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1.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3593-3605, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641407

RESUMO

BRCA2 is a clinically actionable gene implicated in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition that has become a high priority target for improving the classification of variants of unknown significance (VUS). Among all BRCA2 VUS, those causing partial/leaky splicing defects are the most challenging to classify because the minimal level of full-length (FL) transcripts required for normal function remains to be established. Here, we explored BRCA2 exon 3 (BRCA2e3) as a model for calibrating variant-induced spliceogenicity and estimating thresholds for BRCA2 haploinsufficiency. In silico predictions, minigene splicing assays, patients' RNA analyses, a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) complementation assay and retrieval of patient-related information were combined to determine the minimal requirement of FL BRCA2 transcripts. Of 100 BRCA2e3 variants tested in the minigene assay, 64 were found to be spliceogenic, causing mild to severe RNA defects. Splicing defects were also confirmed in patients' RNA when available. Analysis of a neutral leaky variant (c.231T>G) showed that a reduction of approximately 60% of FL BRCA2 transcripts from a mutant allele does not cause any increase in cancer risk. Moreover, data obtained from mESCs suggest that variants causing a decline in FL BRCA2 with approximately 30% of wild-type are not pathogenic, given that mESCs are fully viable and resistant to DNA-damaging agents in those conditions. In contrast, mESCs producing lower relative amounts of FL BRCA2 exhibited either null or hypomorphic phenotypes. Overall, our findings are likely to have broader implications on the interpretation of BRCA2 variants affecting the splicing pattern of other essential exons. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that BRCA2 tumor suppressor function tolerates substantial reduction in full-length transcripts, helping to determine the pathogenicity of BRCA2 leaky splicing variants, some of which may not increase cancer risk.

2.
Cancer Res ; 80(7): 1374-1386, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046981

RESUMO

Germline nonsense and canonical splice site variants identified in disease-causing genes are generally considered as loss-of-function (LoF) alleles and classified as pathogenic. However, a fraction of such variants could maintain function through their impact on RNA splicing. To test this hypothesis, we used the alternatively spliced BRCA2 exon 12 (E12) as a model system because its in-frame skipping leads to a potentially functional protein. All E12 variants corresponding to putative LoF variants or predicted to alter splicing (n = 40) were selected from human variation databases and characterized for their impact on splicing in minigene assays and, when available, in patient lymphoblastoid cell lines. Moreover, a selection of variants was analyzed in a mouse embryonic stem cell-based functional assay. Using these complementary approaches, we demonstrate that a subset of variants, including nonsense variants, induced in-frame E12 skipping through the modification of splice sites or regulatory elements and, consequently, led to an internally deleted but partially functional protein. These data provide evidence, for the first time in a cancer-predisposition gene, that certain presumed null variants can retain function due to their impact on splicing. Further studies are required to estimate cancer risk associated with these hypomorphic variants. More generally, our findings highlight the need to exercise caution in the interpretation of putative LoF variants susceptible to induce in-frame splicing modifications. SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence that certain presumed loss-of-function variants in a cancer predisposition gene can retain function due to their direct impact on RNA splicing.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
6.
Oncotarget ; 9(25): 17334-17348, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707112

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in the BRCA2 gene are associated with a cumulative high risk of breast/ovarian cancer. Several BRCA2 variants result in complete loss of the exon-3 at the transcript level. The pathogenicity of these variants and the functional impact of loss of exon 3 have yet to be established. As a collaboration of the COVAR clinical trial group (France), and the ENIGMA consortium for investigating breast cancer gene variants, this study evaluated 8 BRCA2 variants resulting in complete deletion of exon 3. Clinical information for 39 families was gathered from Portugal, France, Denmark and Sweden. Multifactorial likelihood analyses were conducted using information from 293 patients, for 7 out of the 8 variants (including 6 intronic). For all variants combined the likelihood ratio in favor of causality was 4.39*1025. These results provide convincing evidence for the pathogenicity of all examined variants that lead to a total exon 3 skipping, and suggest that other variants that result in complete loss of exon 3 at the molecular level could be associated with a high risk of cancer comparable to that associated with classical pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. In addition, our functional study shows, for the first time, that deletion of exon 3 impairs the ability of cells to survive upon Mitomycin-C treatment, supporting lack of function for the altered BRCA2 protein in these cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that any variant leading to expression of only BRCA2 delta-exon 3 will be associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(15): 7913-7923, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750258

