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1.
Cureus ; 11(11): e6054, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819837

RESUMO

A quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is an exceedingly rare congenital heart anomaly with around 200 cases reported in the literature since the first case was reported in 1862. To the best of our knowledge, there has not been any case of QAV associated with pregnancy. We report a case of a 29-year-old female with new-onset palpitations, diagnosed with QAV and mild aortic regurgitation during pregnancy. The patient presented with new-onset intermittent palpitations at the 37th week of pregnancy. Electrocardiogram (EKG) showed normal sinus rhythm, and transthoracic echocardiography revealed a quadricuspid aortic valve with three equal-sized cusps and one smaller cusp and mild aortic regurgitation without any additional anomalies. QAV morphology falls under the category type b Hurwitz & Roberts classification. She underwent normal vaginal delivery without any peripartum cardiac complications. In conclusion, QAV is a rare congenital anomaly. It is not uncommon to be associated with aortopathies. The presence of QAV and associated anomalies in pregnancy makes it a high-risk state. Close monitoring, especially during the second and third trimesters, remain of utmost importance. Because of its rarity, the characteristics, natural history, and long-term outcomes of QAV are poorly defined.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the feasibility, safety, and the acute outcome of primary retrograde tibio pedal approach (TPA) in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with femoropopliteal (FP) chronic total occlusion (CTO). BACKGROUND: With maturing in endovascular technology and further development in new devices, endovascular therapy has become a comparable and preferred treatment for patients with PAD. The retrograde TPA has not been studied to treat FP CTO extensively. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 98 consecutive patients who underwent peripheral angiogram and intervention of 123 FP CTO lesions from June 1st, 2016 to June 30th, 2018 in a single center. Peripheral angiography and percutaneous balloon angioplasty was done primarily via retrograde TPA. Demographic data, procedural success rate, peri-procedural major adverse complications, and 30-day outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Out of 123 procedures, the dorsalis pedis artery/distal anterior tibial artery was the most common TPA site (59%) followed by the posterior tibial artery in 27% patients and peroneal artery in 14% patients. In 40 (33%) FP CTO lesions, additional transradial accesses were needed for controlled antegrade and retrograde tracking (CART) technique. Overall procedural success was achieved in 122 FP CTO (99%) lesions. No patients had significant access site bleeding, hematoma, worsening kidney dysfunction or acute limb ischemia within 30-day following this procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The primary retrograde TPA for FP CTO lesions is safe and feasible. With a combination of tibio pedal and transradial approach, our procedural success rate is very high for FP CTO intervention.

3.
Cureus ; 11(1): e3910, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915267

RESUMO

Background Despite advanced diagnosis and treatment, infective endocarditis (IE) is a potentially life-threatening condition. Although recent studies have provided evidence of changing trends in IE epidemiology, few studies examine patterns within urban minority populations. Here we present the epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes of IE among an underserved African American population in Brooklyn, New York, compared to the general population. Methods This is a retrospective study which included 67 patients with IE diagnosed at The Brooklyn Hospital Center from 2009 to 2015. Patients were selected according to the modified Duke Criteria for definite IE. Various epidemiological parameters were examined via chi-square and Fisher's exact test using SPSS 24 software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Results The mean age of the 67 patients was 63 years and 46.3% of the patients were men. The majority of patients (70.1%) were African American while Hispanics and Caucasians were 17.9% and 7.5%, respectively. Healthcare-associated IE (58.2%, n=39) outnumbered community-acquired IE (41.8%, n=28). The sites of vegetation were the mitral valve (62.7%, n=42), tricuspid valve (22.4%, n=15), aortic valve (11.9%, n=8), and intravenous catheter (3%, n=2). In valves, 13.4% of the cases were found in prosthetic valves while the majority occurred in native valves. The most common pathogens of IE were the Staphylococcus (50.8%, n=34) species, followed by Streptococcus species (32.8%, n=22). Overall, the in-hospital mortality was 38.8% (n=26) with higher mortality observed for healthcare-associated IE than community-acquired IE (P = .049). Embolic complications were associated with significant mortality (P < .001). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the common causative pathogens for IE among African Americans trends towards Staphylococcus species followed by Streptococcus species, similar to the contemporary epidemiology of IE. Healthcare-associated IE outnumbered community-acquired IE and was associated with higher mortality. Embolic complications were significantly associated with high mortality. Therefore, efforts made to control healthcare-associated infections are expected to decrease the trend of IE.

