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1.
Environ Technol ; : 1-20, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072868

RESUMO

A simple model of anaerobic degradation in a continuous stirred digester is presented. The hydrolysis of cow manure was modelled as consisting of two fractions, one rapidly degradable and the other more slowly degradable, and both processes were represented by first-order kinetics in a two-substrate first-order (TSFO) model. The fractions were separated by water flushing. Biomethane potential (BMP) tests were performed to determine the hydrolysis constant and biodegradability of each fraction. The hydrolysis constants of the rapidly and slowly degradable fractions were 0.278 d-1 and 0.069 d-1, respectively. Coupled with a simple anaerobic digestion model, the TSFO model was used to simulate the digester behaviour and predict methane production. Experiments in a 3.0 L digester were used to determine the decay constant and yield values and to validate the model. Two solid loads (2.9 gVS/L.d and 4.4 gVS/L.d) were applied to the digester, and the dynamics of both biodegradable fractions, the non-biodegradable fraction and the microorganism concentration were reproduced by the model. These results approximate the actual biodegradable solids removal to within 85%. A parametric sensitivity study was performed, and the results show that the hydrolysis constant mainly influences the biodegradable fractions and that the decay and yield parameters mainly influence the microorganism concentration.

2.
Hear Res ; 386: 107874, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893539

RESUMO

The present study is the first to evaluate the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and the linear and angular measurements of the cochlea in temporal bones of cochlear implant (CI) recipients. There are no studies evaluating the morphometric measures in subjects after long-term CI use, and this study fills in this gap in current knowledge, greatly important for the design of CI electrodes. Amira based 3-D reconstructions of the cochlea were generated from stained histopathological slides of 15 celloidin-embedded human temporal bones. The SGN angular distance from the round window exhibited a narrow range from 684°-704°, corresponding to linear distances of 17.87 and 34.48 mm along the inner and outer wall of the scala tympani. The first turn measured an average of 14.21 mm along the inner wall and 23.92 mm along the outer wall. The outer wall average for the second turn was 11.11 mm and for the partial third apical turn was only 4.49 mm. The range for cochlear duct angular distance was 876° to 1051°, with a mean of 2.63 turns, corresponding to an average linear distance of 39.53 mm, ranging from 35.44 mm to 43.57 mm 6 out of 15 temporal bones demonstrated better preservation of SGN in the middle and apical segments of Rosenthal's canal. The present study demonstrates that the anatomy of the cochlea of CI patients does not differ significantly from that of normative subjects and establishes measurements using the round window as the 0° reference point, an important surgical landmark. The relevance of the measurements to cochlear implant design are discussed.

3.
Otol Neurotol ; 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899710

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Outer sulcus cell features and distribution are hypothesized to differ throughout regions of the human cochlea and between diseased and normal specimens. BACKGROUND: Outer sulcus cells play a role in inner ear fluid homeostasis. However, their anatomy and distribution in the human are not well described. METHODS: Temporal bone specimens with normal hearing (n = 10), Menière's disease (n = 10), presbycusis with flat audiograms (n = 4), and presbycusis with sloping audiograms (n = 5) were examined by light microscopy. Outer sulcus cells were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively in each cochlear turn. One specimen was stained for tubulin immunofluorescence and imaged using confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Outer sulcus cells interface with endolymph throughout the cochlea, with greatest contact in the apical turn. Mean outer sulcus cell counts in the upper apical turn (8.82) were generally smaller (all p < 0.05) than those of the upper basal (17.71), lower middle (18.99) upper middle (18.23), and lower apical (16.42) turns. Mean outer sulcus cell counts were higher (p < 0.05) in normal controls (20.1) than in diseased specimens (15.29). There was a significant correlation between mean cell counts and tonotopically expected hearing thresholds in the upper basal (r = -0.662, p = 0.0001), lower middle (r = -0.565, p = 0.0017), and upper middle (r = -0.507, p = 0.0136) regions. Other differences in cell morphology, distribution, or relationship with Claudius cells were not appreciated between normal and diseased specimens. Menière's specimens had no apparent unique features in the cochlear apex. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated outer sulcus cells extending into the spiral ligament in bundles forming tapering processes which differed between the cochlear turns in morphology. CONCLUSION: Outer sulcus cells vary throughout the cochlear turns and correlate with hearing status, but not in a manner specific to the underlying diagnoses of Menière's disease or presbycusis.

