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1.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 128-139, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess how the current practice of newborn screening (NBS) for homocystinurias compares with published recommendations. METHODS: Twenty-two of 32 NBS programmes from 18 countries screened for at least one form of homocystinuria. Centres provided pseudonymised NBS data from patients with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (CBSD, n = 19), methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency (MATI/IIID, n = 28), combined remethylation disorder (cRMD, n = 56) and isolated remethylation disorder (iRMD), including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency (MTHFRD) (n = 8). Markers and decision limits were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) to allow comparison between centres. RESULTS: NBS programmes, algorithms and decision limits varied considerably. Only nine centres used the recommended second-tier marker total homocysteine (tHcy). The median decision limits of all centres were ≥ 2.35 for high and ≤ 0.44 MoM for low methionine, ≥ 1.95 for high and ≤ 0.47 MoM for low methionine/phenylalanine, ≥ 2.54 for high propionylcarnitine and ≥ 2.78 MoM for propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine. These decision limits alone had a 100%, 100%, 86% and 84% sensitivity for the detection of CBSD, MATI/IIID, iRMD and cRMD, respectively, but failed to detect six individuals with cRMD. To enhance sensitivity and decrease second-tier testing costs, we further adapted these decision limits using the data of 15 000 healthy newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the favorable outcome of early treated patients, NBS for homocystinurias is recommended. To improve NBS, decision limits should be revised considering the population median. Relevant markers should be combined; use of the postanalytical tools offered by the CLIR project (Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports, which considers, for example, birth weight and gestational age) is recommended. tHcy and methylmalonic acid should be implemented as second-tier markers.

2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(6): 680-692, 2018 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456407

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the variability/conservation of the domain of hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS1 region that interacts with sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (hereafter, NTCP-interacting domain) and the prevalence of the rs2296651 polymorphism (S267F, NTCP variant) in a Spanish population. METHODS: Serum samples from 246 individuals were included and divided into 3 groups: patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB) (n = 41, 73% Caucasians), patients with resolved HBV infection (n = 100, 100% Caucasians) and an HBV-uninfected control group (n = 105, 100% Caucasians). Variability/conservation of the amino acid (aa) sequences of the NTCP-interacting domain, (aa 2-48 in viral genotype D) and a highly conserved preS1 domain associated with virion morphogenesis (aa 92-103 in viral genotype D) were analyzed by next-generation sequencing and compared in 18 CHB patients with viremia > 4 log IU/mL. The rs2296651 polymorphism was determined in all individuals in all 3 groups using an in-house real-time PCR melting curve analysis. RESULTS: The HBV preS1 NTCP-interacting domain showed a high degree of conservation among the examined viral genomes especially between aa 9 and 21 (in the genotype D consensus sequence). As compared with the virion morphogenesis domain, the NTCP-interacting domain had a smaller proportion of HBV genotype-unrelated changes comprising > 1% of the quasispecies (25.5% vs 31.8%), but a larger proportion of genotype-associated viral polymorphisms (34% vs 27.3%), according to consensus sequences from GenBank patterns of HBV genotypes A to H. Variation/conservation in both domains depended on viral genotype, with genotype C being the most highly conserved and genotype E the most variable (limited finding, only 2 genotype E included). Of note, proline residues were highly conserved in both domains, and serine residues showed changes only to threonine or tyrosine in the virion morphogenesis domain. The rs2296651 polymorphism was not detected in any participant. CONCLUSION: In our CHB population, the NTCP-interacting domain was highly conserved, particularly the proline residues and essential amino acids related with the NTCP interaction, and the prevalence of rs2296651 was low/null.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Precursores de Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha , Simportadores/metabolismo
3.
Managua; s.n; mar. 2017. 66 p. graf, tab.
Tese em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007698

