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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 254: 112729, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145332

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC is a perennial subshrub, popularly known as "carqueja," that belongs to the Asteraceae family. Ethnobotanical studies indicate that this species is used for the treatment of diabetes and digestive and liver diseases. However, studies that sought to validate its popular use were conducted using ethanolic extracts of the plant, which does not reflect the ethnomedicinal use of this species in humans. AIM OF THE STUDY: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by triglyceride accumulation in the liver that can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Because of the severity of this disease, less toxic and more effective therapeutic agents need to be developed. B. trimera may be a promising therapeutic alternative, but its activity against multiple risk factors for liver disease (e.g., smoking, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus) has not been studied. The present study investigated the effects of an ethnomedicinal form of a B. trimera preparation in a rat model of NAFLD that is associated with multiple risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic soluble fraction of B. trimera extract was performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in male Wistar rats. The rats received a 0.5% cholesterol-enriched diet and were exposed to cigarette smoke (9 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks). In the last 2 weeks, the animals were orally treated with vehicle (negative control group), B. trimera extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg), or insulin + simvastatin. One group of rats that was not exposed to these risk factors was also evaluated. Blood was collected for glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) analysis. The liver and feces were collected for lipid quantification. The liver was additionally processed for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: The model successfully induced NAFLD and increased levels of glucose, AST, and ALT in the negative control group. Treatment with the B. trimera extract (30 and 100 mg/kg) and insulin + simvastatin decreased hepatic and fecal lipids. In contrast to insulin + simvastatin treatment, all three doses of B. trimera effectively reduced AST and ALT levels. CONCLUSION: B. trimera may be promising as a hepatoprotective agent against hepatic lesions that are caused by multiple risk factors.

2.
J Relig Health ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832897

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Among treatment options, medicinal plants are frequently used, especially in developing countries, such as Brazil. Despite social development that has been observed in the last decades, the use of medicinal plants is still driven by popular knowledge, especially by healers. The present study sought to identify medicinal species that are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases by healers in the microregion of Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil. The snowball technique was used to select informants, and data were collected through interviews. The research was performed in two stages: (1) a structured interview and (2) the collection and botanical identification of the species that were mentioned by the healers. Medicinal plants were classified into the following categories of cardiovascular agents: hypotensive and antihypertensive agents, lipid-lowering agents, diuretic agents, and cardiotonic agents. To analyze the data, the frequency was determined, Spearman correlations were calculated, and the informant consensus factor (ICF) and use value were obtained. Some characteristics, such as female gender and old age, were associated with knowledge about medicinal plants. Overall, 77 different species and 149 medicinal uses were cited by the healers. With regard to categories of use, the highest number of species was found among lipid-lowering plants, and the highest ICF was found for species that are used as cardiotonics. Moreover, a literature review indicated that among the cited species, several still lack studies that have proven their effects on the cardiovascular system. The traditional use of medicinal plants for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases is broad in the study regions. The present results are important for clarifying popular knowledge in this region and providing a framework for selecting species with potential for the development of new pharmacological studies.

3.
J Med Food ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702422

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and among its modifiable risk factors are dyslipidemia, diabetes, and smoking. Experimental models evaluated this risk factors singly, however, there is a lack of models that agglomerate these risk factors, resembling real patients and elucidating the pathophysiology of CVD. Moreover, few studies have investigated the cardioprotective effects of Baccharis trimera, a species with lipid-lowering effects. In this study, ethanol-soluble fraction of B. trimera was characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in Wistar rats that also received 0.5% cholesterol-enriched chow and were exposed to the smoke of nine cigarettes, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks. During the last 2 weeks, the animals were treated with vehicle (C-), B. trimera, or simvastatin plus insulin. At the end, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, and creatinine levels; blood pressure (BP); heart rate (HR); abdominal aortic morphometry; vascular reactivity; renal and cardiac oxidative status; and histopathological changes were evaluated. The agglomerate of risk factors promoted alterations contrary to those described in the literature for the isolated risk factors. The C- group exhibited oxidative stress, increase in biochemical parameters, and thickening of the wall of the abdominal aorta. HR, systolic, diastolic, and mean BP decreased, and vascular reactivity was altered. Cardiac and renal histopathological changes were observed. Treatment with B. trimera reversed these changes and this effect may be partially attributable to lipid-lowering action and to the inhibition of free radical generation. B. trimera has cardioprotective effects in this model, with no toxicity.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112169, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425732

