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1.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 61, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) was developed and validated in 1990 and translated into Spanish in 1999. Since then, the original version has been used in numerous studies, but it has not been re-evaluated in terms of language in the new generations of older adults. The purpose of this study is to confirm the validity of the Spanish version of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-SP) after three decades to be used as part of an ongoing field trial. METHODS: The GOHAI-SP was pilot tested in a focus group to confirm linguistic comprehension. A version with minor language changes was administered to individuals with metabolic syndrome aged 55-75 years from one health care district in southern Spain as part of an ongoing field trial (PREDIMED-Plus). Clinical evaluation included assessment of dental and periodontal status. The psychometric properties of the GOHAI-SP were evaluated through stability and internal consistency measures, and concurrent and discriminant validity were assessed. RESULTS: The new version of the GOHAI-SP was administered to 100 individuals. The application time was reduced by 7 min. The alpha value for reliability was 0.87. The item-scale correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.75, and the test-re-test correlation for the total score was 0.75. There were inverse correlations between GOHAI-SP scores and the number of lost teeth and the decayed-missing-filled teeth index (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The GOHAI-SP questionnaire remains a valid and useful tool to assess oral health-related quality of life in primary health care settings. A linguistic update of the questionnaire brought improvements to the instrument application. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The PREDIMED-Plus trial is registered in the ISRCTN registry with reference number ISRCTN89898870. Registration date: 4th July 2014.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069979

RESUMO

According to the Challenge Hypothesis, high levels of testosterone (T) are associated with status-seeking behaviors, especially in competitive situations. However, there have not been many studies about rivals' social status and pre-competition neuroendocrine responses. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the participants in a chess tournament showed different pre-match testosterone and cortisol levels depending on differences in ELO (i.e., the International Chess Federation rating to rank the competitive potential and social status between players). The sample was six male participants (mean ± SD) aged 25.5 ± 8.4 years with experience in official tournaments of 16.33 ± 5.72 years and an average ELO rating of 2217.67 ± 112.67. Saliva samples were collected before each round for hormonal determination when participants competed against a rival with a different ELO rating. After five competition rounds per participant, higher rival pre-competition T concentrations were shown when playing against the best-rated participant, but there were no differences in cortisol (C). The multilevel model confirmed rises in rivals' precompetitive T levels modulated by the difference in the opponent´s ELO rating. No significant changes were observed in C. The results suggest that the rival´s status can determine the opponent´s anticipatory neuroendocrine responses to an official chess tournament.

4.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963436

RESUMO

Fifteen years ago, at least one multimated female yellow-legged Asian hornet (Vespa velutina Lepeletier 1836) arrived in France, which gave rise to a pan-European invasion. In this study, the isolation and characterization of chitin (CHI) that was obtained from Vespa velutina (CHIVV) is described. In addition, an easy procedure is carried out to capture the raw insect, selectively and with high rates of success. The chitin contents of dry VV was observed to be 11.7%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state NMR (ssNMR), elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) characterized the physicochemical properties of CHIVV. The obtained CHIVV is close to pure (43.47% C, 6.94% H, and 6.85% N), and full acetylated with a value of 95.44%. Additionally, lifetime and kinetic parameters such as activation E and the frequency factor A using model-free and model-fitting methods, were determined. For CHIVV the solid state mechanism that follows the thermodegradation is of type F2 (random nucleation around two nuclei). The invasive Asian hornet is a promising alternative source of CHI, based on certain factors, such as the current and probable continued abundance of the quantity and quality of the product obtained.