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Relacionar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas, del personal de enfermería en el manejo del paciente con traqueostomizado en las áreas de Medicina, Cirugía y Ortopedia del Hospital Militar Escuela Dr. Alejandro Dávila Bolaños, Marzo 2017. DISEÑO: Es un estudio CAP descriptivo de corte transversal, en donde participaron 32 enfermeras/os del área de hospitalización de medicina, cirugía y ortopedia, que cumplieron con el criterio de inclusión, los que previa firma de autorización de consentimiento informado realizaron llenado de encuestas, para el análisis estadístico de datos se utilizó el programas SPSS versión 20.0. RESULTADOS: Del total de 44 personas que conformaban el universo, solo 32 decidieron aceptar participar en el estudio, El grupo etáreo de mayor relevancia fue de 20 a 25 años, con una antigüedad y ejercicio profesional de 1-4 años, siendo el sexo femenino el de mayor predominio, la mayoría del personal encuestado conoce los conceptos básicos relativos al manejo del paciente con traqueostomía, asepsia, antisepsia, técnicas de aspiración, conocen claramente cuáles son los cuidados específicos que se deben de brindar al paciente con traqueostomía y el material y equipo necesarios para la atención. Sin embargo se observó al momento de realizar los procedimientos para el cuidado no aplican la teoría en la práctica. CONCLUSIONES: El personal de enfermería a pesar de tener conocimientos básicos sobre el manejo del paciente traqueostomizado, la actitud no es adecuada puesto que al momento de la práctica no aplican el conocimiento que poseen siendo deficiente


Assuntos
Humanos , Ortopedia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Enfermagem , Serviços de Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital
4.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 23(4): 257-272, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28284388

RESUMO

The scope of newborn screening (NBS) programs is continuously expanding. NBS programs are secondary prevention interventions widely recognized internationally in the "field of Public Health." These interventions are aimed at early detection of asymptomatic children affected by certain diseases, with the objective to establish a definitive diagnosis and apply the proper treatment to prevent further complications and sequelae and ensure a better quality of life. The most significant event in the history of neonatal screening was the discovery of phenylketonuria in 1934. This disease has been the paradigm of inherited metabolic diseases. The next paradigm was the introduction of tandem mass spectrometry in the NBS programs that make possible the simultaneous measurement of several metabolites and consequently, the detection of several diseases in one blood spot and in an unique analysis. We aim to review the current situation of neonatal screening in 2016 worldwide and show scientific evidence of the benefits for some diseases. We will also discuss future challenges. It should be taken into account that any consideration to expand an NBS panel should involve a rigorous process of decision-making that balances benefits against the risks of harm.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
5.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 59(11): 6782-90, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26282411

RESUMO

Our objective was to describe the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of total and unbound darunavir and ritonavir concentrations in HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with cirrhosis, as ritonavir-boosted darunavir is mainly metabolized in the liver, and hepatic cirrhosis might modify darunavir-ritonavir concentrations. This was a prospective, case-control, and unicenter study. HIV-HCV-coinfected patients with compensated cirrhosis (cases) and HIV-monoinfected patients with normal liver function (controls) were included. Darunavir-ritonavir was given at 800/100 mg once daily. Patients were followed for 24 weeks to assess safety and efficacy. A steady-state 12-h PK study was performed. Total and unbound concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The unbound fraction was obtained by ultrafiltration. The plasma area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and oral clearance (CL/F) were assessed by noncompartmental models. Thirty patients (20 cases and 10 controls) were included. Among cirrhotic patients, the Child-Pugh score was C in 4 cases, B in 1 case, and A in 15 cases; the median (interquartile range) transient elastography values were 20 kPa (14 to 26 kPa), and 5 patients had prior clinical decompensations. There were no significant differences in the darunavir PK parameters between cases and controls except for longer time to maximum plasma concentrations (Tmax) and half-lives in the cirrhotic patients. There were no significant differences in ritonavir total concentrations, but the unbound concentrations were higher in cirrhotic patients. There were significant correlations between the darunavir total and unbound concentrations in both cirrhotic patients and controls. There were no differences in PK parameters based on Child-Pugh score, liver elasticity, gender, or use of concomitant medications. In conclusion, in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients with clinically compensated cirrhosis receiving darunavir-ritonavir at 800/100 mg once daily, the darunavir total and unbound concentrations are similar to those observed in noncirrhotic patients, and dose adjustments are not necessary.