4.
Ambio ; 49(1): 258-270, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859399

RESUMO

Impacts of the legal designation of protected areas (PAs) may have contrasting implications for different stakeholders, and at different spatial scales. In this study, we analysed the organisational perception on the socioeconomic effects of PA designation from all sectors of activity in Spain, accounting for PAs' legal stringency. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 68 organisations at national, regional (Andalusia) and local scales (two municipalities in the Almeria province, Andalusia) through an online survey. Local stakeholders and the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors were most concerned about the social and economic impacts of PAs designation on their organisations. By contrast, organisations at the national or regional scales together with public institutions, the quaternary sector and other miscellaneous stakeholders perceived predominantly positive effects. Only national organisations perceived an increase in local social and economic effects from the designation of legally stringent PAs with regard to multiple-use PAs.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cidades , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
5.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 45(12): 1753-1761, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the capabilities of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) for calculating the power of an intraocular lens (IOL) to be implanted and in achieving a given postoperative stable refraction. SETTING: Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology, Havana, Cuba. DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: The study comprised data of patients who had uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery with implantation of a biconvex acrylic foldable IOL (type RYCF, model Ocuflex) in the capsular bag over 6 years. Exclusion criteria were previous intraocular or refractive corneal surgery, any corneal disease, pathological or complicated cataracts, intraoperative complications, preoperative astigmatism beyond 3.0 diopters (D), postoperative corrected distance visual acuity worse than 20/40, missing postoperative refractive information, eyes with an axial length (AL) shorter than 19.36 mm, eyes with an AL longer than 27.0 mm, average corneal keratometry (K) power lower than 36.0 D or higher than 50.9 D, and refractive surprises greater than ±3.0 D. The data were used to train an MLP to predict the value of the IOL power required for attaining a given postoperative refraction. Using AL, K value, and predicted and real postoperative refraction as input data, the output of the MLP was the IOL power. RESULTS: The study comprised 15 728 eyes of 15 728 patients. The trained neural networks predicted the value of the implanted IOL with an error less than 0.5 D in more than 95% of patients, even for a case in which a surgeon was not included in the training process. CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy attained by the trained MLP is high, indicating the feasibility of a prospective study leading to a new method of predicting the IOL power in refractive surgery with an error lower than the current prediction methods.

6.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 13: 445, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636542

RESUMO

The integrity and permeability of the blood labyrinthine barrier (BLB) in the inner ear is important to maintain adequate blood supply, and to control the passage of fluids, molecules and ions. Identifying the cellular and structural components of the BLB, the vascular endothelial cells (VECs), pericytes, and the perivascular basement membrane, is critical to understand the pathophysiology of the inner ear microvasculature and to design efficient delivery of therapeutics across the BLB. A recent study of the normal and pathological ultrastructural changes in the human macula utricle microvasculature demonstrated that the VECs are damaged in Meniere's disease (MD), and further studies identified oxidative stress markers (iNOS and nitrotyrosine) in the VECs. Using fluorescence microscopy, the microvasculature was studied in the macula utricle of patients diagnosed with MD that required transmastoid labyrinthectomy for intractable vertigo (n = 5), and patients who required a translabyrinthine approach for vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection (n = 3). Normal utricles (controls) were also included (n = 3). VECs were identified using rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and pericytes were identified using mouse monoclonal antibodies against alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Immunofluorescence (IF) staining was made in half of the utricle and flat mounted. The other half was used to study the integrity of the BLB using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). GLUT-1-IF, allowed delineation of the macula utricle microvasculature (located in the stroma underneath the sensory epithelia) in both MD and VS specimens. Three sizes of vessels were present in the utricle vasculature: Small size (<15 µm), medium size (15-25 µm) and large size >25 µm. α-SMA-IF was present in pericytes that surround the VECS in medium and thick size vessels. Thin size vessels showed almost no α-SMA-IF. AngioTool software was used for quantitative analysis. A significant decreased number of junctions, total vessel length, and average vessel length was detected in the microvasculature in MD specimens compared with VS and control specimens. The deeper understanding of the anatomy of the BLB in the human vestibular periphery and its pathological changes in disease will enable the development of non-invasive delivery strategy for the treatment of hearing and balance disorders.

