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1.
J Sex Med ; 17(8): 1509-1519, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surveys report low frequencies of sexual history (SH) obtained in primary care. Sexually transmitted infections incidence can be reduced with timely screening. It is important to determine whether providers obtain thorough SH and to identify needs for improvement. AIM: To evaluate the frequency and depth of SH taking in primary care. METHODS: In this cross-sectional cohort study, 1,017 primary care visits were reviewed (1,017 adult patients, female 55.26%). 417 patients were seen by male providers and 600 patients were seen by female providers. Multivariate ordered and logit models were deployed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures included SH taking rates and completeness based on the 5 P model as described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS: All components of SH were explored in 1.08% of visits. Partial SH was obtained in 33.92% of visits. No SH was taken in the majority of visits (65%). SH was more likely to be taken from female patients than from male patients (P < .001), and was less likely to be obtained from older patients as compared to younger individuals (P < .001). There was no significant difference in SH taking between male and female providers (P = .753). The provider title and the level of training were found to be independent predictors of SH taking (P < .001). CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study highlight an unmet need for more comprehensive and consistent SH taking amongst providers, particularly in high-risk settings, so that SH can be used as a valuable tool in preventive care. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest study to date examining SH taking in the primary care setting. Limitations include the retrospective study design, lack of generalizability to other hospitals, and inconsistencies in available data. CONCLUSION: The SH taking rates in primary care clinics are globally low with a variation depending on the provider position or level of training, provider gender, and patient age. Palaiodimos L, Herman HS, Wood E, et al. Practices and Barriers in Sexual History Taking: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Public Adult Primary Care Clinic. J Sex Med 2020;17:1509-1519.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(9): 2085-2093, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681702

RESUMO

Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) raises the risk for acute myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome (DS) (ML-DS), and both are related to GATA1 pathogenic variants. Here, we analyzed which findings on complete blood count (CBC) are associated with TAM in a cohort of neonates with DS screened for GATA1 pathogenic variants. The CBCs were compared among 70 newborns with DS, including 16 patients (22.9%) with TAM (cases), and 54 patients (77.1%) without TAM (controls). TAM was defined as peripheral circulating blasts (PCBs) ≥ 1%. PCR and direct sequencing were used to screen DNA samples from peripheral blood for GATA1 exon 2 mutations. Multivariate logistic regression analyses determined that the mean count of lymphocytes was significantly higher in DS infants with TAM (p = .035) and that lymphocytosis confers a risk for TAM (adjusted odds ratio = 7.23, 95% confidence intervals: 2.02-25.92). Pathogenic variants of GATA1 were identified in 2 of 70 analyzed DS neonates (2.9%), of which one had ML-DS and another had an asymptomatic TAM. Among those DS infants with TAM, the GATA1 pathogenic variant detection was 12.5%. Our results indicated that lymphocytosis is associated with TAM in neonates with DS. However, since not all infants with an abnormal CBC had TAM, and not all infants with TAM had GATA1 pathogenic variants, we emphasize that only the search for GATA1 pathogenic variants allows the proper identification of the subgroup of DS infants with a real increasing in risk for ML-DS.