Assuntos
Darunavir/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Hepatite C/sangue , Ritonavir/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coinfecção/sangue , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
6.
Enferm. glob ; 14(38): 249-262, abr. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-135462

RESUMO

El presente artículo pretende justificar la relevancia de las relaciones sociales en el entorno del adolescente obeso. La motivación por este enfoque surgió debido al vacío que se ha encontrado en estudios que expliquen si los adolescentes comen mejor o peor y/o realizan más o menos ejercicio físico dependiendo de su red de amigos. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica centrada en la obesidad y el análisis de las redes sociales de los jóvenes a través de la Biblioteca de la Universidad de León, en diferentes bases de datos tales como Web of Knowledge (WOK), Scielo, Scopus, entre otras. Se obtuvieron artículos y otros documentos de interés utilizando revistas pertenecientes a las disciplinas de la Sociología y de las Ciencias de la Salud. Tras realizar la lectura de los textos más relevantes se pudo obtener los siguientes resultados: (1) las relaciones influyen en los hábitos de los adolescentes, (2) la calidad y la cantidad de comida puede depender del tipo de red que le rodea, y (3) el nivel de ejercicio físico que tiene un individuo se puede ver influenciado por sus mejores amigos, por el grupo en general que le rodea e incluso por los amigos de sus amigos. De todo ello se deriva, que el estudio de la red social del individuo puede ser una herramienta útil a la hora de visualizar los patrones de comportamiento, y por tanto, aplicable a los programas de salud y salud pública contribuyendo, de esta forma, a la sostenibilidad del sistema (AU)


This aim of this article is to demonstrate the importance of social networks in the obese adolescent's environment. This study emerged in response to the paucity of information encountered in the literature as regards whether adolescents eat better or worse and/or performs more or less physical exercise depending on their friendship networks. We performed literature search at the University of León library which focused on obesity and an analysis of young people's social networks, exploring databases such as the Web of Knowledge (WOK), SciELO and Scopus, among others. Articles and other documents of interest were identified using journals from the disciplines of Sociology and the Health Sciences. After the most relevant texts had been read in full, the following results were obtained: (1) relationships influence adolescents' habits, (2) the quality and quantity of food they consume can depend on the type of network to which they belong, and (3) the amount of physical exercise that adolescents do can be influenced by their best friends, by the wider group to which they belong and even by friends of friends. The foregoing suggests that the study of adolescents' social networks could be a useful tool for identifying behaviour patterns; it is therefore applicable to health and public health programmes and would contribute to the sustainability of the system (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Amigos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Atividade Motora/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/classificação , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Amigos/etnologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
7.
Skinmed ; 13(6): 433-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861519

RESUMO

Congenital malalignment of the great toenail (CMA) is a disorder of the anatomic orientation of the ungual apparatus, in which the longitudinal axis of the nail plate is not parallel with the axis of the distal phalanx but is deflected sideways. This disorder is understood to arise from multiple factors. Although many theories have been proposed about its origin, its pathogenesis is not fully known. Besides the cosmetic impact, this disorder causes such problems in the medium and long term as onychocryptosis and difficulty in motion. Some cases may regress spontaneously, although persistent cases may require a specialized surgical approach. Congenital malalignment of the great toenail is poorly understood and described medical condition that is often treated incorrectly; thus, reviewing the subject is important. A symptombased clinical classification system is proposed to guide diagnosis and treatment modality decisions.

8.
Ginecol Obstet Mex ; 80(8): 528-33, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23088072

RESUMO

The cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus, or Stenberg tumor, is a rare variant of a smooth muscle benign tumor, classified in the group presenting an unusual growth pattern; clinically, it affects women in reproductive age. We report the case of a 43 year-old woman, who turned up at the Centro Estatal de Atencion Oncologica (State Cancer Care Center) in Morelia, Michoacan, presenting abnormal uterine bleeding and uterine fibroid of major elements. When performing a palpatory bimanual exam, a loose uterus of approximately 7 by 6 inches was identified; it ached when moving. The laboratory tests reported normal parametriums; the ultrasound showed, however, uterine fibroids of major elements. The uterus was enlarged due to a tumor of exophytic growth, which resembles placental cotyledons extended over the uterine surface, composed by smooth muscle nodules that dissected the uterine wall, and with infiltrative appearance in parametriums and the myometrial wall. Despite this microscopic aggressive appearance, a number of ultrastructuctural studies and immunohistochemical techniques proved its benign nature. This can help patients who want to preserve fertility avoid radical surgery.