7.
High Alt Med Biol ; 20(4): 361-374, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651199

RESUMO

Background: We investigated altitude effects on different cognitive domains among perennial shift-workers at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Observatory (5050 m), Chile. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy male workers were recruited and assigned to either a moderate-altitude first (MAF group, Test 1: 2900 m and Test 2: 5050 m) or to a high-altitude first (HAF group, Test 1: 5050 m and Test 2: 2900 m). Test 1 was conducted at the beginning and Test 2 at the end of the shift-work week. Processing speed (RTI, reaction time), attention (AST, attention-switching task, and RVP, rapid visual processing), and executive function (OTS, One Touch Stockings of Cambridge) were assessed. Results: Of the three cognitive domains assessed, only processing speed showed altitude-at-test group interaction (RTI median five choice reaction time: F1, 17 = 6.980, [Formula: see text] = 0.291, p = 0.017). With acclimatization, there was a decrease in AST reaction latency mean (t17 = -2.155, dz = 1.086, p = 0.046), an increase in RVP accuracy (t17 = 2.733, dz = 1.398, p = 0.014), and a decrease in OTS mean latency first choice (t17 = -2.375, dz = 1.211, p = 0.03). Decreased variability in cognitive function was observed in AST reaction latency standard deviation (t17 = -2.524, dz = 1.282, p = 0.022) and in RVP response latency standard deviation (t17 = -2.35, dz = 1.177, p = 0.03) with acclimatization. At 5050 m of elevation, SpO2 was positively correlated with executive function in the MAF group (OTS problems solved on first choice: r(5) = 0.839, p = 0.018) and negatively correlated with executive function latency standard deviations in the HAF group (OTS latency to first choice standard deviation: r(10) = -0.618, p = 0.032). Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of acclimatization and improvement of blood oxygen level, even among high altitude-experienced workers, to optimize performance of cognitively demanding work and reduce high altitude-associated health risks.

8.
Radiother Oncol ; 141: 156-163, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brachytherapy (BT) is widely used for salvage therapy in patients with biochemical failure (BF) after radiotherapy for prostate cancer (PCa). Although low-dose-rate (LDR) and high-dose-rate (HDR) BT are both used for salvage therapy, it is not clear whether there are any differences between these two approaches in terms of efficacy or toxicity in this setting. Therefore, we review the institutional experience of the members of the Urological Tumour Working Group (URONCOR) of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR) to compare these two techniques. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2001 and 2016, 119 patients with biopsy-proven, locally-recurrent PCa underwent salvage BT (LDR, n = 44; HDR, n = 75) after primary radiotherapy. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) after salvage therapy were analyzed. Toxicity was assessed according to the RTOG scale. RESULTS: Median follow-up after salvage BT was 52 months. Overall, the 5-year prostate-specific antigen (PSA) RFS rate was 71% (95% CI, 65.9%-75.9%). No significant between-group differences in RFS were observed (p = 0.063). Five-year CSS for the LDR- and HDR-BT groups were 96.5% and 93%, respectively. Overall, 38 patients (32%) developed biochemical progression (Phoenix definition) after salvage BT: 14 patients (32%) in the LDR group and 24 (32.5%) in the HDR group. On the multivariate analysis, the following variables were significantly associated with progression, time to BF from primary radiotherapy <30 months (p = 0.014); and post-salvage nadir PSA (p = 0.000). There were no significant between-group differences in toxicity. Overall, there were 13 cases of urethral stricture, 22 cases of urinary incontinence, and 13 cases of haematuria. Toxicity ≥grade 3 was observed in 23.5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that both HDR-BT and LDR-BT yield comparable efficacy and toxicity outcomes in patients undergoing salvage treatment for locally-recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy. Predictors of worse outcomes after salvage BT were post-salvage nadir PSA and time to BF from initial radiotherapy.