3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322252

RESUMO

Mast cells are a heterogeneous group of immune cells. The simplest and commonly accepted classification divides them in two groups according to their protease content. We have compared the action of diverse secretagogues on bone marrow derived (BMMC) and peritoneal (PMC) mast cells which represent classical models of mucosal and connective tissue type mast cells in mice. Whereas, antigen stimulation of the FcεRI receptors was similarly effective in triggering elevations of free intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in both BMMC and PMC, robust [Ca2+]i rise following Endothelin-1 stimulation was observed only in a fraction of BMMC. Leukotriene C4 activating cysteinyl leukotriene type I receptors failed to evoke [Ca2+]i rise in either mast cell model. Stimulation of the recently identified target of many small-molecule drugs associated with systemic pseudo-allergic reactions, Mrgprb2, with compound 48/80, a mast cell activator with unknown receptor studied for many years, triggered Ca2+ oscillations in BMMC and robust [Ca2+]i rise in PMCs similarly to that evoked by FcεRI stimulation. [Ca2+]i rise in PMC could also be evoked by other Mrgprb2 agonists such as Tubocurarine, LL-37, and Substance P. The extent of [Ca2+]i rise correlated with mast cell degranulation. Expression analysis of TRPC channels as potential candidates mediating agonist evoked Ca2+ entry revealed the presence of transcripts of all members of the TRPC subfamily of TRP channels in PMCs. The amplitude and AUC of compound 48/80-evoked [Ca2+]i rise was reduced by ~20% in PMC from Trpc1/4/6 -/- mice compared to Trpc1/4 -/- littermatched control mice, whereas FcεRI-evoked [Ca2+]i rise was unaltered. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings showed that the reduction in compound 48/80-evoked [Ca2+]i rise in Trpc1/4/6 -/- PMC was accompanied by a reduced amplitude of Compound 48/80-induced cation currents which exhibited typical features of TRPC currents. Together, this study demonstrates that PMC are an appropriate mast cell model to study mechanisms of Mrgprb2 receptor-mediated mast cell activation, and it reveals that TRPC channels contribute at least partially to Mrgprb2-mediated mast cellactivation but not following FcεRI stimulation. However, the channels conducting most of the Ca2+ entry in mast cells triggered by Mrgprb2 receptor stimulation remains to be identified.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(18): 22441-22450, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314288

RESUMO

Zn is an essential trace metal in living beings. However, excessive concentrations can cause toxic effects even in the aquatic biota. Zn is widely used in different industrial sectors, which has increased its presence in aquatic environments. To assess the acute toxicity of Zn, bioassays were performed with the fish Gambusia sexradiata for a 96-h exposure using ZnCl2 (0 and 15 salinity) and ZnO nanomaterials (0 salinity). The mean lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h) for ZnCl2 were 25.36 (19.64-32.76) and 177.91 (129.39-244.63) mg Zn L-1 to 0 and 15 salinity, respectively. The increased concentration of ZnCl2 showed a dose-response relationship; similarly, the increase in salinity significantly reduces the toxicity of Zn. Characterisation of ZnO nanomaterials was carried out by FTIR, DRX, SEM, DLS and zeta potential. The FTIR spectra showed the characteristic band of Zn-O vibration at 364 cm-1, while DRX presents the hexagonal wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 40 nm. SEM micrographs reveal rod-like shapes with lengths and diameters of 40-350 nm and 90 nm, respectively. Agglomerates of 423 nm in water suspension were obtained by DLS and zeta potential of + 14.4 mV. Under these conditions, no mortality was observed due to the rapid flocculation/precipitation of ZnO nanomaterials, which involved brief interaction periods of Zn in the water column with the fish. Gambusia sexradiata is affected by increased Zn concentrations in hard water conditions, and salinity changes modified Zn toxicity, placing it as a suitable model for toxicity tests for this type of particles.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Óxido de Zinco , Animais , Dose Letal Mediana , Salinidade , Zinco
5.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 26(7S Suppl 2): S180-S186, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ) in combination with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) in Latin American patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inadequate response to previous csDMARDs. METHODS: ML28700 was a multicenter, open-label, single-arm trial. Previously treated RA patients who had not received treatment with TCZ or any biological agent (n = 284) and with a baseline Disease Activity Score in 28 joints based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) of 3.2 or greater were assigned to receive subcutaneous TCZ (162 mg/wk) in association with csDMARD for 24 weeks. Patients who achieved remission (DAS28-ESR <2.6) at week 24 continued with TCZ as monotherapy until week 52; otherwise, they continued with their assigned treatment. The primary efficacy end point was remission rate (DAS28-ESR <2.6) at weeks 24 and 52. Secondary objectives included disease activity scores, safety, and quality of life. RESULTS: At week 24, a total of 169 patients (59.5%; 95% confidence interval, 53.5%-65.3%) achieved remission, 91 patients (32.0%) had low disease activity, and 46 patients (8.4%) were not responders. Sustained remission at week 52 was achieved by 80.8% (n = 126) of patients who continued with TCZ monotherapy versus 44.6% (n = 37) of those on combination therapy. A total of 241 patients (84.9%; 95% confidence interval, 80.2%-88.8%) had at least 1 adverse event during follow-up. Adverse events led to drug modification in 32 patients (11.3%) or discontinuation in 21 patients (7.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Subcutaneous TCZ is an efficacious therapy with long-lasting results and tolerable adverse events in Latin American patients with RA.Trial registration no.: NCT02011334 Tozura Study Program.

