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Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 26(5): 157-159, sept.-oct. 2006. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-054782


La rueda de los alimentos es un recurso didáctico que fue muy utilizado en los años 70 - 80, habiendo sido promovida en España por el programa EDALNU del Ministerio de Sanidad. Los cambios surgidos en la alimentación de los españoles en las últimas décadas, hacen necesaria la actualización de sus contenidos. Intervenciones. Con este motivo, se ha procedido a estudiar los materiales didácticos existentes que hacen referencia a la composición de una alimentación saludable y equilibrada. Se ha procedido a diseñar un material didáctico específico que dará lugar a una serie de recursos educativos en materia de alimentación y nutrición. Actualmente, ya está disponible la “Nueva rueda de los alimentos” para aquellos profesionales y entidades de carácter no lucrativo interesados en su utilización como recurso didáctico (AU)

The "wheel of foods" is a didactic resource that was used, having promoted in Spain by program EDALNU of the Ministry of Health. The changes arisen in the feeding of the Spaniards in the last decades, make the update necessary of their contents. With this reason, it has been come to study the existing didactic materials that make reference to the composition of a healthful and balanced feeding. At the moment, already the "New wheel of foods" (for those professionals and organizations of nonlucrative character) is available for people interested in its use as didactic resource (AU)

Humanos , Alimentos/classificação , Educação Alimentar e Nutricional , Materiais de Ensino , Educação em Saúde/métodos
Med Clin (Barc) ; 112(10): 368-74, 1999 Mar 20.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10227016


OBJECTIVE: To review available data on the usual dietary intake of school-age Spanish children, by analyzing the nutritional surveys carried out during the period 1984-1994. METHODS: Systematic and comprehensive search of surveys with dietary data in Spanish children aged 6 to 16 years collected during the period 1984-1994 and published after January 1997. The search of bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, IME, ISBN and Teseo), was completed with an extensive search of the gray literature and of unpublished studies through contact with public and private institutions which may fund such studies. The quality of the original surveys was assessed, and the data of the studies fulfilling pre-established quality requirements were summarized and tabulated. RESULTS: We located 65 nutritional surveys in children and adolescents performed between 1984 and 1994, which generated 91 documents. Most surveys (76.9%) were local, while 18.5% of them studied provinces or regions and 3.1% studied more than one region. Only 4 studies (6.2%) met the quality requirements, but the methods or the presentation of the results of these surveys were too heterogeneous. In spite of that, the available data tends to show a certain lack of balance of macronutrient intakes in relation to the usual dietary recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Available data on nutritional intake of Spanish school-age children during 1984-1994 were too heterogeneous to be comparable, even if the analysis was restricted to high-quality surveys. Furthermore, there are no repeated surveys monitoring changes in intake in representative samples of children performed during the study period. This should be taken into account in future research endeavours which should contemplate a well defined sampling framework and the appropriate methodology to assure the proper interpretation of the eventual results.

Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Espanha
Rev Clin Esp ; 196(8): 501-8, 1996 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8984535


UNLABELLED: The objective of the present work was to know the consume of foodstuffs and nutrients among schoolchildren in the Madrid Autonomous Community and also the relative contribution of each group of foodstuffs to the overall intake of macronutrients. This study had a sectional observational design involving 2,608 children (51% males and 49% females) with ages ranging from 6 to 14 years who were randomly recruited from conglomerate of schools, according to socio-economic status and rural/urban residence. The inquiry on nutrients in 4 non consecutive days was analyzed (2 "24 hour-recall" and 2 "intake recall"). RESULTS: a) the consume of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates represented 17%, 43% and 40% of the total caloric value, respectively; b) the intake of meats, sausages, sweets, tidbits, and processed products was very high. This fact is in origin of the excessive total and saturated lipid intake; c) there was a scarce intake of vegetables, cereals and potatoes among children of all ages and dairy products in children older than 12 years; d) the intake of legumes, eggs and fruits was appropriate; e) males consumed proportionally higher amounts than females of the following groups of foodstuffs: cereals, sweets and tidbits. The consume of meat, sausages, fish, eggs, potatoes, dry fruits and dairy products was similar in both sexes. Females consumed proportionally more fat foodstuffs, vegetables, fruits, legumes and processed products; f) females consumed a diet with a still higher lipid and protein content than males. These findings can serve as a basis to develop educational guidelines with a practical impact on family and school menus.

Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Espanha , População Urbana
An Esp Pediatr ; 44(3): 209-13, 1996 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8830592


The aim of this study was to assess the intake of foods of animal origin other than milk, as well as their role in the diet of children, in a representative sample of a school-aged population from the Community of Madrid (CAENPE study). A 4 day assessment of the dietary intake was conducted by applying a combination of the methods of 24-hour recall and a written record of the estimated consumption. We studied 2,608 schoolchildren between the ages of 6 and 14 years. The subjects were divided into groups according to age and sex. We found that the average meat intake was 213 +/- 87 g/person/day. The consumption of meat was significantly higher in boys (p < 0.05) and increased with age both in boys (p < 0.001) and girls (p < 0.05). Meat provided 40% of the saturated fat, 34% of the cholesterol and 33.5% of the protein in the diet. Fish intake was 77 +/- 64 g/person/day, with higher consumption in boys (p < 0.05) and with no influence of age. Fish supplied 11% of the dietary protein and only 1.2% of the saturated fat. Egg consumption was 31 +/- 20 g/day/person, which represents 3 eggs per week. The consumption of eggs was also higher in boys than in girls (p < 0.05) and provides 28% of the dietary cholesterol. We conclude that meat provides more than one third of the dietary protein and alone covers the RDA for protein. In addition, meat also contributes the highest amount of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol. Egg and fish intake is adequate; hence, it would be desirable to reduce the excessive meat intake in order to equilibrate the macronutrients and cholesterol supplied by the diet.

Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ovos/estatística & dados numéricos , Peixes , Produtos da Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Adolescente , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aves Domésticas , Ovinos , Espanha , Suínos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
Rev Clin Esp ; 191(3): 123-30, 1992 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1502401


With the objective to know precisely the qualitative and quantitative food intake of the infant population of a Health Care Area, the weekly intake of Energy, Proteins, Total and Saturated Fat, Food Fiber, Cholesterol, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium. Iron, Zinc and Vitamin A is studied in 187 pupils, representative of the whole (835 children) population of two schools of Fuenlabrada and Leganés (Madrid), following the Weekly Register technique. Total consumption is quantified, and stratified according to sex and age groups. In order to perform a proper evaluation of these parameters, their adequacy to the Intake Recommendations for age and sex is analyzed, finding an excessive intake of calories, proteins and lipids in all age groups: being saturated Fat a third of the total daily Fat; Carbohydrates intake less than 50% of total energy, which would be desirable to maintain the nutritional ratio. Calcium intake, insufficient in some age group, together with the strong correlation proteins-phosphorus as well as total and saturated Fat with Cholesterol of the diet, allow to conclude that the excessive protein intake is predominantly due to meat products. It is also noted the lower intake of Zinc, Calcium, Magnesium, as to the recommended in certain age groups, therefore said individuals are at risk to suffer deficit of these micronutrients.

Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Dieta , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha , Oligoelementos/deficiência
Gac Sanit ; 6(31): 157-63, 1992.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1428584


The present study investigates the level of health education in a representative sample of 804 pre-university Asturian students, randomly selected from the official list of the Ministry of Education and Science. We used a questionnaire (designed by us) in order to measure the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour related to some of the most important health determining factors. The survey was carried out by interviewing small groups of students in the classroom situation. Although it was found that the majority perceived themselves as healthy or very healthy, these young people are widely exposed to risk factors: 12% have suffered from more than 25 episodes of drunkenness during the previous year; 43.53% smoked to some extent and only 3.86% identified the days of maximum risk of pregnancy in a supposed menstrual cycle, although 31% maintained sexual relationships. Theoretically, 92% selected health as the most important factor among the three most fundamental values for life. They also think that illegal drugs are the most important health problem at present for young people. There is a contradiction between the high theoretical importance given to health, the good self-qualification of it, and the observed presence of important risk factors. A certain failure of the educational system with respect to primary prevention can be claimed.

Adolescente , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estudantes , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
Nutr Hosp ; 7(3): 191-9, 1992.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1623050


In order to perform an in-depth study on food standards among school children and evaluate the effect of a nutritional educational programme on eating habits, an analysis was made of the data on the intake of foods over a period of 1,890 days, in 187 school children from 2 schools in the Leganés-Fuenlabrada area. The consumption of global and stratified rations was quantified based on age, commercial foods (buns, fried foods and sweets) accounting for a large part of the children's diet, as well as dairy products, vegetables, fruit and fish, representing basic foodstuffs supposed to form part of their diet. The consumption of these was compared in two stages, before and after receiving the educational programme. It was observed that there was an excessive consumption of foodstuffs considered as lacking in nutritional value (commercial), which increased with age and a lack of natural foods evaluated in their food standards. We also observed that the applied health intervention modified the consumption of these foods recently incorporated into the children's diet, without achieving results with regard to family eating habits.

Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Espanha