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel is widespread in alluvial plains and open forests in Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. The fruits of P. cauliflora are used as food, and almost all parts of this species have long been used as a traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of skin irritations, flu, diarrhea, labyrinthitis, genito-urinary problems, and asthma. THE AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review provides comprehensive and up-to-date information on P. cauliflora with regard to its ethnopharmacological uses, constituents, biological activities, and toxicology, all of which are useful for future research and the development of new drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information and data on P. cauliflora were collected from ethnobotanical textbooks and scientific databases, such as PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Google, and Google Scholar. RESULTS: The main chemical constituents in P. cauliflora preparations were depsides, flavonoids, and hydrolysable tannins. The main medicinal use of the species in Brazil is for the treatment of diarrhea. Although antimicrobial potential of this species has been demonstrated, data on gastrointestinal motility are still incipient and need further investigation. Studies that indicate the efficacy of its traditional use for sore throat, pelvic hemorrhage, uterine wounds, vaginal discharge, and flu are nonexistent. The scientific literature does not describe any toxic effects of its popular use. However, the available data do not allow us to conclude that the ethnomedicinal use of this species is safe, with a lack of well-designed preclinical tests and randomized clinical trials. CONCLUSION: This review summarizes research on the traditional use, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicology of P. cauliflora. Although P. cauliflora possesses significant biological activities, much of its ethnomedicinal use has not been scientifically evaluated. Well-designed pharmacological and toxicological assays and randomized clinical trials are still needed to validate its ethnopharmacological use as an herbal medicine.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae , Animais , Brasil , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
5.
J Med Food ; 22(9): 919-927, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233372

RESUMO

Echinodorus grandiflorus is an important medicinal plant species that is native to South America. Despite extensive popular usage as a hypolipidemic drug, its effects as an atheroprotective agent remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanol-soluble fraction that was obtained from E. grandiflorus (ESEG) leaves against the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Male rabbits received a diet that was supplemented with 1% cholesterol (cholesterol-rich diet [CRD]) for 60 days. After 30 days of the CRD, the animals were divided into five groups (n = 6) and treated with ESEG (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg), simvastatin (2.5 mg/kg), or vehicle once daily for 30 days. The negative control group was fed a cholesterol-free diet and treated orally with vehicle. At the end of 60 days, serum lipids, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nitrotyrosine, and serum interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) levels were determined. Samples from the aortic arch and thoracic segment were also collected to investigate the tissue antioxidant defense system and perform histopathological analysis. Oral ESEG administration significantly reduced serum lipid levels in CRD-fed rabbits. This treatment also modulated the arterial antioxidant defense system by reducing lipid and protein oxidation. Similarly, serum IL-1ß, IL-6, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels significantly decreased, accompanied by a reduction of atherosclerotic lesions in all arterial branches. These findings suggest that ESEG may be a new herbal medicine that can be directly applied for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic disease.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Coelhos , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/sangue , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética
6.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed) ; 11: 203-213, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136993

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory, progressive, and chronic illness that involves several molecular and epigenetic factors. Despite treatment limitations, clinical and therapeutic approaches have undeniably changed radically in recent decades through better knowledge of the pathophysiological basis of the disease, which has considerably improved patients' survival and quality of life. Some of these advances are attributable to basic biomedical research that provides insights into a better understanding and identification of new molecular and cellular targets for atherosclerosis treatment. Although rodent models have contributed substantially to a better understanding of the development of atherosclerosis, the accuracy of these models remains controversial. Research that utilizes genetic rodent models is well established, but the use of specific diets that are associated with other risk factors (e.g., hypertension, hormone deprivation, and pharmacological tools) is still debatable. The present review provides an update on non-genetic rat models of atherosclerosis and an overview of the main methodologies that are currently available.