6.
ACS Omega ; 5(7): 3743-3748, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118190

RESUMO

The standardization of secondary electrolytic conductivity cells requires the use of a certified reference material. The accepted certification method involves electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to estimate the material's solution resistance. This method normally assumes that the impedance's imaginary component can be neglected; and hence, the measured impedance approximates the real impedance. Thus, a linear extrapolation of the impedance versus the period (inverse frequency) yields solution resistance. However, experimental impedance data usually do not exhibit a linear behavior over the spectra of frequency, which strongly suggest that the ideal capacitive assumption may not strictly apply. To account for the observed nonlinear behavior, we have proposed to introduce the concept of a constant phase element (CPE) to the analysis of impedance. This approach leads to the development of a relationship that improves the fitting of experimental data and improves the accuracy of the estimation, by establishing a critical frequency where extrapolation should be done. Finally, we are presenting simulated results to demonstrate how sizeable capacitive effects can influence the determination of solution resistance, and a final analysis to estimate the impact on constant cell or electrolytic conductivity values.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161361

RESUMO

Stress promotes negative affective states, which include anhedonia and passive coping. While these features are in part mediated by neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitry, a comprehensive framework of how stress-induced negative affect may be encoded within key nodes of this circuit is lacking. Here, we show in a mouse model for stress-induced anhedonia and passive coping that these phenomena are associated with increased synaptic strength of ventral hippocampus (VH) excitatory synapses onto D1 medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens medial shell (NAcmSh), and with lateral hypothalamus (LH)-projecting D1-MSN hyperexcitability mediated by decreased inwardly rectifying potassium channel (IRK) function. Stress-induced negative affective states are prevented by depotentiation of VH to NAcmSh synapses, restoring Kir2.1 function in D1R-MSNs, or disrupting co-participation of these synaptic and intrinsic adaptations in D1-MSNs. In conclusion, our data provide strong evidence for a disynaptic pathway controlling maladaptive emotional behavior.

8.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 132-148, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095876

RESUMO

Los oligoelementos son importantes constituyentes nutricionales de las hierbas comestibles. Se colectaron 11 especies, nueve nativas (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) y dos introducidas (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea) en dos regiones de Guatemala. Se prepararon muestras de la hierba seca, cocida y de caldo de hierba fresca. Se cuantificaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica los macro (N, P, K) y oligoelementos (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn), taninos por espectrofotometría y oxalatos por permanganimetría. El contenido de oligoelementos es diverso, para Zn, la hierba control S. oleracea contienen buena cantidad (90-140 ppm); de las nativas D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) y A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) tienen la mayor cantidad. Respecto a Fe las hierbas control tienen buena composición (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm y M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); de las nativas A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) y L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) tienen buenas concentraciones. Se encontraron niveles elevados de oxalatos en S. oleracea (67.30 (5.51) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g) y S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); en las demás hierbas se encontraron niveles menores. Los niveles de taninos fueron bajos (0.1-0.8 mg/g) para todas las especies. Se demuestra que cuatro especies nativas tienen un buen contenido de oligoelementos y presentan valores menores de antinutricionales que los controles.


