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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618845

RESUMO

The study determined the frequency of dry eye, its clinical subtypes and risk factors among pregnant women. This study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of the University of Cape Coast hospital. Clinical dry eye tests were performed along with the administration of a symptom questionnaire. Frequencies, chi-square analysis and logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the frequency of dry eye disease, its clinical subtypes and associated factors. The prevalence of dry eye disease among the cohort of pregnant women was 82/201 (40.8% 95% confidence interval 34.3%-47.3%). Among the 82 pregnant women with dry eye disease, the frequencies of the clinical subtypes of dry eye were: evaporative dry eye [15/82(18.3%; 95% CI, 12.2%-25.2%)], aqueous deficient dry eye [10/82(12.2.%; 95% CI, 7.3%-18.3)], mixed dry eye [6/82(7.3%; 95% CI, 3.7%-11.0%)], and unclassified dry eye [51/82(62.2%; 95% CI, 52.4%-72.0%)]. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were not significantly associated with dry eye: age, BMI, lipid profile, prolactin level, testosterone level, ocular protection index and blink rate. Only gestational age was significantly associated with dry eye disease in pregnancy. In conclusion, the current study showed that dry eye disease occurs frequently in pregnant women ranging from the first to the third trimester and it is associated with increasing gestational age. The evaporative dry eye was more common compared to the aqueous deficient dry eye, but most dry eye could not be classified.

2.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(1): 445-456, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394327

RESUMO

Background: Reduced visual function is associated with diminished quality of life as well as decreased physical and mental health. Poor visual function related to cataracts is also a risk factor for falls and traffic accidents, which may lead to hospital admissions and limit independence. Objective: To evaluate patients' satisfaction, visual functions and spectacle independence among patients in the Central Region of Ghana who had cataract surgery in one eye. Methods: A hospital-based prospective cohort study was carried out on 146 patients booked for cataract surgery: 16 were lost through follow-ups whilst 130 completed the study. Visual functions including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis and colour vision were assessed before and after a month of cataract surgery. Objective and subjective refractions were performed to determine the post-surgery refractive status of the participants. Participants completed the NEI-VFQ 25 questionnaire and the scores obtained were used as a construct of their satisfaction. Results: The NEI-VFQ 25 questionnaire scores indicated patients' satisfaction was high with an average quality of life score of 77.46. Patients satisfaction was strongly correlated with contrast sensitivity (r=0.653, p<0.001) but moderately correlated with visual acuity (r=-0.554, p<0.001), stereopsis (r=0.490, p<0.001) and colour vision (r=0.466, p<0.001). Contrast sensitivity was a better predictor of patients' satisfaction than visual acuity and stereopsis. Spectacle independence at distance was achieved in only 44.6% of the participants and 5.4% at near. There was a significant (p>0.001) association between spectacle independence and the two types of cataract surgery performed which included Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) and Extracapsular Cataract Extraction (ECCE). Among those who were spectacle independent, 53.4% of them were low vision patients. Conclusion: Satisfaction of patients after cataract surgery was high but was greatly influenced by visual functions with contrast sensitivity being a better predictor of satisfaction than visual acuity and stereopsis. Spectacle independence after cataract surgery was low at distance and extremely low at near. The type of cataract surgery performed influenced thespectacle independence.

3.
Health Serv Insights ; 14: 11786329211033248, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408432

RESUMO

Health education is key in the prevention of Ophthalmia Neonatorum (ON). However, health education in relation to eye care in Ghana is very low. To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of mothers on Ophthalmia Neonatorum (eye infection in newborns), a descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted, using a standardised interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data. Using a consecutive sampling technique, we enrolled 407 mothers to participate in the study. The overall KAPs of the study participants were assessed using the sum score of each outcome based on Bloom's cut-off point. Completed data was then analysed using descriptive statistics with SPSS version 22.0 at the level of P < .05. Out of the 407 participants, 321 (78.9%) had not heard about Ophthalmia Neonatorum with nearly 93% having low levels of knowledge on the neonatal infection. We found a significant association between formal education (P = .001), skilled occupation (P = .008) and a high level of knowledge on Ophthalmia Neonatorum. The study highlights the need to find improved and alternative methods of educating mothers on Ophthalmia Neonatorum in the bid to reduce blindness attributed to the condition.

