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1.
Med Mycol ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944758

RESUMO

Given the predisposition of South American camelids to coccidioidomycosis, we sought to describe the disease presentation in alpacas and llamas and identify potential risk factors for these species. The records of 224 llamas and alpacas that were tested for Coccidioides infection using immunodiffusion serology at the Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory of the University of California, Davis, between 1990 and 2016 were examined; of those, 46 alpacas and 42 llamas had positive test results. The remaining 99 alpacas and 37 llamas were used as control groups. We found that male llamas were at increased risk for Coccidioides infection when compared with female llamas and when compared with male alpacas. South American camelids living within California were at higher risk for infection than camelids living in other states. Alpacas were more likely than llamas to have subclinical infections. We documented five cases of abortion or neonatal mortality attributable to coccidioidomycosis in alpacas. Our study demonstrates that South American camelids are susceptible to Coccidioides infection in areas where the disease is endemic, lending support to the importance of vigilance for this disease in alpacas and llamas and suggesting a possible role for these animals as sentinel species. LAY SUMMARY: We examined cases of Valley Fever and described the disease and risk factors for llamas and alpacas. Male llamas were at increased risk for infection as were animals living within California. Five alpacas had miscarriages or neonatal deaths as a result of Valley Fever infections.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886505

RESUMO

This work presents an in-depth discussion on the nonequilibrium dissociation of O2 molecules colliding with O atoms, combining quasi-classical trajectory calculations, master equation, and dimensionality reduction. A rovibrationally resolved database for all of the elementary collisional processes is constructed by including all nine adiabatic electronic states of O3 in the QCT calculations. A detailed analysis of the ab initio data set reveals that for a rovibrational level, the probability of dissociating is mostly dictated by its deficit in internal energy compared to the centrifugal barrier. Because of the assumption of rotational equilibrium, the conventional vibrational-specific calculations fail to characterize such a dependence. Based on this observation, a new physics-based grouping strategy for application to coarse-grained models is proposed. By relying on a hybrid technique made of rovibrationally resolved excitation coupled to coarse-grained dissociation, the new approach is compared to the vibrational-specific model and the direct solution of the rovibrational state-to-state master equation. Simulations are performed in a zero-dimensional isothermal and isochoric chemical reactor for a wide range of temperatures (1500-20,000 K). The study shows that the main contribution to the model inadequacy of vibrational-specific approaches originates from the incapability of characterizing dissociation, rather than the energy transfers. Even when constructed with only twenty groups, the new reduced-order model outperforms the vibrational-specific one in predicting all of the QoIs related to dissociation kinetics. At the highest temperature, the accuracy in the mole fraction is improved by 2000%.

3.
Med Teach ; 42(9): 1051-1057, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical curricula have historically been designed in a top-down approach, usually excluding students. While Delphi panels have been used as a tool for medical education curricula design, none have been conducted in Ecuador. In addition, no such approach has ever included students both as panelists and researchers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four Delphi panels were developed and conducted using a participatory approach that allowed medical students to take part both as expert panelists and researchers: specifically, students developed the questionnaire and conducted a qualitative synthesis. Questionnaire responses were anonymized and dispatched online to panelists. The information was organized and collected to develop the qualitative syntheses and prepare the final statements. RESULTS: Thirty-two medical students participated between February and May 2018. A total of 32 questions were developed, corresponding to five different categories. For some questions, consensus was reached; for other questions, general statements were obtained.Discussion and conclusion: Developing the questionnaire, responding to it and analyzing the answers allowed students to raise significant concerns regarding medical education topics proposing relevant policy and curricula change. Participatory Delphi panels can be an efficient tool to obtain organized feedback, improve student class involvement, and promote research skills.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140251, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623155

RESUMO

Water for human consumption containing arsenic from natural and anthropogenic sources is a public health problem worldwide. Therefore, different technologies must be used to remove it from the water (coagulation-filtration assisted with ferric chloride, adsorption, membranes, etc.). While these technologies produce water that is free from arsenic, they also produce toxic residuals with high arsenic concentrations, which must be treated in order to decrease their volume and thereby facilitate transport and final disposal. Thus, the main purpose of this investigation was to study the physical and chemical properties of arsenic iron sludge in thickening, chemical conditioning, and dewatering processes, as well as to propose new kinetic criteria for obtaining the drainage index (Eg) based on polymer dose, mesh permeability, specific resistance to filtration, and pH. We found a significant improvement in the physical and chemical properties when thickening the sludge, in particular, floc size increased and specific resistance to filtration and Z-potential decreased due to weakened repulsive forces, resulting in more sedimentation. The polymer AN913VHM (PF2) had the best behavior in the chemical conditioning and dewatering tests, with an optimal dose of 8 mg/L and a mesh permeability of 80-100 ft3/min ft2, which made it possible to retain more flocs (60% in 3.74 min). The pH affected the amount of total solids in the cake, with more solids obtained at a pH of 6 (25.93 g/L) and 6.5 (21.81 g/L), and with rapid drainage of surface water (69.28%). Furthermore, new kinetic criteria were obtained for a drainage time of 120 s in order to eliminate 60% of the total volume of the filtrate mass, with Eg of 3.05 at a pH of 6. This value is considered medium drainage for this type of sludge, which is difficult to treat.