Trace elements are important nutritional constituents from edible herbs. Eleven species were collected in two regions of Guatemala, nine native (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) and two introduced (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea). Dry, cooked and broth samples were prepared. By atomic absorption spectrometry, macro (N, P, K) and trace elements (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn) were quantified, tannins by spectrophotometry, and oxalates by permanganometry. Trace elements content is diverse, for Zn, control herb S. oleracea contained high quantity (90-140 ppm); from the natives D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) and A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) contained high amounts. For Fe, control herbs had high composition (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm, M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); from the natives A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) and L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) had the highest amounts. High levels of oxalates were demonstrated in S. oleracea (67.30 (5.48) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g), and S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); from the others levels.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras/classificação , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Taninos/análise , Amaranthus/química , Jatropha/química
9.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 91(4): 237-243, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186744

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de prescripciones en condiciones no autorizadas (off-label y unlicensed) en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN) y definir qué características de los neonatos se asocian a un mayor uso de fármacos en estas condiciones. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo en una UCIN nivel III-C durante un periodo de 6 meses. Se evaluó la condición de uso de cada fármaco, tomando como referencia su ficha técnica. Se utilizó un algoritmo secuencial para la clasificación de las prescripciones en: aprobadas, unlicensed u off-label (por edad, por indicación, por vía de administración, y por dosis). Resultados: Se incluyeron 84 pacientes y 564 prescripciones. Un total de 127 prescripciones fueron consideradas off-label y 45 unlicensed; lo cual supuso el 22,5% y el 8% del total, respectivamente. El 59,5% de los pacientes recibieron al menos un fármaco en una de estas condiciones, ascendiendo este porcentaje al 100% en los grandes prematuros y en los pacientes quirúrgicos (p < 0,001). Se encontró una correlación lineal positiva entre la estancia en UCIN y el número de prescripciones off-label (coeficiente de correlación 0,6 p < 0,001). Conclusiones: La prescripción de fármacos en condiciones no autorizadas es habitual en UCIN, siendo especialmente frecuente en los pacientes con mayor vulnerabilidad. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de avanzar en la investigación y homogeneizar la información existente sobre los fármacos en neonatología, con el objetivo de realizar una prescripción eficaz y segura


Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of non-approved prescriptions (off-label and unlicensed) in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and to describe factors of the neonate associated with its use. Materials and methods: Observational prospective study in a level III NICU during a 6-month period. Every prescription was analysed using the summary of product characteristics as a reference. A sequential algorithm was used to create a classification of prescriptions based on current status: approved, unlicensed, off-label (by age, route of administration, dosage, or indication). Results: The study included 84 patients and 564 prescriptions. A total of 127 (22.5%) prescriptions were considered off-label, and 45 (8%) were considered unlicensed. More than half (59.5%) of the patients received at least one of these drugs, and this increases to 100% among very preterm neonates and surgical patients (P < .001). A positive linear correlation was found between duration of NICU stay and the number of off-label prescriptions (correlation coefficient 0.6; P < .001). Conclusions: Non-licensed drugs are frequently prescribed in NICU, especially in the most vulnerable patients. Our results show the need to move forward on clinical research in order to homogenise the existing data about neonatology drugs, with the aim of making an efficient and safe prescription


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso Off-Label/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Tempo de Internação
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(34): 17081-17089, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387975

RESUMO

The avocado, Persea americana, is a fruit crop of immense importance to Mexican agriculture with an increasing demand worldwide. Avocado lies in the anciently diverged magnoliid clade of angiosperms, which has a controversial phylogenetic position relative to eudicots and monocots. We sequenced the nuclear genomes of the Mexican avocado race, P. americana var. drymifolia, and the most commercially popular hybrid cultivar, Hass, and anchored the latter to chromosomes using a genetic map. Resequencing of Guatemalan and West Indian varieties revealed that ∼39% of the Hass genome represents Guatemalan source regions introgressed into a Mexican race background. Some introgressed blocks are extremely large, consistent with the recent origin of the cultivar. The avocado lineage experienced 2 lineage-specific polyploidy events during its evolutionary history. Although gene-tree/species-tree phylogenomic results are inconclusive, syntenic ortholog distances to other species place avocado as sister to the enormous monocot and eudicot lineages combined. Duplicate genes descending from polyploidy augmented the transcription factor diversity of avocado, while tandem duplicates enhanced the secondary metabolism of the species. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, known to be elicited by Colletotrichum (anthracnose) pathogen infection in avocado, is one enriched function among tandems. Furthermore, transcriptome data show that tandem duplicates are significantly up- and down-regulated in response to anthracnose infection, whereas polyploid duplicates are not, supporting the general view that collections of tandem duplicates contribute evolutionarily recent "tuning knobs" in the genome adaptive landscapes of given species.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum/fisiologia , DNA Intergênico , Introgressão Genética , Genoma de Planta , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Magnoliopsida , Persea , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Duplicação Gênica , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/microbiologia , Persea/genética , Persea/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
11.
Rev. latinoam. psicol ; 51(2): 219-227, May-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094039