4.
J Ophthalmol ; 2021: 8661098, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336260

RESUMO

Purpose: We investigated the effect of age and sex on corneal touch threshold (CTT) and duration of action following administration of 0.5% topical ophthalmic proparacaine and tetracaine hydrochlorides. Methods: A prospective, randomized, subject-masked, crossover study design was used. Two hundred and forty human volunteers were enrolled in the study. Corneal touch threshold (CTT) was determined using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. CTT was measured every 15 seconds for the first 1-minute and at 5-minute intervals subsequently for a period of 40 minutes after the application of each anesthetic. CTT and duration of action of the ophthalmic solutions were tested for statistical significance using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: The total duration of effect was 20 minutes for females and 25 minutes for males for both anesthetics. The total duration of the effect of both solutions decreased with increasing age; however, elderly participants had the longest duration (5 minutes) of the maximal effect (minimum CTT) of the two ophthalmic preparations. There was a significant influence of sex, F (2.39, 569.65) = 2.86, p=0.04; F (3.48, 828.19) = 4.41, p=0.003, and age, F (4.78, 566.18) = 8.97, p < 0.001; F (7.19, 852.56) = 20.55, p < 0.001 on CTT following application of proparacaine hydrochloride and tetracaine hydrochloride, respectively. Conclusion: CTT and duration of anesthetic effect after instillation of 1 drop of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride and 0.5% tetracaine hydrochloride vary based on sex and age.

5.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 15-20, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422229

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients living with glaucoma and receiving care in a tertiary eye center in Zimbabwe. Method: A hospital-based retrospective study of clinical records of glaucoma patients from January 2014 to December 2018. The study involved collating demographic information of patients, visual acuities, (VA) intraocular pressure, (IOP), cup-to-disc ratios, (CDRs), average retinal nerve fibers thickness, (RNFL), cup volume, cup-to-disc area, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, (VCDR), rim area, disc area, glaucoma hemifield test, visual field indices and the management of glaucoma. Results: Nine thousand one hundred and eighty-five (9,185) folders were retrieved. Out of these, 432 (4.7%) qualified for the study and were analyzed. There were 267 (61.8%) males and 165 (38.2%) females. The mean age (± Standard deviation, SD) of the patients was 62.66 ± 15.94 years, (range 10 - 110 years). The means visual acuity (VA): OD =1.30 ± 1.06 Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution, (logMAR), OS = 1.33 ± 1.06 logMAR; IOP: OD = 29.51 ± 12.89 mmHg, OS: 29.17 ± 12.59 mmHg; CDRs: OD = 0.91 ± 0.14 D, OS = 0.92 ± 0.14 D; and the average RNFL thickness was 72.76 ± 18.26 µm and 71.24 ± 23.17 µm in the right and left eye respectively. The mainstay of treatment was medication only. Conclusion: There were more males than females receiving glaucoma care at the tertiary level. Glaucoma cases included juveniles but the mean age was mostly the elderly. It was characterized by high IOPs, large CDRs, and thin RNFL suggestive of late presentation.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Glaucoma/terapia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Retina/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
6.
Eye Contact Lens ; 47(11): 598-603, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224447

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and its associated factors among pregnant women. METHODS: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study of consecutive pregnant women visiting the University of Cape Coast hospital's antenatal clinic. Meibomian gland assessment and tear function test were performed along with the administration of a symptom questionnaire. Correlation, analysis of variance, and logistic regression analyses were used to examine predictors of MGD. RESULTS: All 201 pregnant women who met the inclusion criteria and gave informed consent were included in the study. The mean age of the entire sample was 29.96 (±4.74) years. The frequency of MGD among the cohort of pregnant women was 22.9% (95% confidence interval, 17.4%-28.9%). Univariate logistic regression revealed that the following factors were significantly associated with MGD: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (odds ratio [OR] 1.017; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.034; P=0.042), total cholesterol (TC) (OR 1.009; 95% CI, 1.003-1.016; P=0.006), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (OR 1.008; 95% CI, 1.00-1.016; P=0.049). In multivariate analysis, the model confirmed that MGD was not significantly associated with TC, LDL, and HDL. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study showed a high frequency of MGD in pregnant women but comparable with that reported in the normal population. Clinicians examining pregnant women for dry eye disease may need to pay attention to other causative instigators aside MGD to enable the clinicians to make an appropriate etiology-based diagnosis.