5.
Actas Dermosifiliogr ; 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663448

RESUMO

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are one of the most frequent and universal Public Health problems. Health professionals should be aware of the possibility of STIs due to their high morbidity and the presence of sequelae. The delay in the diagnosis is one of the factors that justifies the difficulty to infections control. Diagnostic tests allow the introduction of aetiological treatment and also leads to treating symptomatic and asymptomatic patients more effectively, as well as to interrupt the epidemiological transmission chain without delay. In this review we have made an update of the main existing diagnostic methods for the more important STIs.

6.
C R Biol ; 343(1): 9-21, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720483

RESUMO

DNA replication is an extremely complex process, involving thousands of replication forks progressing along chromosomes. These forks are frequently slowed down or stopped by various obstacles, such as secondary DNA structures, chromatin-acting proteins or a lack of nucleotides. This slowing down, known as replicative stress, plays a central role in tumour development. Complex processes, which are not yet fully understood, are set up to respond to this stress. Certain nucleases, such as MRE11 and DNA2, degrade the neo-replicated DNA at the level of blocked forks, allowing the replication to restart. The interferon pathway is a defense mechanism against pathogens that detects the presence of foreign nucleic acids in the cytoplasm and activates the innate immune response. DNA fragments resulting from genomic DNA metabolism (repair, retrotransposition) can diffuse into the cytoplasm and activate this pathway. A pathological manifestation of this process is the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a rare disease characterized by chronic inflammation leading to neurodegenerative and developmental problems. In this encephalopathy, it has been suggested that DNA replication may generate cytosolic DNA fragments, but the mechanisms involved have not been characterized. SAMHD1 is frequently mutated in the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome as well as in some cancers, but its role in the etiology of these diseases was largely unknown. We show that cytosolic DNA accumulates in SAMHD1-deficient cells, particularly in the presence of replicative stress, activating the interferon response. SAMHD1 is important for DNA replication under normal conditions and for the processing of stopped forks, independent of its dNTPase activity. In addition, SAMHD1 stimulates the exonuclease activity of MRE11 in vitro. When SAMHD1 is absent, degradation of neosynthesized DNA is inhibited, which prevents activation of the replication checkpoint and leads to failure to restart the replication forks. Resection of the replication forks is performed by an alternative mechanism which releases DNA fragments into the cytosol, activating the interferon response. The results obtained show, for the first time, a direct link between the response to replication stress and the production of interferons. These results have important implications for our understanding of the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and cancers related to SAMHD1. For example, we have shown that MRE11 and RECQ1 are responsible for the production of DNA fragments that trigger the inflammatory response in cells deficient for SAMHD1. We can therefore imagine that blocking the activity of these enzymes could decrease the production of DNA fragments and, ultimately, the activation of innate immunity in these cells. In addition, the interferon pathway plays an essential role in the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and certain chemotherapeutic agents such as oxaliplatin. Modulating this response could therefore be of much wider interest in anti-tumour therapy.

7.
J Healthc Qual Res ; 35(4): 225-235, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593593

RESUMO

OBJETIVE: To identify perceptions and knowledge about the adherence to hand hygiene of the healthcare staff of an intensive care unit, correlating them with compliance data on adherence to hand hygiene through observational studies MATERIAL AND METHOD: A quantitative methodology has been combined, based on the completion of a personal survey, and a qualitative methodology based on direct observation. Units of Intensive Care of Adults (A-ICU) and Pediatrics (P-ICU) of a tertiary hospital. There were 187 health professionals. Personal and work data of the professionals were collected, as well as questions related to their knowledge and perceptions about the hand hygiene. RESULTS: Those 187 professionals, 75,9% from A-ICU, represented more than 80% of the study population, and 91.4% had received previous training on hand hygiene. Regarding knowledge, 35% of the A-ICU professionals and almost 50% from the P-ICU consider that hand washing is more effective than hand friction with alcohol-based solutions for the elimination of microorganisms. They have a better perception that they correctly perform the hand washing (89.32% ICU-P and 82.93% ICU-A), than when we compare them to the adherence rates obtained by direct observation (ICU-P 73.8% and ICU-A 51.4%, P=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite having previous training on hand hygiene, they have incomplete knowledge and, although they overestimate the problem of the healthcare-associated infections, they have a perception that does not fit with reality.