9.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(6): e653-e656, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157724

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that internal auditory canal (IAC) diverticula occur independent of otosclerosis as demonstrated by temporal bone histopathology. BACKGROUND: Diverticula at the anterior-inferior aspect of the IAC have been described histologically in the setting of cavitary otosclerosis. Recent radiographic studies show the prevalence of IAC diverticula that is higher than what can be accounted for by cavitary otosclerosis alone. METHODS: We examined hematoxylin and eosin temporal bone histopathology slides with otosclerosis involving the IAC. We also examined bones from normal hearing subjects with normal histologic findings. Temporal bones were included if donors were more than 18 years of age at time of death and adequate horizontal cuts were available to evaluate the area of interest. RESULTS: IAC diverticula were found in 33 of 47 (70%) temporal bones with IAC otosclerosis and in 5 of 20 (25%) normal temporal bones. The difference in mean pure tone averages (PTA) in the normal temporal bones with (PTA 7.3 ±â€Š7) and without (PTA 8 ±â€Š2) diverticula was not statistically significant (p = 0.86). CONCLUSION: IAC diverticula which have been previously demonstrated to occur in the setting of cavitary otosclerosis can also occur independent from otosclerosis. Subjects with diverticula but without other temporal bone pathology have normal hearing thresholds.

10.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 91, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drawing the epigenome landscape of Alzheimer's disease (AD) still remains a challenge. To characterize the epigenetic molecular basis of the human hippocampus in AD, we profiled genome-wide DNA methylation levels in hippocampal samples from a cohort of pure AD patients and controls by using the Illumina 450K methylation arrays. RESULTS: Up to 118 AD-related differentially methylated positions (DMPs) were identified in the AD hippocampus, and extended mapping of specific regions was obtained by bisulfite cloning sequencing. AD-related DMPs were significantly correlated with phosphorylated tau burden. Functional analysis highlighted that AD-related DMPs were enriched in poised promoters that were not generally maintained in committed neural progenitor cells, as shown by ChiP-qPCR experiments. Interestingly, AD-related DMPs preferentially involved neurodevelopmental and neurogenesis-related genes. Finally, InterPro ontology analysis revealed enrichment in homeobox-containing transcription factors in the set of AD-related DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that altered DNA methylation in the AD hippocampus occurs at specific regulatory regions crucial for neural differentiation supporting the notion that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in AD through epigenetic mechanisms.

11.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(6): e581-e591, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the histopathology of human temporal bones (HTBs) with cochlear implants (CI). BACKGROUND: Understanding CI translocation injuries is critical for improving outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirteen HTBs from 12 CI patients were studied. Six HTBs exhibited translocation with localized injury (Group 1) and seven HTBs exhibited translocation with significant lateral wall injury (Group 2). There were no significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 for age at death, age at implantation, and years with CI. RESULTS: Four out of six of Group 1 had round window approach, while all seven of Group 2 had cochleostomy approach. Translocation injuries tended to occur near 180 degrees of angular insertion with a mean of 186.36 ±â€Š51.62 degrees. Average CI insertion length for Group 2 was 21.86 ±â€Š2.55 mm, significantly longer than Group 1 at 18.50 ±â€Š3.33 mm (p = 0.031). Group 1 had an average of 17300 ±â€Š9415 spiral ganglia neurons (SGNs) while Group 2 had significantly fewer SGNs 6714 ±â€Š4269 (p = 0.015). Group 1 average auditory performance of 66.55 ±â€Š27.20% was higher than that of Group 2 of 39.86 ±â€Š15.36%. Group 2 had a high degree of osteoneogenesis and infiltration of cells generally localized to areas of translocation injury and cochleostomy. CONCLUSION: Translocation injuries tend to occur at an insertion angle of 180 degrees, at 9 to 10 mm. Lateral wall injury and damage to the organ of Corti incites fibrosis, osteoneogenesis, and infiltration, lower SGN count and poorer auditory performance. Longer electrodes were more prone to translocation and higher chance of significant intracochlear injury.