RESUMO

Resumen La incapacidad funcional del adulto asociada al envejecimiento poblacional genera un problema de salud pública. El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar la asociación existente entre el nivel educativo y la autonomía funcional de los adultos del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito (DMQ) en Ecuador. Para ello se realizó un análisis secundario con la información de la base de datos del estudio "Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): datos normativos para la población ecuatoriana", que tiene un diseño transversal con adultos de 45 a 85 años. Se utilizó un modelo multivariado de regresión logística. El tamaño muestral fue de 328 participantes, de los cuales 301 fueron incluidos. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas en cuanto al nivel educativo y la autonomía funcional: primero, permiten observar que un nivel educativo igual o mayor a los 12 años de instrucción es un factor de prevención de la pérdida de la autonomía funcional; segundo, muestran que hay una mayor posibilidad de pérdida de autonomía en función de la edad. Esta asociación existente entre el nivel educativo y la preservación de la autonomía funcional en el adulto en el DMQ muestra la importancia de promover el acceso a prácticas educativas permanentes en la población como parte de un programa de prevención de la pérdida de la autonomía mencionada.


Abstract The functional disability of the adult associated with population aging generates a public health problem due to the impact on the health and social care systems. The objective of this investigation was to study the association between educational level and functional autonomy of adults of the Metropolitan District of Quito (DMQ) in Ecuador. For this, a secondary analysis was done with the information from the database of the study "Montreal cognitive assesment (MOCA): normative data for the Ecuadorian population", the same one that has a cross-sectional study design with adults from 45 to 85 years old. A multivariate logistic regression model was used. The sample number was 328 participants of which 301 were included. The results show the significant differences in terms of educational level and functional autonomy, being a factor of prevention an educational level equal to or greater than 12 years of instruction. In addition, showing greater possibility of loss of autonomy based on age. This existing association between educational level and the preservation of functional autonomy in adults in the DMQ demonstrates the importance of promoting access to permanent educational practices in the population as part of a program to prevent the loss of functional autonomy.

12.
Food Res Int ; 121: 586-592, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108785

RESUMO

Secondary metabolites play an important role in the avocado fruit defense system. Phenolic compounds are the main biosynthesized metabolites of this system response. Our objective in this investigation was to evaluate the induction of specific metabolic pathways using chitosan as an elicitor. Extracts obtained from avocado in intermediate and consumption maturity stages treated with chitosan exhibited an increase in antifungal activity, which caused inhibition of mycelial growth and a decrease in sporulation as well as spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Additionally, RNA from epicarp of the fruits treated and untreated with chitosan was obtained in order to evaluate the expression of genes related to phenylpropanoids and the antifungal compound 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-heneicosa-12,15-diene biosynthesis. An increased in gene expression of genes that participates in the phenylpropanoids route was observed during the stage of physiological fruit maturity, others genes such as Flavonol synthase (Fls), increased only in samples obtained from fruit treated with chitosan at consumption maturity. Our results reveal a new molecular mechanism where chitosan induces a specific accumulation of phenylpropanoids and antifungal diene; this partially explains avocado's resistance against fungal pathogens. Finally, we discuss the molecular connections between chitosan induction and gene expression to explain the biological events that orchestrate the resistance pathways in fruits.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quitosana/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Persea/química , Propanóis/metabolismo , Propanóis/farmacologia , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Álcoois Graxos , Flavonóis/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Oxirredutases/genética , Persea/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Metabolismo Secundário/genética
13.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(3): 181738, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032030