4.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 94(5): 651-657, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the feasibility, safety, and the potential benefit of faster hemostasis with the distal transradial artery access (TRA). BACKGROUND: TRA has been shown to be associated with lower bleeding and vascular complications. Limited data are available regarding the new technique of accessing the distal radial artery in the anatomical snuffbox. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 202 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography and intervention with distal TRA. Two hundred and six conventional TRA cases were collected as a comparison arm. RESULTS: Out of 408 patients, successful distal radial access was obtained in 99.5% (201/202) in the distal TRA cases and 99.0% (204/206) in the conventional TRA cases. The rate of access site crossover was 2.0% (4/202) for distal TRA. Right distal radial artery was accessed in 176 cases (87.6%). Mean access time from local anesthesia to radial flush was 7.3 min. Ninety cases (44.8%) were percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) and the mean heparin dose used was 4,448 units (6,009 units for PCI and 3,182 units for diagnostic catheterization). Mean time to remove TR band was 104.7 min (120.8 min for PCI and 91.7 min for diagnostics). Follow-up ultrasound study showed two partial occlusions (1.0%) and one arteriovenous fistula (0.5%) that resolved with prolonged TR band inflation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite longer time to access the distal radial artery in the anatomical snuffbox, it is a safe and feasible alternative to conventional TRA and might result in shorter time to hemostasis especially in cases of PCI.

5.
Am J Med Sci ; 355(6): 610-613, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891045

RESUMO

Thrombus in the heart is known to be one of the many sequelae of anterior wall myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation and coagulation disorders. However, biventricular thrombi are relatively rarely found, even in conditions with a high possibility of thrombus formation. We report the case of a 75-year-old-woman with newly diagnosed systolic heart failure secondary to a nonischemic cardiomyopathy, who was found to have large biventricular thrombi. Further coagulopathy work-up revealed that she was heterozygous for the prothrombin 20210G/A and homozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T mutations. We, herein, review and discuss previous case reports and published literature regarding ventricular thrombosis and its treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of biventricular thrombosis with prothrombin 20210G/A and MTHFR 677C/T mutations.


Assuntos
Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Mutação , Protrombina/genética , Trombose/genética , Idoso , Coagulação Sanguínea , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Hospitalização , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Sístole , Trombose/metabolismo
6.
Cureus ; 10(4): e2469, 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900089

RESUMO

Infective endocarditis (IE) secondary to Staphylococcus lugdunensis has been increasingly recognized since 1988. IE-related thromboembolism represents an associated complication of the disease and carries a dismal prognosis. However, the incidence of cerebrovascular accident secondary to S. lugdunensis IE is relatively uncommon and its treatment has not been clearly elucidated yet. We performed an extensive literature search using Pubmed, Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify the articles using the following keywords: 'Staphylococcus lugdunensis', 'infective endocarditis', 'stroke', and 'cerebrovascular accident.' Patient characteristics, risk factors, severity of neurological deficit, echocardiographic findings, medical management, required surgical intervention, complications and mortality rate were reviewed in detail. Eighteen cases (mean age of 47.8 years, 55% male) from 17 publications with S. lugdunensis-related cerebrovascular accident (CVA) were identified. Of these, 16 (87%) cases were left-sided endocarditis and 10 (61%) cases experienced right-sided neurological deficit. The source of infection was documented in eight cases (50%) in which four cases (50%) were related to groin-related procedures and the mitral valve (52.5%) was mostly infected followed by aortic valve (37%). Surgical valve replacement was done in 61% of patients and overall mortality rate was 22%. S. lugdunensis endocarditis is associated with high mortality and morbidity, including a higher prevalence of CVA. Early disease identification with aggressive intervention is crucial for better outcomes.

7.
Cureus ; 10(2): e2155, 2018 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29637036

RESUMO

We present the case of a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy caused by a novel mutation in the lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) gene. Patients with pathogenic mutations of this gene typically suffer from Danon disease - a condition that leads to cognitive decline, severe skeletal myopathy, and severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Our patient's presentation and clinical course, however, is different and much less severe than other patients with this disease. He did not suffer from neurologic and musculoskeletal complications. He is also possibly the longest-known survivor of this disease without a heart transplant. This disease is unfamiliar to many physicians, and our case highlights the importance of an awareness of this disorder, particularly because of its implications for both the patient and his family.

8.
Cureus ; 10(1): e2080, 2018 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560293

RESUMO

Despite advancements in diagnostic tools, physical signs such as xanthelasmata, arcus corneae, facial wrinkles, and gray hair are useful indicators of underlying diseases. The presence of bilateral diagonal earlobe creases (DELCs), also known as Frank's sign, correlates with a myriad of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. The use of Frank's sign as a bedside predictor of underlying coronary artery disease is controversial among clinicians. We report a case of a patient with bilateral DELCs found to have significant coronary artery disease during diagnostic coronary angiography for recurrent chest pain.