RESUMO

Variant interpretation is the key issue in molecular diagnosis. Spliceogenic variants exemplify this issue as each nucleotide variant can be deleterious via disruption or creation of splice site consensus sequences. Consequently, reliable in silico prediction of variant spliceogenicity would be a major improvement. Thanks to an international effort, a set of 395 variants studied at the mRNA level and occurring in 5' and 3' consensus regions (defined as the 11 and 14 bases surrounding the exon/intron junction, respectively) was collected for 11 different genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, CFTR and RHD, and used to train and validate a new prediction protocol named Splicing Prediction in Consensus Elements (SPiCE). SPiCE combines in silico predictions from SpliceSiteFinder-like and MaxEntScan and uses logistic regression to define optimal decision thresholds. It revealed an unprecedented sensitivity and specificity of 99.5 and 95.2%, respectively, and the impact on splicing was correctly predicted for 98.8% of variants. We therefore propose SPiCE as the new tool for predicting variant spliceogenicity. It could be easily implemented in any diagnostic laboratory as a routine decision making tool to help geneticists to face the deluge of variants in the next-generation sequencing era. SPiCE is accessible at (https://sourceforge.net/projects/spicev2-1/).


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Variação Genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Internet , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 54(10): 646-52, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26171949

RESUMO

The duplication in the primate lineage of a portion of the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 has created a BRCA1 pseudogene 45 kb away. Non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between BRCA1 and BRCA1P1 has generated recurrent deleterious germ-line 37-kb deletions encompassing the first two exons of BRCA1, accounting for several breast and ovarian cancer families in various populations. In principle, NAHR intermediates resolution could also lead through a non-crossover configuration to interlocus gene conversion (IGC), but none had been described as yet. Here, we report for the first time an IGC event identified in a breast and ovarian cancer family involving exactly the same segment as that involved in the 37-kb deletions. Close examination of the consequences of this IGC event showed that it does not impact BRCA1 expression. Detailed analysis of the regions of homology between BRCA1 and its pseudogene revealed the specificity of the segment where recombination systematically occurs.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Conversão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Linhagem
9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 42(14): 9121-30, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25034697

RESUMO

Large tandem repeat sequences have been poorly investigated as severe technical limitations and their frequent absence from the genome reference hinder their analysis. Extensive allelotyping of this class of variation has not been possible until now and their mutational dynamics are still poorly known. In order to estimate the mutation rate of a macrosatellite, we analysed in detail the RNU2 locus, which displays at least 50 different alleles containing 5-82 copies of a 6.1 kb repeat unit. Mining data from the 1000 Genomes Project allowed us to precisely estimate copy numbers of the RNU2 repeat unit using read depth of coverage. This further revealed significantly different mean values in various recent modern human populations, favoring a scenario of fast evolution of this locus. Its proximity to a disease gene with numerous founder mutations, BRCA1, within the same linkage disequilibrium block, offered the unique opportunity to trace RNU2 arrays over a large timescale. Analysis of the transmission of RNU2 arrays associated with one 'private' mutation in an extended kindred and four founder mutations in multiple kindreds gave an estimation by maximum likelihood of 5 × 10(-3) mutations per generation, which is close to that of microsatellites.