11.
J Vet Cardiol ; 28: 31-36, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182572

RESUMO

A 7-year-old Golden Retriever was presented for a second opinion regarding a cardiac mass. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated presence of a mass in the area of the right atrium. The mass appeared adherent and possibly infiltrative to the external wall of the right atrium. Three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography allowed better visualization of the neoplasia, suggesting that it was not infiltrative and contributed significantly to the decision to carry out the surgical resection of the cardiac tumor. This case report demonstrates the use of three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography in the diagnostic evaluation of cardiac masses in dogs without the need for general anesthesia.

12.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(1): 72-75, feb. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092894

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción Los leiomiosarcomas de la vena cava inferior son tumores raros, sólo hay 300 casos descritos en la literatura. Su incidencia es mayor en mujeres, suelen aparecer entre los 50-60 años, y presentan una progresión lenta y mal pronóstico. Los síntomas son inespecíficos haciendo que el diagnóstico se realice de forma tardía, éste se realiza mediante pruebas de imagen y biopsia guiada. Caso clínico Se presenta el caso de un varón de 73 años con diagnóstico de leiomiosarcoma de la vena cava inferior, como hallazgo incidental en TC de control, tratado mediante radioterapia neoadyuvante, cirugía y radioterapia intraoperatoria. Discusión El único tratamiento que ha descrito modificaciones en la supervivencia es la cirugía. El papel de la adyuvancia y neoadyuvancia en estos tumores es muy controvertido. La elección de la actitud terapéutica dependerá de la localización del tumor, tamaño, la relación con estructuras adyacentes y la presencia de circulación colateral.


Introduction Leiomyosarcomas of the inferior vena cava are rare tumors, with fewer than 300 cases reported. Its incidence is higher in females, usually appear in the sixth decade and they have a slow-growing and poor prognosis. Symptoms are generally non-specific. Diagnosis is made with imaging studies and guided biopsy. Clinical Case We report a case of a 73-year-old male patient with leimyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava treated by neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery and intraoperative radiotherapy. Discussion Surgery is the only treatment that can improve the survival. The role of the adjuvancy and neoadjuvancy is very controversial. Surgical management is determined by the location of the tumour, the relationship with adjacent structures and the presence of collateral veins.

14.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 40(3): 438-439, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215281
16.
Med Intensiva ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prognostic validity of the APACHE II-M and O-SOFA scales versus the APACHE II and SOFA to predict mortality in patients with severe maternal morbidity. DESIGN: A retrospective, longitudinal and analytical cohort study was carried out. SETTING: Medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital. PATIENTS: Pregnant or puerperal patients of any age admitted to the ICU. INTERVENTIONS: Calculation of prognostic scores upon admission. VARIABLES OF INTEREST: APACHE II, SOFA, APACHE II-M and O-SOFA scores and maternal mortality. RESULTS: A total of 141 patients were included. The majority (70.2%) were puerperal. The most frequent diagnosis was gestational hypertensive disease (50 cases). The discrimination of each prognostic model was estimated with the area under the ROC curve (AUC-ROC). The calibration was estimated using the mortality ratio and the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. The four scales discriminated between survivors and non-survivors with areas under the curve >0.85. The APACHE II-M model was the predictive model with the highest discrimination and calibration. In the Hosmer-Lemeshow regression analysis, mortality as predicted by the APACHE II and O-SOFA was significantly different from the observed mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The APACHE II-M exhibited the greatest prognostic validity in predicting maternal mortality. This difference was given by its improvement in calibration.

