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1.
Blood ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649760

RESUMO

Hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (hTTP) is a rare thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by severe congenital ADAMTS13 deficiency and recurring acute episodes causing morbidity and premature death. Information on the annual incidence and severity of acute episodes in hTTP patients is largely lacking. This study reports prospective data of 87 patients from the Hereditary TTP Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01257269) for survival, frequency and severity of acute episodes from enrollment until December 2019. The 87 patients, followed for median 4.2 years (range 0.01-15), had a median age at overt disease onset and at clinical diagnosis of 4.6 years and of 18 years (range 0.0-70 for both), respectively. Forty-three patients received regular plasma prophylaxis, while 22 did not, and treatment changed over time or was unknown in the remaining 22. Forty-three patients experienced 131 acute episodes of which 91 (69%) occurred in patients on regular prophylaxis. This resulted in an annual incidence of acute episodes of 0.36 (95%CI 0.29-0.44) with and of 0.41 (95%CI 0.30-0.56) without regular plasma treatment. More than one third of acute episodes (n=51) were documented in children <10 years of age at enrollment and were often triggered by infections. Their annual incidence of acute episodes was significantly higher than in patients >40 years of age (1.18 [95% CI 0.88-1.55] vs. 0.14 [95% CI 0.08-0.23]). Prophylactic plasma infusion regimens used were insufficient to prevent acute episodes in many patients. Such regimens are burdensome, caregivers, patients and their guardians are reluctant to start regular plasma infusions, from which particularly children would benefit.

4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is caused by anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies inducing a severe deficiency of ADAMTS13. Epitope mapping studies on samples obtained during acute iTTP episodes have shown that the iTTP immune response is polyclonal, with almost all patients having autoantibodies targeting the spacer domain of ADAMTS13. OBJECTIVES: To identify the immunogenic hotspots in the spacer domain of ADAMTS13. PATIENTS/METHODS: A library of 11 full-length ADAMTS13 spacer hybrids was created in which amino acids regions of the spacer domain of ADAMTS13 were exchanged by the corresponding region of the spacer domain of ADAMTS1. Next, the full-length ADAMTS13 spacer hybrids were used in ELISA to epitope map anti-spacer autoantibodies in 138 samples from acute and remission iTTP patients. RESULTS: Sixteen different anti-spacer autoantibody profiles were identified with a similar distribution in acute and remission patients. There was no association between the anti-spacer autoantibody profiles and disease severity. Almost all iTTP samples contained anti-spacer autoantibodies against the following three regions: amino acid residues 588-592, 602-610 and 657-666 (hybrids E, G and M). Between 31 and 57% of the samples had anti-spacer autoantibodies against amino acid regions 572-579, 629-638, 667-676 (hybrids C, J and N). In contrast, none of the samples had anti-spacer autoantibodies against amino acid regions 556-563, 564-571, 649-656 and 677-685 (hybrids A, B, L and O). CONCLUSION: We identified 3 hotspot regions (amino acid regions 588-592, 602-610, and 657-666) in the spacer domain of ADAMTS13 that are targeted by anti-spacer autoantibodies found in a large cohort of iTTP patients.

5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe prekallikrein deficiency (PK deficiency) is an autosomal-recessive condition thought to be very rare. Recently we reported that the previously unnoticed variant c.451dupT, p.Ser151Phefs*34 in KLKB1, which is listed in databases aggregating genome data, causes PK deficiency and is common in Africans according to gnomAD (allele frequency 1.43%). PATIENTS/METHODS: The most common African (c.451dupT) and European (c.1643G>A, p.Cys548Tyr) PK deficiency causing KLKB1 variants were analyzed in two population-based collectives of 300 Nigerian and 300 German subjects. Genome databases were evaluated for variant frequencies and ethnicity of the subjects. The geographic origin of PK-deficient cases due to 451dupT was assessed. RESULTS: Two of five patients with PK deficiency caused by homozygous 451dupT were African, one African American, one from Oman, and one of unknown origin. The frequency of 451dupT was 1.17% in the Nigerian collective (7/600 alleles); none had Cys548Tyr. Subjects with 451dupT were found among different Nigerian ethnicities. Both variants were absent in the European collective. Database research was compatible with these findings, even though mainly data of African Americans (451dupT: 1.12%-1.78%) was accessible. A relevant number of non-American Africans are included only in the 1000Genomes collective: 451dupT frequency was 1.29% in native Africans and 1.56% in African Caribbeans. CONCLUSIONS: This study underlines the higher prevalence of PK deficiency among people with African descent compared to Europeans. In order to avoid delay of necessary surgical procedures in patients of African origin, diagnostic algorithms for isolated, unexplained, activated partial thromboplastin time prolongation in these subjects should include PK deficiency screening.