Assuntos
DNA Satélite/química , Genes BRCA1 , Taxa de Mutação , Linhagem Celular , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos , Mutação
10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 18(18): 4903-9, 2012 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22753590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diagnostic screening of the BRCA1/2 genes in breast cancer families is mostly done on genomic DNA. For families with a very strong family history and no mutation identified in the coding sequences or the exon-intron boundaries, BRCA1/2 transcripts' analysis is an efficient approach to uncover gene inversion and pre-mRNA splicing defaults missed by conventional DNA-based protocols. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed RNA from patients of negative BRCA families by reverse transcriptase PCR and identified an insertion in one family that we characterized by sequencing and by using a minigene splicing assay. More than 2,000 additional BRCA1/2 negative families were subsequently screened for this mutation using a dedicated PCR approach. RESULTS: Nine families were found to harbor a BRCA2 mutant transcript containing a 95-nucleotide cryptic exon between exons 12 and 13. This cryptic exon results from a new mutation located deep into intron 12, c.6937+594T > G, which reinforces the strength of a preexisting 5' splice site, turning it into a perfect consensus sequence. It is systematically included in transcripts produced by the mutant allele in cells from mutation carriers or produced by a mutant splicing reporter minigene. The inclusion of the cryptic exon was prevented when we cotransfected the minigene with antisense oligonucleotides complementary to the 3' or mutated 5' splice sites. CONCLUSION: This first deep intronic BRCA mutation emphasizes the importance of analyzing RNA to provide comprehensive BRCA1/2 diagnostic tests and opens the possibility of using antisense therapy in the future as an alternative strategy for cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Éxons , Genes BRCA2 , Íntrons , Mutação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Linhagem
11.
Hum Mutat ; 33(8): 1228-38, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22505045

RESUMO

Assessing the impact of variants of unknown significance (VUS) on splicing is a key issue in molecular diagnosis. This impact can be predicted by in silico tools, but proper evaluation and user guidelines are lacking. To fill this gap, we embarked upon the largest BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice study to date by testing 272 VUSs (327 analyses) within the BRCA splice network of Unicancer. All these VUSs were analyzed by using six tools (splice site prediction by neural network, splice site finder (SSF), MaxEntScan (MES), ESE finder, relative enhancer and silencer classification by unanimous enrichment, and human splicing finder) and the predictions obtained were compared with transcript analysis results. Combining MES and SSF gave 96% sensitivity and 83% specificity for VUSs occurring in the vicinity of consensus splice sites, that is, the surrounding 11 and 14 bases for the 5' and 3' sites, respectively. This study was also an opportunity to define guidelines for transcript analysis along with a tentative classification of splice variants. The guidelines drawn from this large series should be useful for the whole community, particularly in the context of growing sequencing capacities that require robust pipelines for variant interpretation.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Patologia Molecular/normas , Processamento de RNA/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 81(6): 1186-200, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17999359

RESUMO

RAD51 is an important component of double-stranded DNA-repair mechanisms that interacts with both BRCA1 and BRCA2. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of RAD51, 135G-->C, has been suggested as a possible modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We pooled genotype data for 8,512 female mutation carriers from 19 studies for the RAD51 135G-->C SNP. We found evidence of an increased breast cancer risk in CC homozygotes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.25-2.94) but not in heterozygotes (HR 0.95 [95% CI 0.83-1.07]; P=.002, by heterogeneity test with 2 degrees of freedom [df]). When BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers were analyzed separately, the increased risk was statistically significant only among BRCA2 mutation carriers, in whom we observed HRs of 1.17 (95% CI 0.91-1.51) among heterozygotes and 3.18 (95% CI 1.39-7.27) among rare homozygotes (P=.0007, by heterogeneity test with 2 df). In addition, we determined that the 135G-->C variant affects RAD51 splicing within the 5' UTR. Thus, 135G-->C may modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers by altering the expression of RAD51. RAD51 is the first gene to be reliably identified as a modifier of risk among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Primers do DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , Família , Feminino , Variação Genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
13.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 43(4): 404-13, 2005 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15887246

