at diagnosis was 72.6 years, and 99% had mid/late-onset parkinsonism. Over 18 years, the age- and sex-standardized incidence decreased by 13.0% for mid/late-onset parkinsonism but remained unchanged for young-onset parkinsonism. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence increased by 22.8%, while post-diagnosis mortality decreased by 5.5%. Adjustment for pre-existing conditions did not appreciably explain the declining incidence of mid/late-onset parkinsonism. CONCLUSION: Young-onset and mid/late-onset parkinsonism exhibited differing trends in incidence over 18 years in Ontario. Further research to identify other factors that may appreciably explain trends in incident parkinsonism is warranted.

20.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 9, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflicting results regarding the impact of repeated vaccination on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) may cause confusion regarding the benefits of receiving the current season's vaccine. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature from database inception to August 17, 2016, for observational studies published in English that reported VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza for the following four vaccination groups: current season only, prior season only, both seasons, and neither season. We pooled differences in VE (∆VE) between vaccination groups by influenza season and type/subtype using a random-effects model. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42016037241). RESULTS: We identified 3435 unique articles, reviewed the full text of 634, and included 20 for meta-analysis. Compared to prior season vaccination only, vaccination in both seasons was associated with greater protection against influenza H1N1 (∆VE = 25%; 95% CI 14%, 35%) and B (∆VE = 18%; 95% CI 3%, 33%), but not H3N2 (∆VE = 7%; 95% CI - 7%, 21%). Compared to no vaccination for either season, individuals who received the current season's vaccine had greater protection against H1N1 (∆VE = 62%; 95% CI 51%, 70%), H3N2 (∆VE = 45%; 95% CI 35%, 53%), and B (∆VE = 64%; 95% CI 57%, 71%). We observed no differences in VE between vaccination in both seasons and the current season only for H1N1 (∆VE = 3%; 95% CI - 8%, 13%), but less protection against influenza H3N2 (∆VE = - 20%; 95% CI - 36%, - 4%), and B (∆VE = - 11%; 95% CI - 20%, - 2%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support current season vaccination regardless of prior season vaccination because VE for vaccination in the current season only is higher compared to no vaccination in either season for all types/subtypes, and for H1N1 and influenza B, vaccination in both seasons provides better VE than vaccination in the prior season only. Although VE was lower against H3N2 and B for individuals vaccinated in both seasons compared to those vaccinated in the current season only, it should be noted that past vaccination history cannot be altered and this comparison disregards susceptibility to influenza during the prior season among those vaccinated in the current season only. In addition, our results for H3N2 were particularly influenced by the 2014-2015 influenza season and the impact of repeated vaccination for all types/subtypes may vary from season to season. It is important that future VE studies include vaccination history over multiple seasons to evaluate repeated vaccination in more detail.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
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