7.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-6, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060457

RESUMO

Malaria is a global public health problem that causes approximately 445 000 deaths annually worldwide, especially in underdeveloped countries. Because of the high prevalence and mortality of the disease, new and less toxic therapeutic agents need to be developed, such as MEFAS, a low-cost hybrid salt that consists of artesunate and mefloquine. However, the efficacy of MEFAS has been systematically demonstrated, its safety requires further investigation. This study investigated the acute toxicity of MEFAS and its precursors, artesunate, and mefloquine. A total of 42 female Swiss mice were divided into seven groups (n = 6/group) that were treated orally by gavage with vehicle (filtered water, negative control), MEFAS (50, 500, and 1000 mg/kg), and 1:1 concentrations of artesunate + mefloquine (50, 500, and 1000 mg/kg). Clinical signs of toxicity were observed for 14 d after treatment. On day 15, the animals were weighed, deeply anesthetized with isoflurane, and euthanized for subsequent collection of the liver, spleen, and kidneys. The relative organ weights were determined, followed by histopathological analysis. Artesunate + mefloquine produced toxic effects compared with the negative control group, reflected by changes in clinical signs, relative organ weights, and histopathological alterations. In MEFAS-treated animals, no changes were observed compared with the negative control group. These findings demonstrate that MEFAS is safer than artesunate + mefloquine after acute administration in mice.

8.
J Med Food ; 22(3): 241-247, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888914

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease that is characterized by impairments in bone strength that predispose an individual to a higher risk of fractures. Despite the various etiologies, undoubtedly the most important factors are aging of the population and hypogonadism. Although several therapeutic options are available, pharmacological treatments have some risks. Among these are increases in the incidence of thrombosis, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, and muscle injury, among others. Herbal medication may be an alternative for the treatment of osteoporosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a standardized extract of Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in rats. Female rats were first subjected to OVX and treated with TT (3, 30, and 300 mg/[kg·day]) or furosemide (25 mg/kg) orally for 28 days. Bone densitometry and tibial histology were performed, and acute renal function and testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and estradiol levels were assessed. Prolonged treatment with TT stimulated bone mass gain in all ovariectomized animals, raising bone mass to levels that were similar to sham-operated rats. DHEA levels significantly increased in TT-treated rats. The TT group also had lower calcium (Ca2+) excretion that OVX control and furosemide-treated rats. Finally, the histopathological analyses showed the maintenance of bone turnover in all TT-treated groups. Overall, the results indicate that the standardized extract of T. terrestris exerted a bone-protective effect by increasing bone mineral density. This activity may be at least partially attributable to an increase in serum DHEA levels and a Ca2+-sparing effect.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Tribulus/química , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/fisiopatologia , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona/sangue
9.
J Med Food ; 22(1): 97-101, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335566

RESUMO

Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.; Aquifoliaceae) is a popular tonic and stimulant beverage that is widely consumed in different South American countries. Estimates indicate the consumption of >1 L per day in southern Brazil and Uruguay. Despite its relatively high consumption, data on reproductive toxicity during critical periods of gestation remain unclear. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an aqueous extract of I. paraguariensis leaves ("chimarrão" [IPC]) at two critical periods of gestation in Wistar rats: preimplantation embryonic stage and fetal organogenesis. Pregnant Wistar rats were orally treated with IPC (3, 30, and 300 mg/kg) from days 1 to 7 or 8 to 21 of pregnancy. The respective control groups received vehicle. During treatment, clinical signs of maternal toxicity, maternal body weight, and food and water intake were monitored. The rats were killed on days 8 and 20 of pregnancy, and the following parameters were evaluated: weight of the maternal uterus, weight of the liver, weight of the kidneys, weight of the spleen, total embryo implantation, preimplantation loss, the mean of live fetuses, the percentage of dead fetuses, fetus weight, and fetal malformation. The aqueous extract of the leaves of I. paraguariensis L. did not present any deleterious effects on preimplantation embryos or the organogenesis of offspring from female Wistar rats. These safety data provide evidence that IPC may be safe for consumption during gestation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilex paraguariensis/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Chás de Ervas/toxicidade , Animais , Contraindicações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Organogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , América do Sul
10.
J Relig Health ; 58(2): 572-588, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306387

RESUMO

Although the traditional use of medicinal plants is a very widespread practice in Brazil, there are still few studies aimed at native prescribers, known as healers. The aim of this work was to catalog the medicinal species prescribed by remaining healers of the Grande Dourados region, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with support of a standardized questionnaire for remaining healers selected using the "snowball" technique. The medicinal species selected were collected, identified, and classified according to the British National Formulary. Remaining healers were identified in seven municipalities in the region of Grande Dourados. Family, divine revelation, and participation of the Catholic Church were the most important sources of knowledge. Seventy-one medicinal species, mainly herbaceous belonging to Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Verbenaceae families, were the most prescribed. Most species are used in the treatment of digestive and cardiovascular diseases, in addition to immune and respiratory diseases. Healers from the region of Grande Dourados maintain considerable ethno-knowledge about the medicinal properties of different medicinal species. Sharing this information values their culture and preserves the knowledge for future generations.