7.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 8: 2333794X211019700, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104699

RESUMO

In developing countries such as Ghana, ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) remains a public health concern. This is because of its unknown etiology patterns, the growing concerns of antibiotic resistance strains and the contribution of ON to childhood blindness. This study was therefore conducted to determine the causative agents, risk factors and the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of micro-organisms associated with ON. A clinic-based prospective study was conducted in the Maternal and Child Health units of 6 health care facilities in the Central region of Ghana over a period of 17 months. Conjunctival swabs were taken from all neonates with clinical signs of ON. Isolation and characterization of bacteria were done using standard microbiological methods. Additionally, data were collected and analyzed on neonate's demographics and clinical features of ON. Microbial growth was recorded in 86 cases (52.4%) out of the 110 neonates assessed. Staphylococcus spp. (39.2% of all positive cultures) was the most common causative organism. No case of gonococcus was isolated. Delivery method, vaginal discharge, administration of prophylaxis and weight of neonate were the risk factors associated with the development of ON (P < .05). The level of resistance to Tetracycline was found to be 73%. Neonatal conjunctivitis is more likely to be acquired postnatal. Culture and sensitivity testing are required as an important guide for treatment. The commonest causative organism, Staphylococcus spp., were found to be resistant to Teteracyline, therefore is the need to consider alternatives measures in the prevention and control of ON.

8.
Sci Afr ; 12: e00766, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997540

RESUMO

This study investigated the infection prevention and control measures adopted by eye care practitioners in Ghana and South Africa during the lockdown phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used to investigate infection prevention and control measures by eye care practitioners in Ghana (n = 189) and South Africa (n = 92) during the extended lockdown phase (01 April-30 June 2020) by both countries, immediately following the WHO declaration of COVI9-19 as a pandemic. Participants from both countries included Ophthalmologists, Optometrists, Ophthalmic nurses, and Opticians who were invited via email and social media platforms to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed practitioners' general knowledge on the COVID-19, viral exposure, infection prevention and control measures adopted during eye examinations. The majority of the practitioners from Ghana 140 (74%) and 43 (47%) South Africa reported COVID-19 screening at their facilities before the commencement of eye examinations. Few practitioners 77 (41%) and 9 (10)% from Ghana and South Africa, respectively had received any form of training (seminars and workshops) in COVID-19 infection prevention and control measures. Practitioners frequently practiced hand washing - Ghana (125, 66%), South Africa (70, 76%) -, wearing of nose masks - Ghana 126 (67%), South Africa 51 (55%), alcohol-rub on equipment - Ghana 115 (61%), South Africa 45(49%) as a means of sterilizing the hand and equipment against COVID-19 during close contact examinations. The majority of practitioners from the two countries adhered to basic safety protocols despite receiving no additional training on COVID-19 infection prevention. Maintenance of universal safety precautions in eye care facilities is key to preventing nosocomial infections.

9.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-7, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683981

RESUMO

Purpose: This study evaluates in a cross-section of pregnant women the frequency of posterior blepharitis, its predisposing factors and how lipid profile impacts the occurrence of posterior blepharitis in pregnancy.Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study of pregnant women.Results: In this study, 201 pregnant women were recruited and included in the study's analysis. The participants' mean age was 29.96 (±4.74) years, with a median age of 30 and a range of 17 to 40 years. The frequency of posterior blepharitis among this cohort was 13.4% (95% confidence interval, 9.0% to 18.4%). The frequencies of MGD-associated posterior blepharitis and non-MGD associated posterior blepharitis were 6.0% and 7.4%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean fluorescein tear breakup time and SPEED scores between non-MGD associated posterior blepharitis and MGD-associated posterior blepharitis, however, the mean tear breakup time(t = 3.999, p < .001) and SPEED scores (t = 6.76, p < .0001) showed a statistically significant difference in posterior blepharitis pregnant women compared to non-posterior blepharitis pregnant women. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean corneal staining scores between non-MGD-associated posterior blepharitis and MGD-associated posterior blepharitis (t = 3.99, p = .001). There was no association between lipid profile and posterior blepharitis in binary logistic regression analysisConclusion: The study showed that posterior blepharitis occurs in pregnancy, but it is not associated with cholesterol levels.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245486, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449975