12.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 128(6_suppl): 96S-102S, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated the localization of otopetrin-2-a member of the otopetrin family that encodes proton-selective ion channels-in the human macula utricle using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: Macula utricle were acquired at surgery from patients who required transmastoid labyrinthectomy for intractable vertigo due to Meniere's disease (MD; n = 3) and/or vestibular drops attacks (VDA; n = 2) and from temporal bones (n = 2) acquired at autopsy from individuals with no balance disorders. Immunofluorescence staining with otopetrin-2 (rabbit affinity purified polyclonal antibody) and GFAP (mouse monoclonal antibody) to identify vestibular supporting cells was made in formalin fixed cryostat sections or whole microdissected utricle (for flat mount preparations). Secondary antibodies against rabbit and mouse were used for the identification of both proteins. Digital fluorescent images were obtained using a high-resolution laser confocal microscope. RESULTS: Using cryostat sections and flat mount preparations otopetrin-2 immunofluorescence was seen as punctated signal throughout the supporting cells cytoplasm. GFAP immunofluorescence was present in the supporting cell cytoplasm. The distribution of otopetrin-2 was similar in the macula utricle obtained from MD, VDA, or autopsy normative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Otopetrin-2 was localized in supporting cells in a similar fashion that otopetrin-1 previously reported in the mouse macula utricle. The differential expression of otopetrin-2 in the supporting cells of the human macula utricle suggest an important role in the vestibular sensory periphery homeostasis and otolith maintenance.


Assuntos
Máculas Acústicas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Doença de Meniere/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Doenças Vestibulares/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(6): 770-781, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753106

RESUMO

Herbivores and mycorrhizal fungi interactively influence growth, resource utilization, and plant defense responses. We studied these interactions in a tritrophic system comprising Quercus robur, the herbivore Lymantria dispar, and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Piloderma croceum under controlled laboratory conditions at the levels of gene expression and carbon and nitrogen (C/N) allocation. Taking advantage of the endogenous rhythmic growth displayed by oak, we thereby compared gene transcript abundances and resource shifts during shoot growth with those during the alternating root growth flushes. During root flush, herbivore feeding on oak leaves led to an increased expression of genes related to plant growth and enriched gene ontology terms related to cell wall, DNA replication, and defense. C/N-allocation analyses indicated an increased export of resources from aboveground plant parts to belowground. Accordingly, the expression of genes related to the transport of carbohydrates increased upon herbivore attack in leaves during the root flush stage. Inoculation with an ectomycorrhizal fungus attenuated these effects but, instead, caused an increased expression of genes related to the production of volatile organic compounds. We conclude that oak defense response against herbivory is strong in root flush at the transcriptomic level but this response is strongly inhibited by inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi and it is extremely weak at shoot flush.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Micorrizas , Quercus , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quercus/microbiologia
14.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(3): e233-e239, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742600

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: In children, the distance between the carotid canal (CC) and Eustachian tube (ET) is not significantly narrower than the adult population. BACKGROUND: ET dysfunction treated with ET dilation is FDA approved for adults. Several studies describe the close relationship between the CC and the ET in adults, but the anatomy of the ET has not been well defined in children. This study seeks to investigate these relationships in the pediatric population. METHODS: Histologic sections from 23 temporal bones of pediatric patients ages 0 to 18 were reviewed by two independent observers. The distance between the CC and the cartilaginous Eustachian tube (CET), bony-cartilaginous junction (BCJ), and bony Eustachian tube (BET) were measured. Fifteen adult temporal bones were used as a control group. RESULTS: The distance to the CC was narrowest at the BET, and was actually higher in the pediatric population when compared to adults (0.5 mm and 0.2 mm, respectively, p = 0.06). The CC-CET distance was smaller in the pediatric group (2.3 mm vs 3.3 mm, p < 0.01). The bony-cartilaginous junction is often the region of most concern during dilation. There was no significant difference between the CC-BET distance in pediatric and adult groups (1.9 vs 2.3 mm, p = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: CET-CC is smaller in the pediatric population, as expected due to smaller anatomic structures. However, the variable incline of the ET results in a CC-BCJ distance that is similar to the adult population. Although imaging studies are necessary.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(4)2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781626

RESUMO

Lamins are fibrillary proteins that are crucial in maintaining nuclear shape and function. Recently, B-type lamin dysfunction has been linked to tauopathies. However, the role of A-type lamin in neurodegeneration is still obscure. Here, we examined A-type and B-type lamin expression levels by RT-qPCR in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and controls in the hippocampus, the core of tau pathology in the brain. LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2 genes showed moderate mRNA levels in the human hippocampus with highest expression for the LMNA gene. Moreover, LMNA mRNA levels were increased at the late stage of AD (1.8-fold increase; p-value < 0.05). In addition, a moderate positive correlation was found between age and LMNA mRNA levels (Pearson's r = 0.581, p-value = 0.018) within the control hippocampal samples that was not present in the hippocampal samples affected by AD. A-type and B-type lamin genes are expressed in the human hippocampus at the transcript level. LMNA mRNA levels are up-regulated in the hippocampal tissue in late stages of AD. The effect of age on increasing LMNA expression levels in control samples seems to be disrupted by the development of AD pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosforilação , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
16.
Hear Res ; 371: 105-116, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530270