11.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 21(4): 137-138, out-dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-986969

RESUMO

No cenário agroindustrial brasileiro a cadeia suinícola vem se destacando cada vez mais. A inserção no mercado internacional e as novas tecnologias aplicadas na prática de produção de suínos tem grande importância na economia do país. No entanto, algumas bactérias oportunistas estão presentes nas regiões nasais de suínos, sendo responsáveis por diversas alterações clínicas na suinocultura. Um dos principais patógenos que acomete esta espécie é o Staphylococcus aureus, responsável também por infeções nos seres humanos. O S. aureus possui características de virulência e resistência a diversos antibióticos, em especial à oxacilina, um antibiótico pertencente ao grupo ß-lactâmicos com ampla escala de utilização. A resistência do S. aureus à oxacilina está interligada a vários fatores, como a presença do gene mecA, que codifica a produção de uma proteína ligante e, assim, diminui a afinidade e a sensibilidade à ação de compostos antimicrobianos ß-lactâmicos. O uso errôneo de antibióticos é um dos fatores responsáveis por cepas resistentes e, a adição de melhoradores de desempenho nas rações de suínos, com a adição de antibióticos de forma preventiva pode favorecer e aumentar a existência de cepas multirresistentes, agravando ainda mais os dados já obtidos em pesquisas. A seleção destes genes resistentes causa preocupação à saúde coletiva, uma vez que indivíduos que tiveram contato com suínos e moradores residentes próximos as granjas apresentam cepas resistentes de S. aureus. Assim, a utilização de antibióticos de forma correta é fundamental para a redução dos índices de resistências à antibióticos..


Pig farming has been increasingly prominent in the Brazilian agroindustrial scenario. Its insertion in the international market and the use of new technologies applied to pig farming have been of great importance to the country's economy. Nevertheless, opportunistic bacteria present in the nasal regions of pigs are responsible for several clinical changes in the breeding of those animals. Staphylococcus aureus features among the main pathogens affecting that species, being also responsible for infections in humans. S. aureus is characterized by its virulence and resistance to several antibiotics, especially oxacillin, an antibiotic belonging to the ß-lactam group with a wide usage range. The resistance of S. aureus to oxacillin is linked to several factors, such as the presence of the mecA gene, which encodes the production of a binding protein and thus decreases the affinity and sensitivity to the action of ß-lactam antimicrobial compounds. Incorrect use of antibiotics is one of the factors responsible for generating resistant strains, and the addition of growth promoters in pig feeds with the addition of antibiotics as a form of prevention may favor and even increase the existence of multiresistant strains, further aggravating the current scenario, as expressed by data already obtained in research. The selection of these resistant genes is a matter of concern for collective health, since individuals that had contact with pigs and residents living near pig farms present S. aureus resistant strains. Thus, the correct use of antibiotics is pivotal for reducing the antibiotic resistance rates.