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical profile of patients living with glaucoma and receiving care in a tertiary eye center in Ghana. This was a hospital-based retrospective study of clinical records of glaucoma patients from January 2010 to December 2019. The study involved collating demographic information of patients, clinical presentation, and the management of glaucoma. A total of nineteen thousand (19,000) charts were retrieved from the eye center's archives. Out of these, 660 (3.5%) records of patients qualified for the study and were analyzed. There were 398 (60.3%) males and 262 (39.7%) females. Their ages ranged from 9 to 86 years (mean age = 47.30; SD ± 16.86 years). The averages of ocular parameters of 1,320 eyes (660 patients) were visual acuity = 0.26 ± 0.55 logMAR; intraocular pressure: 17.31 ± 6.11 mmHg; cup-to-disc ratios: 0.67 ± 0.17 D; and the average retinal nerve fibers thickness was 95.03 ± 21.74 µm. The mainstay of treatment was the sole use of medication. Males were the major group receiving glaucoma care at the tertiary level. Glaucoma cases included juveniles but the mean age suggests most were of adult-onset. Socio-demographic characteristics affected the diagnosis and management of glaucoma among patients receiving care at a referral center. Public health, stakeholders, and policymakers' interventions can help identify individuals with glaucoma.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int Ophthalmol ; 41(3): 981-990, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the structure-function association of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) indices (retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), ganglion cell complex (GCC) and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters) with the visual field sensitivity and their diagnostic ability at different stages of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) among a population West-African descent. METHODS: The study was a clinic-based prospective study which employed purposive sampling in the recruitment of clinically diagnosed POAG and non-glaucoma patients. OCT and visual field test (VFT) results were collated. Classification of the POAG cases was done using the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson criteria. ROC was used for assessing the diagnostic ability of OCT indices. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the structure-function association. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Of the 497 subjects (497 eyes), 301 (60.6%) were males and 196 (39.4%) were females. The average, superior and inferior RNFL and GCC showed a strong positive correlation with the visual field sensitivity, but the average RNFL had the highest correlation (r = 0.673, p < 0.001). The parameters of the ONH showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with the visual field sensitivity. However, there was no significant correlation between structure and function in early POAG (p > 0.05). Superior GCC showed the highest diagnostic ability for POAG (AUC = 0.655; p < 0.001) comparable to the RNFL. Macula (GCC) and (RNFL) have a comparable ability to diagnose POAG at all the stages of POAG and can be used complimentarily for glaucoma assessment and diagnosis.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Masculino , Fibras Nervosas , Estudos Prospectivos , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
12.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis ; 37(11): C27-C32, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175728

RESUMO

Laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF), combined with multivariate techniques, has been used to discriminate a cataractous lens from healthy lens tissues. In this study, 405 nm and 445 nm were used as excitation sources to induce the autofluorescence. Results show higher autofluorescence intensity in cataractous lens tissues than in healthy ones. Cataractous lens tissues show a red shift of 0.9 nm and 1.2 nm at 405 nm and 445 nm excitations, respectively. Using principal component analysis (PCA), three principal components (PCs) gave more than 99% variability for both 405 nm and 445 nm excitation sources. Based on the three PCs, Fisher's linear discriminant model was developed. An accuracy of 100% was obtained in classifying the lens tissues using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA). The LIAF technique assisted by PCA and FLDA may be used for objective discrimination of cataractous lens from healthy lens tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats.