5.
Epilepsy Behav ; 102: 106812, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaption and psychometric evaluation of the Spanish version of the Satisfaction with Epilepsy Care (SEC) questionnaire and analyze patient satisfaction with epilepsy care. METHODS: Transcultural adaptation and validation of the SEC were carried out using translation and back-translation with pilot testing and an expert panel. The SEC-E (Spanish) was analyzed in 213 patients with epilepsy to examine construct and criterion validity and internal consistency. RESULTS: The SEC-E achieved conceptual, semantic, and content equivalence with the original version. For content validity, one question was eliminated from the original questionnaire as it has little relevance in our cultural setting. Positive correlations for criterion validity were obtained using the gold standard measure (Satisfaction in Hospitalized Patients scale). Construct validity replicated the three dimensions of the original questionnaire. The scale showed adequate reliability through internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.94) and temporal stability on retest (n = 85). Patients scored (0 to 100) 77.5 [standard deviation (SD): 19.9] for satisfaction with communication, 76.9 (SD: 17) for organization, and 67.2 (SD: 22.1) for information. SIGNIFICANCE: The SEC-E is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of educational interventions aiming to improve the quality of care in patients with epilepsy in Spanish clinical practice. The results showed a good level of patient satisfaction with epilepsy care.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18696, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822756

RESUMO

Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder without a cure that is caused by an aberrant expansion of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Although a negative correlation between the number of CAG repeats and the age of disease onset is established, additional factors may contribute to the high heterogeneity of the complex manifestation of symptoms among patients. This variability is also observed in mouse models, even under controlled genetic and environmental conditions. To better understand this phenomenon, we analysed the R6/1 strain in search of potential correlates between pathological motor/cognitive phenotypical traits and transcriptional alterations. HD-related genes (e.g., Penk, Plk5, Itpka), despite being downregulated across the examined brain areas (the prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum), exhibited tissue-specific correlations with particular phenotypical traits that were attributable to the contribution of the brain region to that trait (e.g., striatum and rotarod performance, cerebellum and feet clasping). Focusing on the striatum, we determined that the transcriptional dysregulation associated with HD was partially exacerbated in mice that showed poor overall phenotypical scores, especially in genes with relevant roles in striatal functioning (e.g., Pde10a, Drd1, Drd2, Ppp1r1b). However, we also observed transcripts associated with relatively better outcomes, such as Nfya (CCAAT-binding transcription factor NF-Y subunit A) plus others related to neuronal development, apoptosis and differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that altered brain transcription can be related to the manifestation of HD-like symptoms in mouse models and that this can be extrapolated to the highly heterogeneous population of HD patients.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788768

RESUMO

In this work, 16 strains with promising probiotic characteristics belonging to the Lactobacillus pentosus (13) and Lactobacillus plantarum (3) species and isolated from table olive biofilms were tested for adherence to cell lines and to solvents, immunomodulatory, and anti-proliferative properties on epithelial human cellular lines. Most Lactobacillus strains were able to regulate the production of cytokines by stimulating the production of pro-inflammatory (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) interleukins on macrophages, and by suppressing the secretion of IL-8 on HT-29 TNF-α-induced model. Lactobacillus strains also showed anti-proliferative activity on the HT-29 cell line. No clear relation was found between adhesion to solvents and adhesion to HT-29 human cell line. Lactobacillus pentosus LPG1, which showed the best anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, was then tested in a dinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced chronic colitis murine model. As a measure of the inflammation, gut permeability and weight loss, as well as cytokine profiles, were determined. Lactobacillus pentosus LPG1 improved mice health as observed by a significant reduction of weight loss, gut permeability, and beneficial cytokine modulation. Macroscopic scores and tissue damage were also lower in mice administered with LPG1 with respect to the DNBS-treated group. These results showed that L. pentosus LPG1 isolated from plant could have potential as probiotic for use as an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

8.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(7): 828-835, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer in the world and is the second cause of cancer death. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using 18F-FDG is used for its staging and follow up. AIM: To assess the occurrence of synchronous colonic and extracolonic tumors detected with contrast-enhanced F18-FDG PET/CT (PET/CTc) in patients with a recently diagnosed CRC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PET/CTc of 210patients aged 16-91, years (63% men) with a recently diagnosed CRC were reviewed. PET/CTc with incidental findings, not expected to be due to CRC, were followed (laboratory, imaging and pathology) searching for synchronous tumors. RESULTS: Ten patients (4,7%) had a second synchronous CRC. Only 70% of synchronous CRC were accessible to colonoscopy, due mainly to incomplete procedures for stenotic tumors. Extracolonic synchronous neoplasms were detected in 12 patients (5,7%), namely lung cancer in three, renal cell carcinoma in two, non-Hodgkin lymphoma in two, pancreatic cancer in one, breast cancer in one, hepatocellular carcinoma in one, bladder cancer in one and thyroid cancer in one. CONCLUSIONS: Ten percent of patients with a recently diagnosed CRC had a synchronic neoplasm detected at staging using PET/CTc.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766901