7.
Hamostaseologie ; 40(4): 414-419, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820490

RESUMO

Three selected casuistic studies of individual patient problems from my long-standing professional experience are presented. I intend to highlight the potential contribution of case studies, including new approaches of laboratory investigation, for the advancement of pathophysiological knowledge and would encourage to "rehabilitate" the low academic profile generally attributed to "case reports."

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14219, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848185

RESUMO

We investigated whether intravenous iron supplementation improves fatigue and general health in non-anemic repeat adult blood donors with iron deficiency (ferritin ≤ 50 µg/L). Of 1,487 potentially eligible participants, 203 were randomly assigned to a single intravenous dose of 800 mg iron-carboxymaltose and 202 to placebo; 393 participants completed the trial. At 6 to 8 weeks after intervention, self-rated mean fatigue scores (numeric rating scale from 1-10, primary outcome) were 3.9 ± 1.8 in the iron supplementation group and 4.0 ± 2.2 in the placebo group, showing no group difference (p = 0.819). Pre-specified subgroup analyses of gender, ferritin < 25 µg/L and fatigue ≥ 4 points, as well as exploratory analyses of lower ferritin cut-offs did not reveal any between-group differences. In terms of secondary outcomes, the mean differences were 114.2 µg/L for ferritin (95% CI 103.1-125.3) and 5.7 g/L for hemoglobin (95% CI 4.3-7.2) with significantly higher values in the iron supplementation group. No group differences were observed for different measures of general well-being and other clinical and safety outcomes. Intravenous iron supplementation compared with placebo resulted in increase of ferritin and hemoglobin levels in repeat blood donors with low iron stores, yet had no effect on fatigue and general well-being.

9.
Blood ; 136(3): 353-361, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356859

RESUMO

Recently, we showed that ADAMTS13 circulates in an open conformation during the acute phase of immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP). Although the cause of this conformational change remains elusive, ADAMTS13 is primarily closed in iTTP patients in remission with ADAMTS13 activity >50% and undetectable anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies, as well as after rituximab treatment, suggesting a role for anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies. Therefore, immunoglobulin G from 18 acute iTTP patients was purified and added to closed ADAMTS13 in healthy donor plasma. This resulted in open ADAMTS13 in 14 of 18 (78%) samples, proving that anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies can induce an open ADAMTS13 conformation. To further elucidate the conformation of ADAMTS13 in iTTP patients, we studied a novel iTTP patient cohort (n = 197) that also included plasma samples from iTTP patients in remission in whom ADAMTS13 activity was <50%. The open ADAMTS13 conformation was found during acute iTTP, as well as in patients in remission with ADAMTS13 activity <50% and in half of the patients with ADAMTS13 activity >50%, although free anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies were not always detected. Thus, open ADAMTS13 is a hallmark of acute iTTP, as well as a novel biomarker that can be used to detect subclinical iTTP in patients in remission. Finally, a long-term follow-up study in 1 iTTP patient showed that the open conformation precedes a substantial drop in ADAMTS13 activity. In conclusion, we have shown that anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies from iTTP patients induce an open ADAMTS13 conformation. Most importantly, an open ADAMTS13 conformation is a biomarker for subclinical iTTP and could become an important tool in TTP management.

10.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(4): 538-564, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289858

RESUMO

Thrombo-inflammation describes the complex interplay between blood coagulation and inflammation that plays a critical role in cardiovascular diseases. The third Maastricht Consensus Conference on Thrombosis assembled basic, translational, and clinical scientists to discuss the origin and potential consequences of thrombo-inflammation in the etiology, diagnostics, and management of patients with cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. This article presents a state-of-the-art reflection of expert opinions and consensus recommendations regarding the following topics: (1) challenges of the endothelial cell barrier; (2) circulating cells and thrombo-inflammation, focused on platelets, neutrophils, and neutrophil extracellular traps; (3) procoagulant mechanisms; (4) arterial vascular changes in atherogenesis; attenuating atherosclerosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury; (5) management of patients with arterial vascular disease; and (6) pathogenesis of venous thrombosis and late consequences of venous thromboembolism.