13.
J Ophthalmol ; 2020: 1491602, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908678

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the relationship between serum prolactin, testosterone level, and tear film parameters. The potential impact of these hormones on the health of the ocular surface in pregnant women was evaluated. Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study in which ocular symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI)), tear function (fluorescein tear breakup time, Schirmer's test 1), corneal and conjunctival staining, meibomian gland (MG) expressibility, and quality of secretion were measured. Lid margin findings including lid notching, thickness, and lid margin telangiectasia were also recorded. Venous blood was collected and the serum concentrations of prolactin and testosterone were determined using ELISA kits. Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine predictors of dry eye symptoms and signs. Results: A total of 160 pregnant women participated in the study and their mean age was 30.1 ± 4.6 years (range 18-42 years). The correlation analysis indicated that testosterone concentration did not significantly correlate with any of the clinical parameters hence it was not included in the linear regression analysis. However, prolactin serum concentration correlated significantly with Schirmer's test 1. Multiple linear regression was done to predict participants' Schirmer's test 1 score based upon their ocular surface staining score (oxford grading scale), meibomian gland expressibility, meibomian secretion quality, and serum concentration of prolactin. Only predictors that significantly correlated with Schirmer's test 1 in the correlation analysis were included in the linear regression analysis. A significant regression equation was obtained (F (2, 157) = 5.119, p=0.007) with an R square of 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that concentration of prolactin (ß coefficient = 0.032, p=0.044) and meibomian gland expressibility scores (ß coefficient = 2.14, p=0.016) were associated with Schirmer's test 1 scores when adjusted for duration of pregnancy. Conclusion: The study showed that increased serum prolactin levels have a weak but positive impact on Schirmer's test 1 scores whilst serum testosterone level has no association with the clinical parameters of dry eye in pregnant women.

14.
J Ophthalmol ; 2020: 7150673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104596

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine normative values of retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and their association with routine clinical tests such as refractive error (RE), stereoacuity (SA), and contrast sensitivity (CS) in an African population. Methods: In a cross-sectional observational study, 100 normal subjects aged 20 to 78 years were evaluated using the Cirrus HD-OCT 5000 and matched with 200 glaucoma patients. Results: Average (±SD) RNFL thickness for normal subjects was found to be 102.37 ± 7.45 (range, 82-119 microns) compared with 90.74 ± 14.50 found for glaucoma subjects. Females had higher average RNFL values (104.84 ± 6.90) compared with males (99.80 ± 7.18). Significant associations were calculated between quadrant RNFL thickness and SA, SE, and CS (all p < 0.05). The mean cup to disc ratio (CDR) was 0.49 ± 0.12, and mean optic disc area (DA) was 2.08 mm2 ± 0.40. Smaller DA was recorded for participants aged 60+ years (1.86 ± 0.25), followed by 40-59 age group (2.01 ± 0.41) and then 20-39 age group (2.19 ± 0.41). Significant associations were calculated between SA and ONH parameters, except rim area (all p < 0.05). The mean cup to disc ratio (CDR) was 0.49 ± 0.12, and mean optic disc area (DA) was 2.08 mm2 ± 0.40. Smaller DA was recorded for participants aged 60+ years (1.86 ± 0.25), followed by 40-59 age group (2.01 ± 0.41) and then 20-39 age group (2.19 ± 0.41). Significant associations were calculated between SA and ONH parameters, except rim area (all p < 0.05). The mean cup to disc ratio (CDR) was 0.49 ± 0.12, and mean optic disc area (DA) was 2.08 mm2 ± 0.40. Smaller DA was recorded for participants aged 60+ years (1.86 ± 0.25), followed by 40-59 age group (2.01 ± 0.41) and then 20-39 age group (2.19 ± 0.41). Significant associations were calculated between SA and ONH parameters, except rim area (all. Conclusion: RNFL thickness in healthy black Ghanaian population was significantly higher than that reported in other races. The values and associations reported in this study can inform clinical decision on the normal variation in RNFL and optic disc parameters.