17.
Actas urol. esp ; 43(10): 562-567, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185263

RESUMO

Introducción: El objetivo del estudio fue establecer los factores que se relacionan de forma independiente con el desarrollo de resistencia a la castración (RC) a medio plazo en el cáncer de próstata (CP). Material y métodos: Ciento cincuenta y cinco pacientes con CP metastásicos al diagnóstico del registro nacional de CP con un seguimiento de hasta 39 meses. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, PSA, nadir de PSA, Gleason, invasión perineural, estadios T, N y M y tipo de bloqueo (intermitente/continuo). Resultados: Media de seguimiento 26,2 ± 13,4 meses. El 47,1% desarrolló RC precoz, con una media hasta el desarrollo de RC 12,2 ± 8,7 meses. Análisis univariante: se relacionaron con la RC la media de PSA (290 ± 905,1ng/ml en no RC, 519,1 ± 1437,2 ng/ml en RC, p < 0,001), media de edad (73,3 ± 8,3 años en no RC, 69,1 ± 9,3 en RC, p = 0,01), media de nadir de PSA (15,5 ± 57,3 ng/ml en no RC, 15,9 ± 23,7 ng/ml en RC, p < 0,001), Gleason (en ≥ 8, HR: 2,11; IC 95%: 1,22-3,65, p = 0,006) y estadio T (en T3-T4, HR: 2,85; IC 95%: 1,57-5,19, p < 0,001). Análisis multivariante: las variables independientes relacionadas con la RC son edad (HR: 0,96; IC 95%: 0,94-0,99, p = 0,01), nadir de PSA (HR: 1,65; IC 95%: 1,43-1,91, p < 0,001) y estadio T3-T4 (HR: 2,11; IC 95%: 1,10-4,04, p = 0,02). Conclusiones: El nadir de PSA y un estadio tumoral T3-T4 al diagnóstico se relacionan con un riesgo aumentado de desarrollar RC. Además, la edad al diagnóstico se muestra como una variable que disminuye el riesgo, de forma que, a más edad, menos riesgo de desarrollar RC a medio plazo


Introduction: The objective of the study was to determine the factors independently related with the development of castration resistance (CR) in prostate cancer (PC) in the medium term. Material and methods: 155 patients diagnosed with metastatic PC with a follow-up of up to 39 months. Data taken from the National PC Registry. The evaluated variables were age, PSA, nadir PSA, Gleason, perineural invasion, TNM stages, and ADT type (intermittent/continuous). Results: Mean follow-up 26,2 ± 13,4 months. 47.1% developed early CR, with mean time until onset of 12,2 ± 8,7 months. Univariate analysis the mean PSA was correlated with CR (290 ± 905,1 ng/mL in non CR, 519,1 ± 1437,2 ng/mL in CR, P < .001), mean age (73,3 ± 8,3 years in non CR, 69,1 ± 9,3 in CR P = .01), mean PSA nadir (15,5 ± 57,3 ng/mL in non CR, 15,9 ± 23,7 ng/mL in CR, p < 0,001), Gleason (in ≥ 8, HR: 2,11. 95% CI: 1.22-3.65, p = 0.006), and T stage (in T3-T4, HR: 2.85. 95% CI: 1.57-5.19, P < .001). Multivariate analysis the independent variables associated to CR are age (HR: 0.96. 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, P = .01), PSA nadir (HR: 1.65. 95% CI: 1,43-1,91, P < .001), and T3-T4 stage (HR: 2.11. 95% CI: 1.10-4.04, P = .02). Conclusions: PSA nadir and T3-T4 tumor stage at diagnosis are associated to an increased risk of developing CR. In addition, age at diagnosis is shown as a variable that decreases risk. Therefore, an older age would be associated with lower risk probability of CR in the medium term


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Metástase Neoplásica , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada
18.
Actas urol. esp ; 43(9): 455-466, nov. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185246

RESUMO

Introducción: Con el avance de la cirugía laparoscópica y robótica, la profilaxis tromboembólica en los procedimientos urológicos se han basado clásicamente en la experiencia de otras especialidades quirúrgicas. En este trabajo se realiza un análisis de la actualidad de las recomendaciones, basado en un estudio pormenorizado de las guías clínicas europeas y en la bibliografía, aplicando las recomendaciones de tromboprofilaxis a la práctica urológica diaria. Objetivos: Elaborar unas recomendaciones generales aplicables a los pacientes quirúrgicos en urología, evitando la aparición de eventos tromboembólicos en el periodo perioperatorio. Optimizar la medicación y el ajuste en pacientes crónicos y conocer qué pacientes son candidatos a terapias puente. Material y métodos: Se ha realizado una revisión de la literatura disponible y de las guías clínicas europeas. Se analizan los artículos de consenso más recientes realizando una revisión de la bibliografía disponible y los estudios y revisiones en los que se basan las guías europeas de tromboprofilaxis en urología. Resultados: La profilaxis tromboembólica se debe emplear en aquellas cirugías que requieran abordajes abdominales, encamamiento prolongado o enfermedades oncológicas. Las terapias puente con heparinas de bajo peso molecular deben ser reducidas. Los pacientes en tratamiento crónico se pueden beneficiar de terapias puente en casos concretos. Conclusiones: El empleo de heparinas, tan habitual en la práctica clínica, puede ser excesivo según las guías actuales. La aparición de nuevos fármacos anticoagulantes, los cuales poseen antagonistas directos, permiten la reducción de los tiempos de reintroducción de la medicación crónica y un control más eficaz del sangrado