9.
Ochsner J ; 17(4): 421-425, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230129

RESUMO

Background: Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy that has been established as one of the many paraneoplastic phenomena. Cardiac involvement can occur with dermatomyositis but has rarely been reported in the literature because symptoms are usually subclinical. Case Report: A 72-year-old female presented with generalized weakness for 1 month after a recent diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Her weakness was attributed to a myopathic process that was identified as dermatomyositis after muscle biopsy. Laboratory tests revealed persistently elevated cardiac troponin I despite the absence of cardiac symptoms and a subsequent negative ischemic workup. After administration of intravenous steroids and treatment of the underlying renal cell carcinoma, the patient's cardiac enzymes normalized, suggesting a paraneoplastic etiology of her cardiac manifestations. Conclusion: Cardiac involvement as a paraneoplastic process is a rare entity and can present with elevated troponin as shown in our case. Its underlying mechanism has not been clearly elucidated, but this case may shed some light on a new or unknown myocardial manifestation related to malignancy.

11.
Ochsner J ; 17(2): 184-188, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), has been recognized as a causal organism for infective endocarditis since the 1980s. Although most CoNS have an insidious and chronic nature, they are involved in a variety of systemic infections. S lugdunensis infective endocarditis is a rare entity but is as catastrophic as Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis and requires aggressive antibiotic therapy and, typically, valve replacement. S lugdunensis infective endocarditis-induced septic embolic cerebrovascular accident has rarely been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 63-year-old African American man who presented with sudden-onset aphasia and right-sided hemiplegia and was admitted for the management of cerebrovascular accident. Afterwards, he developed a fever and was found to have S lugdunensis bacteremia, with subsequent imaging revealing vegetations of the mitral valve. Despite being treated with culture-appropriate antibiotics, he remained persistently bacteremic and required surgical mitral valve replacement. CONCLUSION: S lugdunensis infective endocarditis is rare but can have a malignant course and requires early surgical intervention in most cases.

12.
Ochsner J ; 17(2): 208-212, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common presenting symptom in the emergency department (ED). Although the diagnostic workup for chest pain is well established, the best time to perform invasive cardiac catheterization in patients with low to moderate risk of coronary artery disease is still unclear, particularly if noninvasive tests such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) and nuclear myocardial perfusion scan show nonsignificant findings. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 52-year-old female who presented to the ED with acute-onset chest pain that had started early in the morning while she was sleeping. She had presented to the ED 2 weeks prior with chest pain, but her ECG and transthoracic echocardiogram were normal, and her myocardial perfusion scan revealed no significant perfusion defect, so she was discharged. During her second ED visit, the patient developed an arrhythmia, diagnosed as supraventricular tachycardia, that was rapidly converted to sinus rhythm with one dose of intravenous adenosine. Because of her persistent chest pain and the arrhythmia, she underwent cardiac catheterization that revealed coronary artery disease with 80% middle left anterior descending artery stenosis. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed, and the patient's symptoms resolved. CONCLUSION: Chest pain evaluation is challenging for ED physicians, hospitalists, and cardiologists. Although the nuclear myocardial perfusion scan has excellent sensitivity and specificity in ischemic detection, the clinical examination remains the primary determinant of further management.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27406453

RESUMO

Chest pain is a very common symptom and can be of cardiac or non-cardiac origin. It accounts for approximately 5.5 million annual emergency room visits in the United States, according to 2011 CDC data. Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer (PAU), an uncommon condition, is also a potential cause of chest pain. We here report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with atypical chest and back pain. The pain persisted for 4 weeks necessitating two emergency room visits. Initial tests were non-significant including cardiac troponins, an electrocardiogram (EKG), and a chest X-ray on her first visit. Upon her second visit, she underwent a computed tomography angiogram of chest with contrast which revealed a PAU with an intramural hematoma in descending aorta. The PAU was finally diagnosed with an exclusion of other chest pain causes. She was treated non-surgically with a blood pressure control strategy and pain management. After a 2-month period of smoking cessation and following the achievement of a controlled blood pressure, she felt well without chest pain.

14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20162016 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26851254

RESUMO

Madelung's disease is a neglected metabolic disease characterised by generalised multiple fatty tissue deposits. A 64-year-old Caucasian woman presented with generalised weakness and symptomatic hypoglycaemia with altered mental status. Physical examination showed very distinct physical characteristics with multiple lumps distributed over the upper body. Her neurological symptoms were solved by giving intravenous glucose and optimisation of medical treatment. Even though she had unique characteristics of Madelung's disease, many physicians, on several occasions, failed to recognise her 'hidden diagnosis'. This diagnostic uncertainty was able to be solved by searching the Internet for similar clinical features and images. This case demonstrates characteristics and unique features of a rare disease that can be seen in a female patient even though it is mostly found in males.


Assuntos
Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla/diagnóstico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla/complicações , Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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