RESUMO

Introduction: Selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) is a complication observed in about 10-15% of all monochorionic (MC) pregnancies, causing a significant increase in perinatal mortality and morbidity.Objective: To evaluate clinical management options and perinatal outcomes of sIUGR in MC pregnancies monitored in a single tertiary center.Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 55-MC pregnancies with sIUGR between January 2012 and May 2018 at the Fetal Medicine Unit of La Paz Hospital. Cases were classified according to the umbilical artery (UA) Doppler pattern as type I (positive end-diastolic flow; n = 25), type II [persistently absent or reversed end-diastolic flow (AREDF); n = 5] and type III [intermittently absent or reversed end-diastolic flow (iAREDF); n = 25]. Types II and III were then merged together as severe sIUGR cases. Subsequently, two possible approaches were considered: expectant management (EM) with elective preterm delivery in case of fetal deterioration, or in-utero therapy via fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (FLP) of intertwin anastomosis or selective umbilical cord occlusion (CO) of the growth-restricted fetus.Results: Gestational age (GA) at diagnosis was progressively lower with each type. Severe sIUGR cases delivered significantly earlier than type I, showing lower birth weights and higher intertwin biometric discordance. Unintended fetal demise occurred in 14% (6/25) of severe sIUGR pregnancies as opposed to 0% (0/19) in type I, p = .028. A significantly higher proportion of twins was admitted in NICU in severe cases when compared to type I [87% (33/38) versus 47% (18/38), p < .001]. In addition, brain damage at birth was also found to be more prevalent in this group [21% (8/38) versus 11% (4/38), p = .346], especially in the larger twin, when comparing any short-term neurological sequel [30% (7/23) versus 0% (0/19), p = .011] or specifically periventricular leukomalacia [PVL; 22% (5/23) versus 0% (0/19), p = .053]. Although the overall mortality rate was significantly higher in severe sIUGR that underwent CO instead of EM [58% (7/12) versus 11% (4/36), p = .002], NICU admissions were higher in the latter [94% (17/18) versus 40% (2/5), p = .021]. Neurological sequels at birth were similar in both groups [39% (7/18) versus 40% (2/5), p = 1.000], similarly when considering only the larger twin for any brain lesion [28% (5/18) versus 40% (2/5), p = .621] or just PVL [22% (4/18) versus 20% (1/5), p = 1.000].Conclusion: Given the good prognosis of type I sIUGR, expectant management is the first approach to consider. However, due to the poorer clinical evolution of types II and III sIUGR, the decision-making is challenging and needs to be individualized depending on the UA Doppler pattern, GA at diagnosis, severity of growth restriction and biometric discordance, technical issues and parents' preferences.

10.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750714

RESUMO

Reward-learning theory views habits as stimulus-response links formed through extended reward training. Accordingly, animal research has shown that actions that are initially goal-directed can become habitual after operant overtraining. However, a similar demonstration is absent in human research, which poses a serious problem for translational models of behavior. We propose that response-time (RT) switch cost after operant training can be used as a new, reliable marker for the operation of the habit system in humans. Using a new method, we show that RT switch cost demonstrates the properties that would be expected of a habitual behavior: (a) it increases with overtraining, (b) it increases when rewards are larger, and (c) it increases when time pressure is added to the task, thereby hindering the competing goal-directed system. These results offer a promising new pathway for studying the operation of the habit system in humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