Assuntos
Leiomioma/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos
9.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 62(2): 161-166, jun. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-710617

RESUMO

Las deficiencias de micronutrientes son una parte importante, del más amplio y serio problema de la malnutrición. La adolescencia constituye una etapa de gran riesgo nutricional debido al aumento de necesidades, cambios de hábitos alimentarios y posibles situaciones de riesgo. Existe evidencia documentada de deficiencia de micro nutrimentos entre la población de México. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el estado nutricional del adolescente escolarizado y la ingestión de micronutrientes en su dieta. La muestra estuvo conformada por 307 adolescentes. Se analizó la composición corporal a través de indicadores antropométricos. Para determinar la ingestión de micro nutrimentos se utilizó el recordatorio de 24 horas y el software Mexfoods. Los porcentajes que indican una ingestión adecuada se clasificaron según los siguientes puntos de corte: debajo de los requerimientos mínimos, cuando la ingesta fue <50%; cubren requerimientos mínimos ≥50% y <75%; y exceden requerimientos mínimos cuando fue ≥75%. El IMC indicó que el 21.8 % de estudiantes de ambos sexos presentaron desnutrición mientras que la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 27.9%. Los resultados de la ingestión de micro nutrimentos indicaron deficiencias significativas en hierro (p = 0.002), zinc (p= 0.000) y calcio (p = 0.002). Las vitaminas del complejo B fueron las que presentaron menores porcentajes de insuficiencias. Se identificó que la dieta de los adolescentes presenta carencias significativas de micro nutrimentos y siendo las mujeres las que resultaron con mayores deficiencias. Urge establecer estrategias destinadas a reducir los problemas derivados del déficit en la alimentación de los adolescentes.


Nutritional state and shortcoming of micronutrients on schooled youth's diet on the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara Jalisco. The adolescence is a stage of high nutritional risk due to the increased requirements, changes in eating habits and potential risk. There are documented evidence of micronutrient deficiency among the population of Mexico.To evaluate the nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies in the diet of adolescents. The sample consisted of 307 adolescents. We analyzed the body composition by using anthropometric indicators. To determine the intake of micronutrients, the 24 hours reminder and software Mexfoods were used. The percentages that indicate adequate intake were classified according to the following breakpoints: Below minimum requirements, when intake was <50%; minimum requirements covered ≥ 50% and <75%; and exceed minimum requirements when it was ≥ 75 %. The BMI indicated that 21.8% of students of both sexes showed malnutrition and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27.9%. The micronutrient intake results indicated significant deficiencies in iron (p = 0.002), zinc (p = 0.000) and calcium (p = 0.002). The B-complex vitamins were those that had lower failure rates. We identified that the diet of adolescents has significant micronutrient deficiencies and that adolescent girls resulted with the major deficiencies. It is urgent to develop strategies, to reduce the problems of food deficit in adolescents.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cálcio/análise , Deficiências Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Ferro/análise , México/epidemiologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Prevalência , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Zinco/análise
10.
Arch Latinoam Nutr ; 62(2): 161-6, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23610903

RESUMO

The adolescence is a stage of high nutritional risk due to the increased requirements, changes in eating habits and potential risk. There are documented evidence of micronutrient deficiency among the population of Mexico. To evaluate the nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies in the diet of adolescents. The sample consisted of 307 adolescents. We analyzed the body composition by using anthropometric indicators. To determine the intake of micronutrients, the 24 hours reminder and software Mexfoods were used. The percentages that indicate adequate intake were classified according to the following breakpoints: Below minimum requirements, when intake was < 50%; minimum requirements covered > or = 50% and < 75%; and exceed minimum requirements when it was > or = 75%. The BMI indicated that 21.8% of students of both sexes showed malnutrition and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27.9%. The micronutrient intake results indicated significant deficiencies in iron (p = 0.002), zinc (p = 0.000) and calcium (p = 0.002). The B-complex vitamins were those that had lower failure rates. We identified that the diet of adolescents has significant micronutrient deficiencies and that adolescent girls resulted with the major deficiencies. It is urgent to develop strategies, to reduce the problems of food deficit in adolescents.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Cálcio/análise , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Prevalência , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Zinco/análise
11.
Odontol. pediatr. (Lima) ; 10(1): 6-12, ene.-jun. 2011. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-601422