En el escenario agroindustrial brasileño la cadena porcina viene destacándose cada vez más. La inserción en el mercado internacional y las nuevas tecnologías aplicadas en la práctica de producción de cerdos, tiene gran importancia en la economía del país. Sin embargo, algunas bacterias oportunistas están presentes en las regiones nasales de cerdos, siendo responsables por diversas alteraciones clínicas en la porcicultura. Uno de los principales patógenos que acomete esta especie es el Staphylococcus aureus, responsable también por infecciones en los seres humanos. El S. aureus posee características de virulencia y resistencia a diversos antibióticos, en especial a la oxacilina, un antibiótico perteneciente al grupo ß-lactámicos con amplia escala de utilización. La resistencia del S. aureus a oxacilina está interconectada a varios factores, como la presencia del gen mecA, que codifica la producción de una proteína ligante y así disminuye la afinidad y la sensibilidad a la acción de compuestos antimicrobianos ß-lactámicos. El uso erróneo de antibióticos es uno de los factores responsables de cepas resistentes y, la adición de promotores de crecimiento en las raciones de cerdos, con la adición de antibióticos de forma preventiva, puede favorecer y aumentar la existencia de cepas multirresistentes, agravando aún más los datos ya obtenidos en investigaciones. La selección de estos genes resistentes causa preocupación a la salud colectiva, ya que individuos que tuvieron contacto con cerdos y residen cercano a las granjas presentan cepas resistentes de S. aureus. Así, la utilización de antibióticos de forma correcta es fundamental para la reducción de índices de resistencias a los antibióticos.


Assuntos
Animais , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/imunologia , Antibacterianos
12.
Phytomedicine ; 51: 7-19, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the medicinal plants widely used by the population in the treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis and circulatory disorders is Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr. (Lythraceae), popularly known as 'sete sangrias', being found in Brazil, Hawaii and in South Pacific Islands. Despite the widespread use of this species by the population, its long-term antihypertensive and cardioprotective activities have not yet been scientifically evaluated. PURPOSE: To evaluate the possible cardioprotective effects of an ethanol-soluble fraction obtained from C. carthagenensis (ESCC) using ovariectomized hypertensive rats to simulate a broad part of the female population over 50 years of age affected by hypertension. In addition, the molecular mechanism that may be responsible for its cardiorenal protective effects was also explored. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were submitted to surgical procedures of bilateral ovariectomy and induction of renovascular hypertension (two-kidneys, one-clip model). The sham-operated group was used as negative control. ESCC was obtained and a detailed phytochemical investigation about its main secondary metabolites was performed. ESCC was orally administered at doses of 30, 100 and 300  mg/kg, daily, for 28 days, 5 weeks after surgery. Enalapril (15  mg/kg) was used as standard antihypertensive drug. Renal function was evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28. At the end of the experimental period, systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded. The activity of the tissue enzymatic antioxidant system, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nitrotyrosine, nitrite, aldosterone and vasopressin levels, in addition to the activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme were also evaluated. Additionally, vascular reactivity to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and phenylephrine, and the role of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and K+ channels in the vasodilator response of ESCC on the mesenteric vascular bed were also investigated. RESULTS: ESCC-treatment induced an important cardiorenal protective response, preserving renal function and preventing elevation of blood pressure and heart rate in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. In addition, prolonged treatment with ESCC recovered mesenteric vascular reactivity at all doses used. This effect was associated with an important modulation of the antioxidant defense system with a possible increase in NO bioavailability. Additionally, NO/cGMP activation and K+ channel opening-dependent vasodilator effect was observed on the mesenteric vascular bed, indicating a potential mechanism for the cardiovascular effects of ESCC. CONCLUSION: A 28-days ESCC treatment reduces the progression of the cardiorenal disease in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. These effects seem to be involved with an attenuation of oxidative and nitrosative stress, affecting endothelial nitric oxide production and K+ channel opening in smooth muscle cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Cuphea/química , Hipertensão Renovascular/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aldosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Estresse Nitrosativo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/metabolismo , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
13.
Planta Med ; 84(17): 1271-1279, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929207

RESUMO

Excess weight and dyslipidemia are among the most serious health problems in Western societies. These conditions enhance the risk of cardiac disease and have been linked with a higher prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. The present study investigated the cardioprotective effects of Echinodorus grandiflorus on ventricular remodeling in rabbits that were fed a 1% cholesterol-rich diet. We first obtained an ethanol-soluble fraction of E. grandiflorus and performed a detailed phytochemical study by liquid chromatography-DAD/ESI-MS. For 60 days, male rabbits were fed the cholesterol-rich diet or a diet without the addition of cholesterol. After 30 days, different groups of rabbits were treated with the ethanol-soluble fraction of E. grandiflorus (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p. o.), simvastatin (2.5 mg/kg), or vehicle once daily for 30 days. At the end of 60 days, the serum lipoprotein ratio, electrocardiographic profile, histopathological alterations, and the cardiac antioxidant defense system were investigated. Echocardiographic analysis showed morphological and functional alterations in cholesterol-rich diet-fed animals, indicating left ventricle hypertrophy. The total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio were significantly higher in cholesterol-rich diet-fed rabbits. Myocardial flaccidity, fatty degeneration, and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy were observed. An increase in lipid peroxidation levels, a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity, and a decrease in reduced glutathione levels were observed in the myocardium of all cholesterol-rich diet-fed rabbits. Treatment with the ethanol-soluble fraction of E. grandiflorus, especially the highest dose, significantly reduced all of these alterations, thus demonstrating the cardioprotective effect of the ethanol-soluble fraction of E. grandiflorus on cardiac changes that are induced by a cholesterol-rich diet.