Introduction: With the advanced laparoscopic and robotic surgery, thromboembolic prophylaxis in urologic procedures has traditionally been based on the experience of other surgical specialties. This paper aims to analyze the current recommendations, through a detailed study of the European clinical guidelines and bibliography, applying the recommendations of thromboprophylaxis to the daily urological practice. Objectives: To elaborate general recommendations to surgical patients in Urology, avoiding the risk of perioperative thromboembolic events. Optimize medication in chronic patients and accurately classify who are eligible for bridge therapy. Material and methods: A review of the available literature and the European clinical guidelines was carried out. We analyzed the most recent consensus articles by studying the available bibliography, trials and reviews on which the European guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in urology are based. Results: Thromboembolic prophylaxis should be targeted towards surgeries that require abdominal approaches, prolonged bed rest or oncological pathologies. Bridge therapies with low molecular weight heparins should be limited. Patients undergoing treatment for chronic conditions can benefit from bridge therapies in specific cases


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/cirurgia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Período Perioperatório , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia
19.
Actas Urol Esp ; 43(9): 455-466, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351747

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the advanced laparoscopic and robotic surgery, thromboembolic prophylaxis in urologic procedures has traditionally been based on the experience of other surgical specialties. This paper aims to analyze the current recommendations, through a detailed study of the European clinical guidelines and bibliography, applying the recommendations of thromboprophylaxis to the daily urological practice. OBJECTIVES: To elaborate general recommendations to surgical patients in Urology, avoiding the risk of perioperative thromboembolic events. Optimize medication in chronic patients and accurately classify who are eligible for bridge therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review of the available literature and the European clinical guidelines was carried out. We analyzed the most recent consensus articles by studying the available bibliography, trials and reviews on which the European guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in urology are based. RESULTS: Thromboembolic prophylaxis should be targeted towards surgeries that require abdominal approaches, prolonged bed rest or oncological pathologies. Bridge therapies with low molecular weight heparins should be limited. Patients undergoing treatment for chronic conditions can benefit from bridge therapies in specific cases. CONCLUSIONS: According to the current guidelines, there might be an overuse of heparins in the daily clinical practice. The development of -direct oral- anticoagulants have shown to reduce the time to reintroduction of medication for chronic conditions as well as a more effective bleeding management.

20.
Actas Urol Esp ; 43(10): 562-567, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301868

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to determine the factors independently related with the development of castration resistance (CR) in prostate cancer (PC) in the medium term. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 155 patients diagnosed with metastatic PC with a follow-up of up to 39 months. Data taken from the National PC Registry. The evaluated variables were age, PSA, nadir PSA, Gleason, perineural invasion, TNM stages, and ADT type (intermittent/continuous). RESULTS: Mean follow-up 26,2±13,4 months. 47.1% developed early CR, with mean time until onset of 12,2±8,7 months. Univariate analysis the mean PSA was correlated with CR (290±905,1 ng/mL in non CR, 519,1±1437,2 ng/mL in CR, P<.001), mean age (73,3±8,3 years in non CR, 69,1±9,3 in CR P=.01), mean PSA nadir (15,5±57,3ng/mL in non CR, 15,9±23,7 ng/mL in CR, p<0,001), Gleason (in ≥8, HR:2,11. 95% CI: 1.22-3.65, p=0.006), and T stage (in T3-T4, HR: 2.85. 95% CI: 1.57-5.19, P<.001). Multivariate analysis the independent variables associated to CR are age (HR: 0.96. 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, P=.01), PSA nadir (HR: 1.65. 95% CI: 1,43-1,91, P<.001), and T3-T4 stage (HR: 2.11. 95% CI: 1.10-4.04, P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: PSA nadir and T3-T4 tumor stage at diagnosis are associated to an increased risk of developing CR. In addition, age at diagnosis is shown as a variable that decreases risk. Therefore, an older age would be associated with lower risk probability of CR in the medium term.

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