11.
Arch Esp Urol ; 72(9): 921-925, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mesorenal tumors (those located in the renal middle line or between both poles) are complex cases for partial nephrectomy (PN). Our objective is to evaluate oncological and perioperative results of PN in these patients with mesorenal tumors greater than 4 cm, mesophytic or endophytic. METHODS: A review of the medical records of patients with tumors with these characteristics operated between January 2016 and June 2016 was performed. RESULTS: 36 cases were included. The mean age was 54.2 years (24-79) with 12 cases of male gender. Mean surgical time: 139 minutes (120-280); 30 cases with complete clamping with mean ischemia of 19 minutes (10-90) and 6 compression of the parenchyma. Mean estimated bleeding: 280 ml (100-900). Mean tumor diameter: 4.3 cm (4.0 to 7.6). Preoperative and postoperative mean glomerular filtration rate 89 ml/min and 76 ml/min (p=0.32) respectively. Median length of stay: 3.8 days (2-21). There were 2 (6.5%) complications (II and IIIb). One case (3.3%) presented positive margin. One patient died due to progression at 14 months. With a median follow-up of 52.1 months (10-168) no recurrences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: We consider that mesorenal tumors, with significant penetration within the renal parenchyma and greater than 4 cm, PN presents both oncological and satisfactory results.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Laparoscopia , Nefrectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Nefrectomia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 68: 101527, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Excessive maladaptive avoidance has been claimed to be one of the mechanisms through which intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play its causal role in the development and maintenance of several anxiety and compulsive disorders. Consistently, Flores et al. (2018) found that individuals with higher Prospective IU (P-IU), a specific IU subfactor, display excessive avoidance response repetitions in a free-operant discriminative task to avoid an aversive noise. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that P-IU not only predicts the amount of avoidance responses but also how well the temporal distribution of such responses fits the temporal distribution of threats. METHODS: Further correlation and hierarchical regression analysis of Flores et al.'s (2018) data served to test this hypothesis. We evaluated two aspects of the temporal distribution of responses: a) for how long participants were performing the responses; b) the behavioral discrimination between threatening and safe time periods. RESULTS: The results showed that scoring high in P-IU was positively associated with longer periods of time dedicated to avoiding and with worse behavioral discrimination between threatening and safe time periods. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that later addition of inhibitory intolerance of uncertainty and trait anxiety did not significantly improved the explained variance. LIMITATIONS: Our results are exclusively based on the use of a low-cost avoidance response, and the present study does not clarify the precise mechanisms that lead high P-IU people to engage in non-optimal avoidance response distribution through time. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that excessive avoidance is also driven by uncertainty of threat timing and highlight the relevance of P-IU as a vulnerability factor for excessive and outspread avoidance behaviors.

13.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 66(3): 361-365, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606020

RESUMO

The concepts of endotype and phenotype have been introduced in the past few years with the purpose of identifying the different variants of asthma in children and adults by the interaction of epigenetic factors, such as genotype, environmental factors, and not inherited factors. All these factors participate in the onset and progression of asthma, as well as environmental allergens, which are the cause of asthma in most children and teenagers. The latest onset may be induced by the characteristics of the environment, as happens in most adults (occupational asthma). In a review of a hundred medical records of children with and without a family history, and of a group of patients in whom high IgE levels were not detected, clear differences were observed in terms of the age of onset and other characteristics, although the sensitization to allergens was very similar in those three groups (Dermatophagoides mites).