RESUMO

The prevalence of BRCA1/2 germ-line mutations was assessed in a prospective population-based series of early-onset breast cancer (BC) patients in France, and the usefulness of a clinical assessment of hereditary BC risk, based on multiple criteria including pedigree structure, was evaluated. Through the Rhone region BC registry, 232 women diagnosed with BC before 46 years of age were included. They were tested for BRCA1/2 mutations an average of 10 months after diagnosis. All the women were classified according to their family history of cancer: high risk of hereditary breast cancer (HBC), low risk of HBC, isolated BC, and unknown HBC risk. Deleterious mutations were observed in 21 women (9.1%): 15 (6.5%) BRCA1 and 6 (2.6%) BRCA2. Mutations were more prevalent in women who developed BC before age 41 than in women who developed BC between ages 41 and 45 (12.8% versus 5.2%, respectively, P = 0.04). A high prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations was found among women in the high-risk category with particular family features (i.e., small family size, predominantly male pedigree, specific cancers; 23.5%) and among women with isolated BC before age 41 and with five or fewer close adult female relatives (16.6%). According to the 10% probability level recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines for genetic testing of cancer, BRCA1/2 mutation screening should be considered for all women diagnosed before age 41, except for those with isolated BC in a large pedigree including multiple unaffected female relatives. The clinical assessment of HBC risk that we have developed should help in the decision to perform genetic testing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Penetrância , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
14.
Carcinogenesis ; 25(12): 2417-24, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15333468

RESUMO

The identification of an interaction between BRCA1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACCalpha), a key enzyme in lipid synthesis, led us to investigate the role of ACCalpha in breast cancer development, where it might contribute to the energy-sensing mechanisms of malignant transformation. In order to investigate if certain ACCalpha alleles may be high-risk breast cancer susceptibility alleles, 37 extended breast and breast/ovarian cancer families negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were exhaustively screened for sequence variations in the entire coding sequence, intron-exon junctions, 5'UTR, 3'UTR (untranslated regions) and the promoter regions of the ACCalpha gene. Two possibly disease-associated ACCalpha variants were each identified in a single family and were not present in 137 controls. Multiple polymorphisms were detected in breast cancer families, including 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms where the frequency of the rare allele estimated in controls was >0.10. The observed lack of variation in the ACCalpha coding region along with the presence of extended areas of linkage disequilibrium and low haplotype diversity indicates an overall high preservation of this gene. The prevalence of the ACCalpha haplotypes composed of common polymorphisms was determined in 453 breast cancer cases and 469 female controls. One haplotype was found to be associated with a substantial and highly significant increase in breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.10, 95% confidence interval 1.87-5.14, P < 0.0001), whereas three other haplotypes were found to have a protective effect. Our results indicate that mutations in the ACCalpha gene are unlikely to be a major cause of high-risk breast cancer susceptibility; however, certain common ACCalpha alleles may influence breast cancer risk. This study provides the first insight into the involvement of the ACCalpha gene in breast cancer predisposition and calls for further, large-scale studies that will be needed to understand the role of ACCalpha in tumour susceptibility and development.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int J Cancer ; 106(4): 588-93, 2003 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12845657

RESUMO

Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes among unselected incident cases of breast cancer in young women. We identified 158 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 46 years in predefined geographic areas in Girona and Tarragona, Spain, during 1995-1997. Of these, 136 (86%) provided information on family history of cancer and were screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Nine of the 136 (6.6%) were found to carry BRCA deleterious mutations (MUT) (1 BRCA1 and 8 BRCA2), and 20 were detected with rare BRCA variants of unknown significance (UV). Both MUT and US BRCA alterations were more frequent in younger patients: 7 (11.6%) MUT and 12 (19.3%) UV carriers were found in the group of 62 patients younger than 40 years, whereas 2 (2.7%) MUT and 9 (12%) US carriers were identified in the group of 74 patients aged 40-45. Family history of breast and ovarian cancers suggestive of hereditary condition (at least 2 first- or second-degree relatives affected with breast cancer or at least 1 relative affected with ovarian cancer or early-onset breast cancer) was absent for 5 of 9 MUT carriers. This suggests that BRCA screening policies based on family history of cancer would miss a considerable proportion of BRCA mutations. Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes explain at least 10% of breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 40 years. The contribution of these genes to early-onset breast cancer is likely to be even higher given that certain UV cases might be disease-associated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
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