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of a series of theophylline derivatives containing 1,2,3-triazole moieties are presented. The corrosion inhibition activities of these new triazole-theophylline compounds were evaluated by studying the corrosion of API 5 L X52 steel in 1 M HCl medium. The results showed that an increase in the concentration of the theophylline-triazole derivatives also increases the charge transference resistance (R ct) value, enhancing inhibition efficiency and decreasing the corrosion process. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under static conditions studies revealed that the best inhibition efficiencies (approx. 90%) at 50 ppm are presented by the all-substituted compounds. According to the Langmuir isotherm, the compounds 4 and 5 analysed exhibit physisorption-chemisorption process, with exception of the hydrogen 3, bromo 6 and iodo 7 substituted compounds, which exhibit chemisorption process. The corrosion when submerging a steel bar in 1 M HCl was studied using SEM-EDS. This experiment showed that the corrosion process decreases considerably in the presence of 50 ppm of the organic inhibitors. Finally, the theoretical study showed a correlation between EHOMO, hardness (η), electrophilicity (W), atomic charge and the inhibition efficiency in which the iodo 7 substituted compound presents the best inhibitor behaviour.

14.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837834

RESUMO

In vitro and in vivo experimental evidence has contributed important knowledge regarding the antiapoptotic effect mediated by EPO signaling in the damaged brain, particularly through different models with a hypoxic component. However, little emphasis has been placed on the effectiveness of rhEPO administration against cellular alterations caused by in vivo excitotoxicity or on the molecular mechanism that regulates this effect. In this study, we investigated the effects of a single dose of rhEPO on hippocampal damage induced by subcutaneous application of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on postnatal days 1, 3, 5 and 7 in neonatal rats. We found that a dose of 1000 IU/kg of b.w. administered 24 h after MSG had the greatest protective effect. In addition, we analyzed changes in gene expression, particularly in 3 key molecules involved in EPO-mediated signaling (EPO, EPOR and ßcR). We observed that the expression of EPO and EPOR was differentially modified at both the mRNA and protein levels under the evaluated conditions, while the expression of the ßcR gene was substantially increased. Our data suggest that a low dose of rhEPO is sufficient to induce cellular protection under these experimental conditions and that the molecular changes could be a positive feedback mechanism, mediated by reactive astrocytes in association with in vivo neuroprotective mechanisms.

15.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 91(4): 237-243, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of non-approved prescriptions (off-label and unlicensed) in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and to describe factors of the neonate associated with its use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational prospective study in a level III NICU during a 6-month period. Every prescription was analysed using the summary of product characteristics as a reference. A sequential algorithm was used to create a classification of prescriptions based on current status: approved, unlicensed, off-label (by age, route of administration, dosage, or indication). RESULTS: The study included 84 patients and 564 prescriptions. A total of 127 (22.5%) prescriptions were considered off-label, and 45 (8%) were considered unlicensed. More than half (59.5%) of the patients received at least one of these drugs, and this increases to 100% among very preterm neonates and surgical patients (P<.001). A positive linear correlation was found between duration of NICU stay and the number of off-label prescriptions (correlation coefficient 0.6; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Non-licensed drugs are frequently prescribed in NICU, especially in the most vulnerable patients. Our results show the need to move forward on clinical research in order to homogenise the existing data about neonatology drugs, with the aim of making an efficient and safe prescription.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso Off-Label/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708981

RESUMO

The death of dozens of manatees Trichechus manatus recently in Tabasco, Mexico, has captured international attention. Speculation about possible causes include water and food contamination by metals. Although federal authorities have ruled out water chemical pollution, the cause of these deaths is still awaiting conclusive laboratory results. Present work seeks to summarize information currently available on non-essential metals and those of great toxicological relevance in Sirenia (dugongs and manatees), highlighting its body distribution, presence in blood, and its relationship with their geographical distribution, gender and age, whenever possible. This paper focuses on the five elements: As, Cr, Hg, Pb and Cd, which are commonly considered as threats for marine mammals and reported in Sirenia. Some of these metals (Cr and Cd) were thought to be related to the recent deaths in Tabasco. All five elements are accumulated by Sirenia at different levels. Metal presence is associated to their diet but does not necessarily imply adverse effects for dugongs and manatees. Toxicological aspects and the human consumption risk in case of any illegal or traditional consumption in some cultures are discussed. Important toxicological research areas that need to be addressed are highlighted.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , Dugong/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Trichechus manatus/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Arsênico/toxicidade , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210391, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640937