14.
Exp Gerontol ; 128: 110740, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Declines in strength and power are cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neuromuscular disorder. Progressive resistance training (PRT) has been shown to reduce a wide variety of PD-related motor deficits; however, no study has examined differences between the two most common RT methodologies utilized in this population, high-load, low velocity strength training (ST) and low-load, high-velocity power training (PT). The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ST and PT on measures of strength, power, balance and functional movement in persons with PD. METHOD: Thirty-five persons with mild to moderate PD (Hoehm and Yahr Stages = 1-3; UPDRS Part III = 30.6 ±â€¯14.0) were randomized into either a ST or PT group involving 12 weeks of supervised PRT (2 visits per week). Leg press (LP) and chest press (CP) muscular strength (1RM) and muscular peak power (PP) were assessed before and after the twelve week training period as primary outcome measures. In addition, secondary measures of balance (Berg Balance Assessment (BBA), dynamic posturography (DMA), Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES)), functional movement (timed up-and-go), and quality of life (PDQ-39 summary index and Mobility subscore) were obtained at the same time points, given the impact of PD symptoms on fall probability and independence. RESULTS: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed significant improvements in LP 1RM (Mdiff = 54.89 kg, 95% CI: 43.38, 66.40; p < .05; d = 3.38) and CP 1RM (Mdiff = 7.33 kg, 95% CI: 4.75, 9.91; p < .05; d = 2.02). Additionally, significant improvements were seen in LPPP (Mdiff = 112.27 W, 95% CI: 56.03, 168.51; p < .05; d = 1.42) and CPPP (Mdiff = 52.1 W, 95% CI: 23.38, 80.86; p = .001; d = 1.29). No significant improvements were seen for any secondary outcome measures, however BBA scores were shown to significantly decrease following the intervention (Mdiff = -1.686, 95% CI: -2.89, -0.482; p = .007 d = -0.96), although this change did not reach clinical significance (clinically meaningful change = ±4.0). In addition, the ST group demonstrated significantly poorer PDQ-39SI scores (Mdiff = 4.96, 95% CI: 0.54, 9.38; p = .029), whereas the entire sample showed significantly poorer PDQ-39MOB scores (Mdiff = 4.80, 95% CI: 0.17, 9.43; p = .043; d = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Both ST and PT appear to be effective at reducing the neuromuscular deficits associated with PD; however, the use of these interventions for improving functional performance was not supported.

15.
Brain Behav ; 9(11): e01412, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical manifestations of the hypothalamic hamartoma-epilepsy syndrome (HH-ES) in adulthood are variable. Efficacy of therapeutic options and outcome are diverse. METHODS: Retrospective study of adult patients diagnosed with a HH in magnetic resonance imaging and epilepsy who attended our tertiary Epilepsy Unit between 2003 and 2018. We report the clinical and electroencephalographic features of a series of adult patients with HH and related epilepsy seen in our center together with the treatments and seizure outcome. RESULTS: We describe a series of eight patients. Five males (62.5%), median age at evaluation was 28.5 years (IQR: 15.5). Clinical manifestations included focal with preserved and impaired awareness emotional seizures (gelastic seizures [GS]) in six patients (75%), focal tonic, atonic with impaired awareness and focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures. Mild GS were the only symptom in one patient. Three patients (37.5%) had endocrinological disturbances such as obesity and hypothyroidism. Fifty percent of the patients showed psychiatric comorbidity such as anxiety disorder and aggressiveness, and two patients had psychomotor delay. Seven patients (87.7%) had drug-resistant seizures and three of them were treated with radiosurgery. Out of the treated group, only one (33.3%) became seizure-free 2 years after surgery but developed psychiatric problems. The other two patients had an Engel IV outcome and received a vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) implant. VNS did not lead to changes either in intensity nor in seizure frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Hypothalamic hamartoma-epilepsy syndrome clinical manifestations in adult patients are as variable as at pediatric age. Outcome of therapeutic options such as radiosurgery or VNS may be poorer at this stage.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(42): 39283-39291, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547643

RESUMO

Here, we introduce the novel concept of a "soft shuttle" for transportation, manipulation, and diffusion studies of small liquid droplets using electrowetting on the dielectric mechanism. This method enables manipulation of droplets several times smaller than the electrode size and, importantly, minimizes evaporation, contamination, and exposure of the sample to high voltages. We demonstrate various modes of droplet loading, transporting, and unloading. Using advanced imaging processing techniques, we obtained detailed information about the shuttle and droplet centroids. Furthermore, varying water concentration on the soft shuttle allows for modulation of the diffusion kinetics of samples into the shuttle, which also can be controlled with soft shuttle actuation velocity. We believe that this novel approach for the manipulation of droplets will advance the field of droplet-based open microfluidics and can be potentially useful for applications in biotechnology, diagnostics, or analytical chemistry.