15.
Niger Med J ; 61(6): 323-327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888929

RESUMO

Objectives: The objective of the study was to explore the usage of the Goldmann applanation tonometry and noncontact tonometry interchangeably in the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients. Materials and Methods: The study involved 441 clinically diagnosed glaucoma patients receiving care at a referral facility. IOP measurements were obtained using both the Noncontact tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometer The repeatability of the measures was analyzed by comparing the repeated measures of the devices using paired t-test and calculating the correlation coefficient. A Bland-Altman analysis was used to determine the limits of agreement between the two procedures. Results: There were 271 (61.5%) males and 170 (38.5%) females and their age ranged from 18 to 73 years (mean age = 49.37; standard deviation ± 14.81 years). The findings of the study showed significantly lower readings (P < 0.001) of the GAT (right eye = 17.40 ± 7.48 mmHg; left eye = 16.80 ± 7.49 mmHg) compared to the NCT (right eye = 20.15 ± 8.30 mmHg; left eye = 19.74 ± 8.31 mmHg). There was a strong positive correlation between the GAT and NCT findings in the right eye (r = 0.871, n = 441, P < 0.001) and in the left eye (r = 0.887, n = 441, P < 0.001). There was a wide limit of agreement between NCT and GAT measurements. Conclusion: There was statistically significant higher measures obtained with NCT than the GAT but did not exceed the allowable inter-device difference. There was a strong positive correlation between GAT and NCT measurements. However, it is strongly recommended that these devices are not used interchangeably in the monitoring of IOP in glaucoma due to the wide range of limits of agreement.

16.
J Curr Ophthalmol ; 32(4): 402-407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553844

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in a rural population of Zimbabwe. Methods: This community-based, cross-sectional study used a multi-stage sampling to select the participants from households in four communities within three rural districts in Mashonaland Central Province. Participants' demographic data were collated, and their presenting visual acuity (VA) was measured using the logMAR E chart. Clinical refraction was preceded by an anterior segment and posterior segment eye examinations. Visual impairment was defined as presenting VA worse than 6/12 (0.3 logMAR) in the better eye. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequencies. Results: A total of 519 participants were involved in this study. Their ages ranged from 5 to 100 years (mean age = 50.94; standard deviation ± 21.12 years). Out of the 519 participants, 233 (44.9%) were male, and 286 (55.1%) were female. The prevalence of visual impairment was 56.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55.7-67.2), and blindness was 13.1% (95% CI: 11.2-17.6). The prevalence of near visual impairment based on presenting near VA (N = 408) was 78.6% (95% CI: 78.1-85.4). The two most common causes of visual impairment were uncorrected refractive errors (UREs) (54.2%) and cataract (24.8%). The most common cause of blindness was cataract (41.2%). Hypermetropia (56.9%) was the most common refractive error. Conclusions: A high burden of visual impairment due to UREs and cataracts was observed among the rural dwellers of Zimbabwe. Public health education, access to refractive error services, and cataract surgery are necessary to mitigate this high burden of visual impairment.

17.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(1): 515-523, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402940

RESUMO

Purpose: Microbial contamination of orthodox ophthalmic preparations poses a serious threat to the user by causing ocular infections. There is no such information about unorthodox ophthalmic preparations in a medical pluralistic system such as Ghana. The aim of this study was to assess unorthodox ophthalmic medications on the Ghanaian market for possible microbial contaminations. Methods: Unorthodox ophthalmic preparations were collected across different herbal and homeopathic outlets in Ghana. A total of 27 samples were collected from the ten (10) regions in Ghana. The samples were inoculated in different culture media (Plate count Agar, Blood Agar, MacConkey Agar, Saboraud Dextrose Agar). The microorganisms isolated were identified using standard microbiological procedures and antimicrobial susceptibility was done to determine whether they were resistant or susceptible strains. Results: All the samples were contaminated with bacteria and the majority were contaminated with fungus. A total of forty-eight bacteria spp. was isolated thus seven different types namely: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilli spp., Serrati spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella spp. and Shigella spp. with Staphylococcus aureus being the predominant bacteria. For fungi, a total of eleven fungi species thus four different types namely: Cephalosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Cercosporium spp. and Clasdosporium spp. with the predominant fungi being Penicillium spp. Per the class of preparations, 15 contaminants were isolated from ten (10) anti-inflammatory preparations. The fungi were all susceptible to both Ketoconazole and Fluconazole but the bacteria were resistant to all the conventional antibiotics except Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin. Conclusion: Unorthodox ophthalmic preparations found on the Ghanaian market are contaminated with bacteria and fungi of clinical importance.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Úlcera da Córnea/microbiologia , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Infecções Oculares/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Ceratite/microbiologia , Soluções Oftálmicas/normas , Antibacterianos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas , Gana , Humanos
18.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 30(6): 999-1004, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883845