13.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1598-1617, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe plasma prekallikrein (PK) deficiency is an autosomal-recessive defect characterized by isolated activated partial thromboplastin time prolongation. To date, no comprehensive methodologically firm analysis has investigated the diagnostic, clinical, and genetic characteristics of PK deficiency, and its prevalence remains unknown. PATIENTS/METHODS: We described new families with PK deficiency, retrieved clinical and laboratory information of cases systematically searched in the (gray) literature, and collected blood of these cases for complementary analyses. The Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) and the population-based Gutenberg Health Study served to study the prevalence of mutations and relevant genetic variants. RESULTS: We assembled a cohort of 111 cases from 89 families and performed new genetic analyses in eight families (three unpublished). We identified new KLKB1 mutations, excluded the pathogenicity of some of the previously described ones, and estimated a prevalence of severe PK deficiency of 1/155 668 overall and 1/4725 among Africans. One individual reported with PK deficiency had, in fact, congenital kininogen deficiency associated with decreased PK activity. One quarter of individuals had factor XII clotting activity below the reference range. Four major bleeding events were described in 96 individuals, of which 3 were provoked, for a prevalence of 4% and an annualized rate of 0.1%. The prevalence of cardiovascular events was 15% (6% <40 years; 21% 40-65 years; 33% >65 years) for an annualized rate of 0.4%. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized the genetic background of severe PK deficiency, critically appraised mutations, and provided prevalence estimates. Our data on laboratory characteristics and clinical course of severe PK deficiency may have clinical implications.

16.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 49(9): e13154, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTnT), NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) may improve risk stratification of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) beyond the PESI risk score. METHODS: In the prospective multicentre SWITCO65+ study, we analysed 214 patients ≥ 65 years with a new submassive PE. Biomarkers and clinical information for the PESI risk score were ascertained within 1 day after diagnosis. Associations of hs-TnT, NT-proBNP, hs-CRP and the PESI risk score with the primary endpoint defined as 6-month mortality were assessed. The discriminative power of the PESI risk score and its combination with hs-cTnT, NT-proBNP and hs-CRP for 6-month mortality was compared using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) index and net reclassification improvement (NRI). RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile had a higher risk of death during the first 6 months for hs-cTnT (adjusted HR 10.22; 95% CI 1.79-58.34; P = 0.009) and a trend for NT-proBNP (adjusted HR 4.3; 95% CI 0.9-20.41; P = 0.067) unlike hs-CRP (adjusted HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.48-8.05; P = 0.344). The PESI risk score (c-statistic 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.84) had the highest prognostic accuracy for 6-month mortality, outperforming hs-cTnT, NT-proBNP and hs-CRP (c-statistics of 0.72, 0.72, and 0.54), respectively. Combining all three biomarkers had no clinically relevant impact on risk stratification when added to the PESI risk score (IDI = 0.067; 95% CI 0.012-0.123; P = 0.018; NRI = 0.101 95% CI -0.099-0.302; P = 0.321). CONCLUSIONS: In elderly patients with PE, 6-month mortality can adequately be predicted by the PESI risk score alone.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Embolia Pulmonar/metabolismo , Troponina T/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
17.
Haematologica ; 104(10): 2107-2115, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792199