Assuntos
Alismataceae , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Colesterol na Dieta/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Colesterol na Dieta/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrocardiografia , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Coelhos
14.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 11: 131-135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606883

RESUMO

Background: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics has caused bacteria to develop mechanisms of resistance to antibacterial agents, limiting treatment options. Therefore, there is a great need for alternative methods to control infections, especially those related to skin. One of the alternative methods is the high frequency equipment (HFE), which is used on skin conditions as an analgesic, an anti-inflammatory, and mainly to accelerate cicatricial processes and have a bactericidal effect through the formation of ozone. This research investigated the antibacterial effect of HFE on standard cultures of bacteria. Materials and methods: Dilutions (104 colony forming unit mL-1) were performed for Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus with 24-hour growth bacteria. Then, 1 µL of each dilution was pipetted into suitable medium and the HFE flashing technique was used at intensities of 6, 8 and 10 mA for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 seconds. The control group received no treatment. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and then read. Results: The spark at intensity of 6 mA had no bactericidal effect on the E. aerogenes; however, a significant bacterial growth reduction occurred at intensity of 8 mA after 120 and 180 seconds, and at 10 mA, reduction in bacterial growth could already be verified at 30 seconds and total bacterial growth inhibition occurred in 180 seconds. For S. aureus, there was a strong bacterial growth inhibition at all intensities used; however, at 6 mA, absence of bacterium growth after 120 and 180 seconds was observed. By increasing the flashing intensity to 8 and 10 mA, it was observed that the bacterium growth was inhibited after only 30 seconds of irradiation. Conclusion: The HFE has time-dependent antibacterial effects against E. aerogenes and S. aureus bacteria that have several resistance mechanisms.

15.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61: e18180225, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974078

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose Population aging is one of the great achievements of humanity. However, with aging, the incidence of chronic diseases and those related to cognition deficits increase. In this way, strategies aimed at preventing or delaying cognitive deficit are extremely necessary. Thus, this study investigates the relationship between cognitive deficits, schooling and eating habits in a Brazilian elderly population. Methods The dietary habits of 400 older adults were investigated through structured questionnaires. Unhealthy eating habits such as low consumption of fruits, vegetables and beans, consumption of fatty meats and whole milk, adjusted for other variables, were evaluated. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Data were analyzed by Chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Results There was cognitive deficit prevalence of 17.7% in the study population, which increases with age progression. The low frequency of vegetable consumption increased the risk of cognitive deficit in the crude analysis by 47.6% and increased these odds by 44.1% after the final adjustment. Low educational level was also associated with cognitive deficit of individuals (28.25%). Conclusion Educational level and vegetable consumption in adult life and in later adulthood improve cognition.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234376

RESUMO

Although Acanthospermum hispidum is used in Brazilian folk medicine as an antihypertensive, no study evaluated its effects on a renovascular hypertension and ovariectomy model. So, this study investigated the mechanisms involved in the antihypertensive effects of an ethanol-soluble fraction obtained from A. hispidum (ESAH) using two-kidney-one-clip hypertension in ovariectomized rats (2K1C plus OVT). ESAH was orally administered at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, daily, for 28 days, after 5 weeks of surgery. Enalapril (15 mg/kg) and hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/kg) were used as standard drugs. Diuretic activity was evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. Serum creatinine, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nitrosamine, nitrite, aldosterone, vasopressin levels, and ACE activity were measured. The vascular reactivity and the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) in the vasodilator response of ESAH on the mesenteric vascular bed (MVB) were also investigated. ESAH treatment induced an important saluretic and antihypertensive response, therefore recovering vascular reactivity in 2K1C plus OVT-rats. This effect was associated with a reduction of oxidative and nitrosative stress with a possible increase in the NO bioavailability. Additionally, a NO and PG-dependent vasodilator effect was observed on the MEV.