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to determine whether Central Corneal Thickness (CCT) is associated with intraocular pressure measurement (IOP) with a Non-contact tonometer and the Goldmann applanation tonometer in glaucoma patients. Materials and Methods: The study involved two hundred and thirty-two eyes of clinically diagnosed glaucoma patients receiving care at a referral facility. IOP measurements were obtained using both the Non-Contact Tonometer (NCT) and Goldmann Applanation Tonometer (GAT). The association between age, ethnicity, and CCT, as well as CCT on the measures of NCT and GAT, were analyzed. Results: There were 64(55.2%) males and 52 (44.8%) females and their ages ranged from 18 to 85 years (mean age = 47.72; SD ± 15.75 years). There was a weak positive correlation between the CCT and NCT findings in the right eye (r = 0.19, n = 116, p < 0.05) and in the left eye (r = 0.25, n = 116, p < 0.05). However, there was no correlation between CCT and GAT measurements. Age had a significant correlation with CCT while gender and ethnicity had no significant correlation. Conclusion: The study found a significant association between CCT and NCT. However, there was no significant association between CCT and GAT. CCT had an association with age but independent of gender and ethnicity since there was no significant relationship between these variables.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Pressão Intraocular , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Córnea , Feminino , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tonometria Ocular , Adulto Jovem
19.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 12(4): 263-271, oct.-dic. 2019. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-188256

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the microbial contaminants and its clinical importance in topical diagnostic ophthalmic medications (cycloplegics/mydriatics and miotics) in eye clinics in Ghana. Method: A cross-section of eye clinics was sampled for the diagnostic agents (Atropine, Phenylephrine, Tropicamide and Cyclopentolate, Pilocarpine). Standard laboratory procedures and protocols were observed in culturing the samples on different Agars. Microscopy and various biochemical tests were performed to identify microbial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was also performed to ascertain the clinical importance of the isolated microbes. RESULTS: A total of 113 samples were obtained, from which 334 bacteria were isolated which included Bacilli spp. 91(27.25%), Coagulase Negative Staphylococci spp. 59(17.66%), Moraxella spp. 47(14.07%), Staphylococcus aureus 41(12.27%), Streptococcus spp. 21(6.29%), Klebsiella spp. 20(5.99%), Pseudomonas spp. 13(3.89%), Proteus spp. 12(3.59%), Escherichia coli. 12 (3.59%), Serratia spp. 10(2.99%), Shigella spp. 7(2.09%), Salmonella spp. 1(0.3%). There were 96 isolated fungal contaminants mainly Penicillium spp. 41(42.71%), Cephalosporium spp. 19(19.79%), Cladosporium spp. 15(15.63%), Aspergillus spp. 13(13.54%), Cercospora spp. 8(8.33%). The diagnostic agent with the most bacteria contamination was Phenylephrine 90 (26.95%) and the least being Pilocarpine 49 (14.67%). Also, the diagnostic agent with the most fungal contamination was Cyclopentolate 29 (30.2%) and the least was Tropicamide and Pilocarpine with 15 (15.63%) each. Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin were the only antibiotics that showed 100% activity against all the bacterial isolates. Fungal contaminants were more susceptible to Ketoconazole as compared to Fluconazole. Conclusion: Topical diagnostic ophthalmic preparations used in clinical settings in Ghana are contaminated with clinically important bacteria and fungi