RESUMO

Congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a clinically heterogeneous course and an incompletely understood genotype-phenotype correlation. In 2006, the Hereditary TTP Registry started recruitment for a study which aimed to improve the understanding of this ultra-rare disease. The objective of this study is to present characteristics of the cohort until the end of 2017 and to explore the relationship between overt disease onset and ADAMTS13 activity with emphasis on the recurring ADAMTS13 c.4143_4144dupA mutation. Diagnosis of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura was confirmed by severely deficient ADAMTS13 activity (≤10% of normal) in the absence of a functional inhibitor and the presence of ADAMTS13 mutations on both alleles. By the end of 2017, 123 confirmed patients had been enrolled from Europe (n=55), Asia (n=52, 90% from Japan), the Americas (n=14), and Africa (n=2). First recognized disease manifestation occurred from around birth up to the age of 70 years. Of the 98 different ADAMTS13 mutations detected, c.4143_4144dupA (exon 29; p.Glu1382Argfs*6) was the most frequent mutation, present on 60 of 246 alleles. We found a larger proportion of compound heterozygous than homozygous carriers of ADAMTS13 c.4143_4144dupA with overt disease onset at < 3 months of age (50% vs 37%), despite the fact that ADAMTS13 activity was <1% in 18 of 20 homozygous, but in only 8 of 14 compound heterozygous carriers. An evaluation of overt disease onset in all patients with an available sensitive ADAMTS13 activity assay (n=97) shows that residual ADAMTS13 activity is not the only determinant of age at first disease manifestation. Registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01257269.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAMTS13 , Alelos , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Mutação , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , Proteína ADAMTS13/sangue , Proteína ADAMTS13/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/enzimologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/genética
18.
Thromb Haemost ; 118(10): 1743-1751, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is caused by autoantibody-mediated severe a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats, member 13 (ADAMTS13) deficiency leading to micro-angiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA) and thrombocytopenia with organ damage. Patients survive with plasma exchange (PEX), fresh frozen plasma replacement and corticosteroid treatment. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab is increasingly used in patients resistant to conventional PEX or relapsing after an acute bout. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective observational study focused on the relapse rate and possible influencing factors including treatment with rituximab first introduced in 2003. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy patients treated between January 2003 and November 2014 were evaluated. Number, duration, clinical manifestations, laboratory data and treatment of acute episodes were documented. Diagnostic criteria of acute iTTP were thrombocytopenia, MAHA, increased lactate dehydrogenase and severe ADAMTS13 deficiency. RESULTS: Fifty-four female and 16 male patients had a total of 224 acute episodes over a median observation period of 8.3 years. The relapse rate was 2.6% per month, for women 2.4% and for men 3.5% per month. Since 2003, 17 patients with a first iTTP episode were treated with rituximab, whereas 28 were not. There was a trend towards lower relapse rates after rituximab treatment over the ensuing years. However, this was statistically not significant. CONCLUSION: This analysis does not show a significant reduction of acute iTTP relapses by rituximab given during an acute bout. Initial episodes are characterized by more severe clinical signs compared with the less severe relapses. Furthermore, men suffer significantly more frequent and considerably more serious acute relapses.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAMTS13/deficiência , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos CD20/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 24(6): 884-893, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669438

RESUMO

Severe postpartum hemorrhage (sPPH) is an obstetric emergency that needs prompt and effective therapy to reduce the risk of complications. In this study, women who developed sPPH (study cohort, n = 27) were treated according to a standardized management protocol prescribing sequential administration of uterotonic drugs, crystalloids, tranexamic acid, labile blood products, low-dose fibrinogen, and recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa). This group was compared to patients treated with different strategies during 2 preceding periods: an in-house guideline regulating the administration of rFVIIa (historical cohort 1, n = 20) and no specific guideline (historical cohort 2, n = 27). The management protocol was used over 33 months. The study cohort had a lower estimated blood loss ( P = .004) and required less red blood cell concentrates ( P = .007), fresh frozen plasma units ( P = .004), and platelet concentrates ( P = .020) compared to historical cohort 1 and historical cohort 2, respectively. The necessity of emergency postpartum hysterectomy was lower in the study group ( P = .012). In conclusion, in patients with sPPH treated with this standardized management protocol, we observed a decreased requirement of labile blood products and lower need to proceed to emergency postpartum hysterectomy.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Fator VIIa/administração & dosagem , Histerectomia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0191150, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. Extracellular DNA is a pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediator in vitro and in animal models. Levels of circulating extracellular DNA (ceDNA) are increased in VTE patients, but the association of ceDNA with VTE extent and clinical outcome is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the association of ceDNA with the extent of VTE, categorized as distal and proximal deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and with the clinical outcomes VTE recurrence and mortality. METHODS: We quantified ceDNA by a fluorescent probe, as well as circulating nucleosomes and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by ELISA in plasma from 611 patients aged ≥ 65 years with acute VTE of a prospective cohort study (SWITCO65+). RESULTS: Levels of ceDNA and nucleosomes, but not NETs, correlated with VTE extent. Infectious comorbidities independently increased ceDNA levels in VTE. CeDNA strongly correlated with C-reactive protein and leukocytosis, suggesting an association of ceDNA with inflammation in VTE patients. CeDNA furthermore predicted PE-related and all-cause mortality, but not VTE recurrence, during a 3-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that ceDNA levels in VTE patients reflect the degree of inflammation and may serve as a biomarker to stratify VTE patients at risk for mortality.


Assuntos
DNA/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Líquido Extracelular/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Suíça/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade
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