17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 21(3): [213]-[223], set-dez. 2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-879623

RESUMO

As disfunções da coluna vertebral afetam uma grande parcela da população adulta em algum momento da vida, com predileção por adultos jovens em fase ativa. Por se tratar de uma patologia recorrente na população em geral torna-se necessário o desenvolvimento de estudos baseados em evidência que comprovem a efetividade de técnicas utilizadas no tratamento das disfunções da coluna vertebral. Assim, esta revisão sistematizada teve por objetivo abordar a efetividade da estabilização segmentar vertebral e de outras técnicas terapêuticas em indivíduos que apresentam disfunções da coluna vertebral. Para desenvolver esta revisão sistemática da literatura foram realizadas busca nas bases de dados PUBMED (National Library of Medicine and National Intiuttes of Health), PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) e SCIELO (Scientific Eletronic Library OnLine) no período de 2003 a 2014. Os descritores utilizados de forma isolada ou combinada foram: "segmental stabilization and manual therapy", "segmental stabilization", "manual therapy and spinal disorders". Foram incluídos no total 16 artigos que focaram indivíduos com disfunção da coluna vertebral lombar de causa não específica. A literatura analisada sugere que os exercícios de estabilização são positivos no tratamento de pacientes com disfunção da coluna lombar, entretanto são inconclusivos ao verificar se tais exercícios são superiores às técnicas de terapia manual ou a tratamentos convencionais como os exercícios gerais.


The spine dysfunctions affect a great portion of the adult population in some moment of the life, with predilection for young adults in activates phase. Due to be an appealing pathology becomes necessary the development of studies based in evidence that prove the effectiveness of techniques used in the treatment of the spine dysfunctions. Therefore, this systematized revision had for objective to approach the effectiveness of the vertebral segmentary stabilization and of other therapeutic techniques in individuals that present spine dysfunctions. To develop this systematic revision, it was accomplished search in the bases of data PUBMED (National Library of Medicine and National Intiuttes of Health), PeDRO (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) and SCIELO (Scientific Eletronic Library OnLine) in the period from 2003 to 2014. The used descritores in way isolated or combined were: "segmental stabilization and manual therapy", "segmental stabilization", "manual therapy and spinal disorders". It was included 16 articles that focused participants with lumbar spine dysfunction of cause no specific. The analyzed literature suggests that the exercises of stabilization are positive in the patients' treatment with back lumbar pain; however, they are inconclusive when verifying such exercises are superior to the techniques of manual therapy or to conventional treatments as the general exercises.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Coluna Vertebral
18.
Phytomedicine ; 34: 162-170, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28899499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. var. paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae) popularly known as 'mate' is an important species native to South America. Despite numerous studies showing significant antioxidant and lipid lowering properties, the antiatherosclerotic mechanisms of this species remain unknown. PURPOSE: To evaluate the possible antiatherosclerotic effects of a butanolic fraction (n-BFIP) obtained from I. paraguariensis and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this activity. METHODS: First, n-BFIP was obtained from the hydroalcoholic extract and a detailed phytochemical investigation about its main secondary metabolites was performed. Then, during 8 experimental weeks, rabbits received diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol (CRD). After 4 weeks of CDR, animals were redistributed into five groups (n = 6) and treated (p.o.) with n-BFIP (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg), simvastatin (5 mg/kg), or vehicle (filtered water, 1 ml/kg) once daily for 4 weeks. An additional group was fed with cholesterol-free diet and treated with vehicle. At the end of 8 weeks, serum samples were obtained for the measurement of serum lipids, lipid and protein oxidation and indirect nitric oxide levels. In addition, serum IL-1ß, IL-6, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and intracellular cGMP levels in rabbit aortic rings were measured. Samples from the aortic arch and thoracic segment were collected for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: CRD induced oxidative and nitrosative stress and increased serum lipids, IL-1ß, IL-6, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels. In addition, structural changes in the intima layers of different arterial branches were also found. Although it did not change serum lipids, n-BFIP reverted oxidative and nitrosative stress and reduced IL-1ß, IL-6, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels, besides to increasing intracellular levels of cGMP in vitro. In addition, the formation of atherosclerotic plaques was reduced to values close to those of animals fed with cholesterol-free diet. CONCLUSIONS: A 4-week n-FBIP treatment reduces the progression of the atherosclerotic disease in New Zealand rabbits. These effects are associated with an attenuation of oxidative and nitrosative stress, affecting IL-1ß, IL-6, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Coelhos , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 206: 125-134, 2017 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549859