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conocer las características de la oclusión primaria más frecuentes, alteraciones que predisponen y conllevan a la futura maloclusión, y las maloclusiones presentes en preescolares. Material y Métodos: Se determinó la frecuencia de las características de la oclusión en la dentición primaria de acuerdo a los principios de Baume. El grupo de estudio comprendió de 61 (76%) niños de edad preescolar. Cada niño fue explorado con luz natural para observar las características de la oclusión propias de su edad. Resultados: De los 61 (76%) niños solo el 12% de ellos presentaron las características de la oclusión primaria, el 67% presentó más de una alteración. La usencia de espacios de desarrollo en el 67%, de los casos, sobremordida horizontal el 15%, mientras que el 38% presento sobremordida vertical, en relación a la oclusión posterior el 3% presento planos terminales distales y el 2% mesial exagerada. De las maloclusiones estudiadas destacó la mordida abierta con el 32% seguidamente la mordida cruzada anterior con el 31%. Conclusiones: 1. La ausencia de espacios de desarrollo en la primera dentición, predice el apiñamiento dental en los permanentes. 2. La diferencia de dimensión en la sobremordida horizontal y vertical de los incisivos, limita el desarrollo y funcionalidad de los maxilares. 3. El plano terminal distal y mesial exagerado, determinan la clase molar II y III de Angle, la presencia de ellas afectan el comportamiento mesial del primer molar permanente. 4. La maloclusión de mordida abierta y la mordida cruzada anterior son signos que afectan complejo craneofaciodental de ambas denticiones.


Objective: Know the frequency in which the prescholar presents: characteristics of primary occlusion, alterations which lead to and predispose future malocclusions, and present malocclusions. Tools and Methodology: The frequency in occlusion characteristics in primary dentures was determined according to Doctor BaumeÆs principles. The study group consisted of 61 (76%) preschool children. Each child was explored with natural light in order to observe occlusion characteristics corresponding to their age. Results: Only 12% of the 61(76%) children presented primary occlusion characteristics, 67% presented more than one alteration. The absence of developmental spaces in 67% of cases was due to a horizontal overbite in 15%, while 38% presented a vertical overbite. Regarding posterior occlusions 3% presented terminal distal planes and 2% an exaggerated mesial. Of the malocclusions studied there was an outstanding 32% of cases with open bite followed by 31% presenting a crossed anterior bite. Conclusions: 1. The absence of developmental spaces in primary dentures predicts the conglomeration of future permanent dentures. 2. The difference in dimension of horizontal and vertical overbites found in incisors limits the development and functionality of maxillaries. 3. The terminal distal plane and exaggerated mesial determine de angle of the second and third molar, their presence affect the displacement of the first permanent molar. 4. The malocclusion of both the open and crossed anterior bite are signs which affect the craniofacial dental complex in both dentures.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Oclusão Dentária , Má Oclusão , Dente Decíduo , Estudos Transversais , Epidemiologia Descritiva , México
12.
Odontol. pediatr. (Lima) ; 10(1): 6-12, ene.-jun. 2011. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | PERNAL | ID: pnc-9133

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conocer las características de la oclusión primaria más frecuentes, alteraciones que predisponen y conllevan a la futura maloclusión, y las maloclusiones presentes en preescolares. Material y Métodos: Se determinó la frecuencia de las características de la oclusión en la dentición primaria de acuerdo a los principios de Baume. El grupo de estudio comprendió de 61 (76%) niños de edad preescolar. Cada niño fue explorado con luz natural para observar las características de la oclusión propias de su edad. Resultados: De los 61 (76%) niños solo el 12% de ellos presentaron las características de la oclusión primaria, el 67% presentó más de una alteración. La usencia de espacios de desarrollo en el 67%, de los casos, sobremordida horizontal el 15%, mientras que el 38% presento sobremordida vertical, en relación a la oclusión posterior el 3% presento planos terminales distales y el 2% mesial exagerada. De las maloclusiones estudiadas destacó la mordida abierta con el 32% seguidamente la mordida cruzada anterior con el 31%. Conclusiones: 1. La ausencia de espacios de desarrollo en la primera dentición, predice el apiñamiento dental en los permanentes. 2. La diferencia de dimensión en la sobremordida horizontal y vertical de los incisivos, limita el desarrollo y funcionalidad de los maxilares. 3. El plano terminal distal y mesial exagerado, determinan la clase molar II y III de Angle, la presencia de ellas afectan el comportamiento mesial del primer molar permanente. 4. La maloclusión de mordida abierta y la mordida cruzada anterior son signos que afectan complejo craneofaciodental de ambas denticiones. (AU)