17.
J Bacteriol ; 201(22)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501280

RESUMO

Transcriptomic, metabolomic, physiological, and computational modeling approaches were integrated to gain insight into the mechanisms of antibiotic tolerance in an in vitro biofilm system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were grown in drip flow reactors on a medium composed to mimic the exudate from a chronic wound. After 4 days, the biofilm was 114 µm thick with 9.45 log10 CFU cm-2 These biofilms exhibited tolerance, relative to exponential-phase planktonic cells, to subsequent treatment with ciprofloxacin. The specific growth rate of the biofilm was estimated via elemental balances to be approximately 0.37 h-1 and with a reaction-diffusion model to be 0.32 h-1, or one-third of the maximum specific growth rate for planktonic cells. Global analysis of gene expression indicated lower transcription of ribosomal genes and genes for other anabolic functions in biofilms than in exponential-phase planktonic cells and revealed the induction of multiple stress responses in biofilm cells, including those associated with growth arrest, zinc limitation, hypoxia, and acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing. Metabolic pathways for phenazine biosynthesis and denitrification were transcriptionally activated in biofilms. A customized reaction-diffusion model predicted that steep oxygen concentration gradients will form when these biofilms are thicker than about 40 µm. Mutant strains that were deficient in Psl polysaccharide synthesis, the stringent response, the stationary-phase response, and the membrane stress response exhibited increased ciprofloxacin susceptibility when cultured in biofilms. These results support a sequence of phenomena leading to biofilm antibiotic tolerance, involving oxygen limitation, electron acceptor starvation and growth arrest, induction of associated stress responses, and differentiation into protected cell states.IMPORTANCE Bacteria in biofilms are protected from killing by antibiotics, and this reduced susceptibility contributes to the persistence of infections such as those in the cystic fibrosis lung and chronic wounds. A generalized conceptual model of biofilm antimicrobial tolerance with the following mechanistic steps is proposed: (i) establishment of concentration gradients in metabolic substrates and products; (ii) active biological responses to these changes in the local chemical microenvironment; (iii) entry of biofilm cells into a spectrum of states involving alternative metabolisms, stress responses, slow growth, cessation of growth, or dormancy (all prior to antibiotic treatment); (iv) adaptive responses to antibiotic exposure; and (v) reduced susceptibility of microbial cells to antimicrobial challenges in some of the physiological states accessed through these changes.

18.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 142, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383868

RESUMO

We present a dataset consisting of three-dimensional traces, captured by Global Navigation Satellite System techniques with three-dimensional coordinates. It offers 138 traces (69 going and 69 returning), in addition to the actual mean axis of the road determined by precise surveying techniques to be used as ground truth for research activities. These data may serve as a test bed for research on data mining applications related to Global Navigation Satellite System multitraces, particularly the development and testing of algorithms intended for mining mean axis data from road multitraces. The data are suitable for the statistical analysis of both single-trace and multitrace datasets (e.g., outliers and biases).

20.
Foods ; 8(8)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344875

RESUMO

In this work, Manzanilla Spanish-style green table olive fermentations were inoculated with Lactobacillus pentosus LPG1, Lactobacillus pentosus Lp13, Lactobacillus plantarum Lpl15, the yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Y12 and a mixed culture of all them. After fermentation (65 days), their volatile profiles in brines were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 131 volatile compounds were found, but only 71 showed statistical differences between at least, two fermentation processes. The major chemical groups were alcohols (32), ketones (14), aldehydes (nine), and volatile phenols (nine). Results showed that inoculation with Lactobacillus strains, especially L. pentosus Lp13, reduced the formation of volatile compounds. On the contrary, inoculation with W. anomalus Y12 increased their concentrations with respect to the spontaneous process, mainly of 1-butanol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, ethanol, and 2-methyl-1-butanol. Furthermore, biplot and biclustering analyses segregated fermentations inoculated with Lp13 and Y12 from the rest of the processes. The use of sequential lactic acid bacteria and yeasts inocula, or their mixture, in Spanish-style green table olive fermentation could be advisable practice for producing differentiated and high-quality products with improved aromatic profile.

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