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acanthospermum hispidum DC. is an important medicinal herb that belongs to family Asteraceae, popularly used as a diuretic and hypotensive in the region of Pantanal, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Despite the relevance of this species throughout the country, there are no detailed studies about its possible ethnobotanical indication. AIM: To carry out a detailed ethnopharmacological investigation of the cardio-renal properties of A. hispidum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, a detailed morpho-anatomical study with the purpose of characterizing and providing quality control parameters for the species was carried out. Then, purified aqueous extract (ESAH) was obtained and a detailed phytochemical investigation about its main secondary metabolites was performed. In addition, a thorough acute toxicological study was conducted to evaluate the actual toxic effects of this preparation. Finally, the possible diuretic and hypotensive effects of ESAH on male Wistar rats (30, 100, 300mg/kg; intraduodenally) were evaluated, and using pharmacological antagonists or inhibitors, the involvement of prostaglandin/cAMP and nitric oxide/cGMP pathway and potassium channels in ESAH-induced hypotension was investigated. RESULTS: The analyses performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the main secondary metabolites present in ESAH were phenolic compounds, such as caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid), dicaffeoylquinic acids and glycosylated flavonoids (quercetin glucoside and galactoside). ESAH did not induce any acute toxic effects and did not affect the urinary volume or renal excretion of electrolytes in Wistar rats. On the other hand, intraduodenal administration of ESAH induces a significant acute hypotensive effect. Previous treatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, methylene blue, or tetraethylammonium fully avoided the hypotensive effect of ESAH. All other parameters were not affected by treatment with ESAH. CONCLUSION: Data obtained in this study allow us to suggest that ESAH obtained from A. hispidum presents an important acute hypotensive effect, which appears to be dependent on the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway. This study presents new evidences about the therapeutic potential of this species when acute hypotensive response is required.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Cromatografia Líquida , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 187: 134-45, 2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27125593

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Although Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. is used in Brazilian folk medicine in the treatment of atherosclerosis and circulatory disorders, no study evaluating these effects has been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible hypolipemiant and antiatherogenic activity of the ethanol soluble fraction obtained from C. carthagenensis (ES-CC) in an experimental atherosclerosis model using New Zealand (NZ) rabbits undergoing cholesterol-rich diet (CRD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dyslipidemia and atherogenesis were induced by administration of standard commercial diet increased of 1% cholesterol (CRD) for 8 weeks. ES-CC was orally administered at doses of 10, 30 and 100mg/kg, once daily for four weeks, starting from the 4th week of CRD diet. Body weight measurements were weekly carried out from the beginning of experiments for 8 weeks. Serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and their fractions (LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C) were measured at the beginning of experiments and at weeks four and eight. After euthanasia of rabbits, aorta segments (aortic arc, thoracic, abdominal and iliac segments) were macroscopically and microscopically evaluated and the intima and media layers of the arteries were measured. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of ES-CC and its influence on the functioning of hepatic antioxidant enzymes were also determined. RESULTS: CRD induced dyslipidemia and major structural changes in the aortic wall. In addition, an increase in lipid peroxidation and a reduction of hepatic glutathione and serum nitrite levels were observed. Treatment with ES-CC was able to prevent the increase in TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C levels and triglycerides and promoted an increase in HDL-C levels in NZ rabbits. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress and modulation of the catalase and superoxide dismutase function. Moreover, the intima and media layers of the arterial segments were significantly reduced by ES-CC treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that ES-CC reduces serum lipids and hepatic oxidative stress when orally administered to NZ rabbits. In addition, it was able to prevent the development of CRD-induced atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Cuphea , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias/patologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Nitratos/sangue , Nitritos/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Coelhos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
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