RESUMO

Using transgenic fluorescent reporter mice in combination with an established tissue clearing method, we detail heretofore optically opaque regions of the spiral lamina and spiral limbus where the auditory peripheral nervous system is located and provide insight into changes in cochlear vascular density with ageing. We found a relatively dense and branched vascular network in young adults, but a less dense and thinned network in aged adults. Significant reduction in vascular density starts early at the age of 180 days in the region of the spiral limbus (SL) and continues into old age at 540 days. Loss of vascular volume in the region of spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) is delayed until the age of 540 days. In addition, we observed that two vascular accessory cells are closely associated with the microvascular system: perivascular resident macrophages and pericytes. Morphologically, perivascular resident macrophages undergo drastic changes from postnatal P7 to young adult (P30). In postnatal animals, most perivascular resident macrophages exhibit a spherical or nodular shape. In young adult mice, the majority of perivascular resident macrophages are elongated and display an orientation parallel to the vessels. In our imaging, some of the perivascular resident macrophages are caught in the act of transmigrating from the blood circulation. Pericytes also display morphological heterogeneity. In the P7 mice, pericytes are prominent on the capillary walls, relatively large and punctate, and less uniform. In contrast, pericytes in the P30 mice are relatively flat and uniform, and less densely distributed on the vascular network. With triple fluorescence labeling, we did not find obvious physical connection between the two systems, unlike neuronal-vascular coupling found in brain. However, using a fluorescent (FITC-conjugated dextran) tracer and the enzymatic tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we observed robust neurovascular exchange, likely through transcytotic transport, evidenced by multiple vesicles present in the endothelial cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate the effectiveness of tissue-clearing methods as an aid in imaging the vascular architecture of the SL and SGNs in whole mounted mouse cochlear preparations. Structure is indicative of function. The finding of differences in vascular structure in postnatal and young adult mice may correspond with variation in hearing refinement after birth and indicate the status of functional activity. The decrease in capillary network density in the older animals may reflect the decreased energy demand from peripheral neural activity. The finding of active transcytotic transport from blood to neurons opens a potential therapeutic avenue for delivery of various growth factors and gene vectors into the inner ear to target SGNs.

17.
Laryngoscope ; 129(1): E36-E40, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325510

RESUMO

Supporting cells (SCs) provide structure and maintain an environment that allows hair cells to receive and transmit signals in the auditory pathway. After insult to hair cells and ganglion cells, SCs respond by marking unsalvageable cells for death and maintain structural integrity. Although the histopathology after cochlear implantation has been described regarding hair cells and neural structures, surviving SCs in the implanted ear have not. We present a patient whose posthumous examination of an implanted cochlea demonstrated SC survival. This finding has implications for SC function in maintaining electrical hearing and candidacy for future hair cell regeneration therapies. Laryngoscope, 129:E36-E40, 2019.


Assuntos
Cóclea/citologia , Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/reabilitação , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino
18.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 31(4): 45-53, oct.-dic. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-991118

RESUMO

La endoftalmitis es una complicación grave de la cirugía de cataratas que todos los cirujanos oculares y pacientes se esfuerzan por evitar. La pérdida visual que se produce en una gran proporción de endoftalmitis posoperatorias puede ser de carácter grave e irreversible. Se debe sospechar endoftalmitis aguda ante una disminución brusca de la agudeza visual después de la cirugía de cataratas, normalmente asociada a dolor y signos de inflamación ocular difusa. La sospecha de endoftalmitis es una urgencia médica que se ha de tratar con antibióticos intravítreos y/o vitrectomía en el menor tiempo posible. Se realizó una búsqueda de los últimos 10 años sobre el tema, su incidencia, las recomendaciones y el manejo preoperatorio en la profilaxis de esta, los signos y síntomas clínicos, los gérmenes que con mayor frecuencia pueden ocasionarla, así como las opciones de tratamiento. Se utilizó la plataforma Infomed, específicamente la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud(AU)