OBJETIVO: Determinar los contaminantes microbianos y su importancia clínica en los fármacos oftálmicos diagnósticos tópicos (ciclopléjicos/midriáticos y mióticos) en clínicas oftalmológicas de Gana. MÉTODO: Se realizó una muestra transversal de clínicas oftalmológicas para los agentes diagnósticos (Atropina, Fenilefrina, Tropicamida y Ciclopentolato, Pilocarpina). Se observaron procedimientos y protocolos de laboratorio estándar en cuanto al cultivo de muestras en diferentes soluciones de Agar. Se realizaron diversas pruebas microscópicas y bioquímicas para identificar las especies microbianas. También se realizó la prueba de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana para comprobar la importancia clínica de los microbios aislados. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron un total de 113 muestras, de las cuales se aislaron 334 bacterias que incluyeron Bacilli spp. 91(27,25%), Staphylococci spp. Coagulasa negativos 59(17,66%), Moraxella spp. 47(14,07%), Staphylococcus aureus 41(12,27%), Streptococcus spp. 21(6,29%), Klebsiella spp. 20(5,99%), Pseudomonas spp. 13(3,89%), Proteus spp. 12(3,59%), Escherichia coli. 12(3,59%), Serratia spp. 10(2,99%), Shigella spp. 7(2,09%), Salmonella spp. 1(0,3%). Se encontraron 96 contaminantes fúngicos aislados, principalmente Penicillium spp. 41 (42,71%), Cephalosporium spp. 19 (19,79%), Cladosporium spp. 15 (15,63%), Aspergillus spp. 13 (13,54%), Cercospora spp. 8 (8,33%). El agente diagnóstico con mayor contaminación bacteriana fue Fenilefrina 90(26,95%), siendo Pilocarpina 49 (14,67%) el que reflejó una menor contaminación bacteriana. De igual modo, el agente diagnóstico con mayor contaminación fúngica fue Ciclopentolato 29 (30,2%), siendo Tropicamida y Pilocarpina, con 15 (15.63%) cada uno, los que reflejaron menos contaminación fúngica. Gentamicina y Ciprofloxacina fueron los únicos antibióticos que reflejaron un 100% de actividad frente a todos los aislados bacterianos. Los contaminantes fúngicos fueron más susceptibles a Ketoconazol, en comparación con Fluconazol. CONCLUSIÓN: Los preparados oftálmicos diagnósticos tópicos en entornos clínicos en Gana están contaminados por bacterias y hongos clínicamente importantes


Assuntos
Humanos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mióticos/análise , Midriáticos/análise , Administração Oftálmica , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Estudos Transversais , Gana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Soluções Oftálmicas
20.
J Optom ; 12(4): 263-271, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473175

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the microbial contaminants and its clinical importance in topical diagnostic ophthalmic medications (cycloplegics/mydriatics and miotics) in eye clinics in Ghana. METHOD: A cross-section of eye clinics was sampled for the diagnostic agents (Atropine, Phenylephrine, Tropicamide and Cyclopentolate, Pilocarpine). Standard laboratory procedures and protocols were observed in culturing the samples on different Agars. Microscopy and various biochemical tests were performed to identify microbial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was also performed to ascertain the clinical importance of the isolated microbes. RESULTS: A total of 113 samples were obtained, from which 334 bacteria were isolated which included Bacilli spp. 91(27.25%), Coagulase Negative Staphylococci spp. 59(17.66%), Moraxella spp. 47(14.07%), Staphylococcus aureus 41(12.27%), Streptococcus spp. 21(6.29%), Klebsiella spp. 20(5.99%), Pseudomonas spp. 13(3.89%), Proteus spp. 12(3.59%), Escherichia coli. 12 (3.59%), Serratia spp. 10(2.99%), Shigella spp. 7(2.09%), Salmonella spp. 1(0.3%). There were 96 isolated fungal contaminants mainly Penicillium spp. 41(42.71%), Cephalosporium spp. 19(19.79%), Cladosporium spp. 15(15.63%), Aspergillus spp. 13(13.54%), Cercospora spp. 8(8.33%). The diagnostic agent with the most bacteria contamination was Phenylephrine 90 (26.95%) and the least being Pilocarpine 49 (14.67%). Also, the diagnostic agent with the most fungal contamination was Cyclopentolate 29 (30.2%) and the least was Tropicamide and Pilocarpine with 15 (15.63%) each. Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin were the only antibiotics that showed 100% activity against all the bacterial isolates. Fungal contaminants were more susceptible to Ketoconazole as compared to Fluconazole. CONCLUSION: Topical diagnostic ophthalmic preparations used in clinical settings in Ghana are contaminated with clinically important bacteria and fungi.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Mióticos/análise , Midriáticos/análise , Administração Oftálmica , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Estudos Transversais , Gana , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Soluções Oftálmicas/análise
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