RESUMO

Dexmedetomidine is an imidazole derivative, with high affinity for α2 adrenergic receptors, used for sedation, analgesia and adjuvant anaesthesia. In this study, an analytical method for the quantification of dexmedetomidine in dried blood spots was developed, validated and applied. The drug was extracted from dried blood spot by liquid extraction; the separation was carried out by ultra high-resolution liquid chromatography in reverse phase coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method. An X Select cyano 5 µm HSS column (2.1 X 150 mm, Waters) and a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid: acetonitrile [50:50 v/v], were used. The test was linear over the concentration range of 50 to 2000 pg/mL. The coefficients of variation for the intra and interday trials were less than 15%. The drug was stable under the conditions tested. The method was successfully applied for the quantification of 6 patients, aged 0 to 2 years, with classification ASA I, who underwent ambulatory surgeries, receiving a dose of 1 µg/Kg dexmedetomidine IV. The drug concentrations in the different sampling times were in the range of 76 to 868 pg/mL.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/sangue , Dexmedetomidina/sangue , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/normas , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/sangue , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/normas , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/normas , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/normas , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/estatística & dados numéricos , Hematócrito , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/sangue , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/normas , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
18.
Chemistry ; 25(17): 4398-4411, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609159

RESUMO

The metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 was employed as an interaction matrix for fundamental loading studies of anthraquinone dyes. Chosen dyes were alizarin (A), alizarin S (AS), disperse blue 1 (B1), disperse blue 3 (B3), disperse blue 56 (B56) and purpurin (P). All materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA and SEM. Hence the interaction of dyes with the framework was characterized by theoretical-experimental differential analysis. One-pot loading strategy resulted in more efficient scavenging of dyes, and reached 100 % for B56 using 50 mg L-1 . SEM revealed important microstructural changes, the smaller crystals ranged 0.8-3 µm in size and almost all composite sizes were from this to higher values, reaching 70 µm, with varying shapes. Two composites were larger in size range (about 2500-1000 µm), and were shaped as rods, octahedrons and coffin lids. Indeed, the microstructure could be modulated depending on preparation conditions and type of loaded dye. For the higher loading series, N2 adsorption and XPS experiments were carried on to further evidence dye-MOF interactions. Ab initio prediction of structural properties for A@HKUST-1 and P@HKUST-1 were obtained by means of solid-state CRYSTAL14 code at the PBE0 level of theory. Computed findings evidenced two O→Cu coordinative bonds, one from O-ketone and the other from O-phenolate moiety as main interactions towards CuNET centers.

20.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 20(1): 94-102, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE : Identifying Fusarium isolates from mycosis symptomatic patients through molecular techniques as PCR and sequencing. METHODS : In this study, samples were taken from 101 mycosis symptomatic patients in-between 2004-2006. To determine isolates belonging to the Fusarium genus, the DNAr 28S region was amplified through PCR and specific PCR primers further confirmed their identity to the species level. Additionally, in order to confirm the identity of the species of the isolates, 75 isolates of these were analyzed by partial sequencing of the 28S rDNA and the TEF1-α gene. RESULTS : The 28S rDNA portion detected all 101 isolates as belonging to Fusarium and the PCR specific primers detected 52 and 29 isolates as F. oxysporum and F. solani, respectively; 34 and 41 of these, afterwards studied by partial sequencing of the 28S rDNA and TEF1- α genes respectively, were effectively identified by the technique. CONCLUSION : From all the molecular markers used to identify Fusarium isolates, the sequence of the TEF1-α gene provided the best resolution in the identification of species level; however it is possible to discriminate between F. oxysporum and F. solani isolates by PCR, in most of the cases, what is important considering the simplicity of the technique and a faster diagnosis.


Assuntos
DNA Fúngico/análise , Fusariose/diagnóstico , Fusarium/classificação , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Colômbia , Primers do DNA , Feminino , Fusariose/microbiologia , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
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