Endophtalmitis is a severe complication of the cataract surgery which all the eye surgeons and patients try to avoid. The visual loss that occurs in a great proportion of postoperative endophthalmitis can be serious and irreversible. One may suspect the existence of acute endophthalmitis when there is sudden reduction of visual acuity after cataract surgery, normally associated to pain and signs of diffuse ocular inflammation. The suspicion of endophthalmitis is a medical urgency that must be treated with intravitreous antibiotics and/or vitrectomy as soon as possible. Information search about this topic in the last ten years, its incidence, recommendations and preoperative management in its prophylaxis, clinical signs and symptoms and the germs that may frequently cause it as well as the treatment options was made in Informed platform, particularly in the Virtual Library of Health(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Vitrectomia/métodos , Extração de Catarata/métodos , Endoftalmite/complicações , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Bibliotecas Digitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências
19.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 31(4): 45-53, oct.-dic. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-73502

RESUMO

La endoftalmitis es una complicación grave de la cirugía de cataratas que todos los cirujanos oculares y pacientes se esfuerzan por evitar. La pérdida visual que se produce en una gran proporción de endoftalmitis posoperatorias puede ser de carácter grave e irreversible. Se debe sospechar endoftalmitis aguda ante una disminución brusca de la agudeza visual después de la cirugía de cataratas, normalmente asociada a dolor y signos de inflamación ocular difusa. La sospecha de endoftalmitis es una urgencia médica que se ha de tratar con antibióticos intravítreos y/o vitrectomía en el menor tiempo posible. Se realizó una búsqueda de los últimos 10 años sobre el tema, su incidencia, las recomendaciones y el manejo preoperatorio en la profilaxis de esta, los signos y síntomas clínicos, los gérmenes que con mayor frecuencia pueden ocasionarla, así como las opciones de tratamiento. Se utilizó la plataforma Infomed, específicamente la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud(AU)


Endophtalmitis is a severe complication of the cataract surgery which all the eye surgeons and patients try to avoid. The visual loss that occurs in a great proportion of postoperative endophthalmitis can be serious and irreversible. One may suspect the existence of acute endophthalmitis when there is sudden reduction of visual acuity after cataract surgery, normally associated to pain and signs of diffuse ocular inflammation. The suspicion of endophthalmitis is a medical urgency that must be treated with intravitreous antibiotics and/or vitrectomy as soon as possible. Information search about this topic in the last ten years, its incidence, recommendations and preoperative management in its prophylaxis, clinical signs and symptoms and the germs that may frequently cause it as well as the treatment options was made in Informed platform, particularly in the Virtual Library of Health(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Vitrectomia/métodos , Extração de Catarata/métodos , Endoftalmite/complicações , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Bibliotecas Digitais , Emergências
20.
Brain Res ; 1701: 153-160, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218661

RESUMO

Megalin and cubilin are endocytic receptors expressed in many absorptive polarized epithelia. These receptors have been implicated in the transport of gentamicin in the inner ear as possible contributors to ototoxic damage. Megalin and cubilin have been characterized in detail in the mouse and rat inner ear, but not in the human inner ear. In this study, megalin and cubilin were localized by immunohistochemistry using affinity-purified antibodies in formalin fixed frozen cryostat and celloidin embedded sections of the human inner ear. In the cochlea megalin and cubilin were localized in marginal cells of the stria vascularis, epithelial cells of the spiral prominence and the Reissner's membrane. In the macula utricle and cristae ampullaris, megalin and cubilin were localized in transitional and dark cells, but not in vestibular hair cells and supporting cells. In the endolymphatic duct megalin and cubilin were localized in the epithelial cells. The localization of megalin and cubilin in the human inner ear is consistent with previous reports in the inner ear of animal models and suggest that these receptors may play an important role in the inner ear endocytic transport, and maybe potential targets for prevention of ototoxic damage or the delivery of medications.


Assuntos
Orelha Interna/metabolismo , Proteína-2 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cóclea/metabolismo , Endocitose/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Proteína-2 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/imunologia , Masculino , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Osso Temporal/fisiologia , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/metabolismo
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