Objective: Know the frequency in which the prescholar presents: characteristics of primary occlusion, alterations which lead to and predispose future malocclusions, and present malocclusions. Tools and Methodology: The frequency in occlusion characteristics in primary dentures was determined according to Doctor BaumeÆs principles. The study group consisted of 61 (76%) preschool children. Each child was explored with natural light in order to observe occlusion characteristics corresponding to their age. Results: Only 12% of the 61(76%) children presented primary occlusion characteristics, 67% presented more than one alteration. The absence of developmental spaces in 67% of cases was due to a horizontal overbite in 15%, while 38% presented a vertical overbite. Regarding posterior occlusions 3% presented terminal distal planes and 2% an exaggerated mesial. Of the malocclusions studied there was an outstanding 32% of cases with open bite followed by 31% presenting a crossed anterior bite. Conclusions: 1. The absence of developmental spaces in primary dentures predicts the conglomeration of future permanent dentures. 2. The difference in dimension of horizontal and vertical overbites found in incisors limits the development and functionality of maxillaries. 3. The terminal distal plane and exaggerated mesial determine de angle of the second and third molar, their presence affect the displacement of the first permanent molar. 4. The malocclusion of both the open and crossed anterior bite are signs which affect the craniofacial dental complex in both dentures. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Oclusão Dentária , Dente Decíduo , Má Oclusão , Pré-Escolar , Criança , México , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 65(10): 2195-203, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20713406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the virological efficacy, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of a regimen containing 900/100 mg of ritonavir-boosted darunavir once daily in patients with antiretroviral experience but no darunavir resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational, prospective, multicentre study was conducted. Patients were included if 900/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir once daily and at least one other active drug had been started due to virological failure, simplification or toxicity. Minimum follow-up was 24 weeks, or less if there was premature discontinuation of any drug or loss to follow-up. In a subgroup of patients, a complete 24 h pharmacokinetic study was performed by HPLC. RESULTS: One hundred and three patients (47 switch strategies, 56 early salvage therapies) were included. After 6 months, 85/103 (83%; 95% CI: 74%-89%) and 85/93 (91%; 95% CI: 84%-97%) patients had <50 copies/mL HIV-RNA by intention-to-treat and on-treatment analyses, respectively. The respective values were 42/47 (89%; 95% CI: 72%-96%) and 42/43 (98%; 95% CI: 88%-100%) in switch therapy, and 43/56 (77%; 95% CI: 64%-87%) and 43/50 (86%; 95% CI: 73%-94%) in salvage therapy. There was a significant increase in CD4 cell counts [+73 cells/mm(3) (95% CI: 43%-102%), P<0.001]. There were no interruptions due to rash or liver toxicity. Significant decreases in cholesterol and triglycerides were seen in patients with abnormal lipids at baseline. Ten patients discontinued antiretrovirals (5 were lost to follow-up and 5 due to side effects). Twenty-five patients were included in the pharmacokinetic study. All patients had trough plasma concentrations >0.05 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Darunavir/ritonavir at 900/100 mg once daily is highly effective, safe and well tolerated in treatment-experienced patients with no darunavir resistance, both in early salvage and switch strategies. Adequate drug plasma levels were achieved in all patients.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Darunavir , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Ritonavir/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
14.
Metabolism ; 59(12): 1809-10, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20627200

RESUMO

Homocysteine is an intermediate of methionine metabolism, and its elevation in tissues is correlated with an increased risk for vascular diseases. We measured homocysteine in plasma of 24 patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) and long-term high excretion of heme precursors. Fifteen (62.5%) presented hyperhomocysteinemia (total homocysteine in plasma >15 µmol/L). No association was found between hyperhomocysteinemia and either urinary excretion of heme precursors or clinical status. All the patients showed normal levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid, but 13 (54%) presented low plasma levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP <15 nmol/L). Cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) catalyzes a major removal pathway of homocysteine and is dependent on both PLP and heme as cofactors. It is hypothesized that, in AIP, CBS reduced hepatic activity resulting from either a low heme status and/or consumptive depletion of PLP due to increased demand by 5-aminolevulinatesynthase hyperactivity can induce hyperhomocysteinemia.


Assuntos
Hiper-Homocisteinemia/complicações , Porfiria Aguda Intermitente/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfato de Piridoxal/sangue , Vitamina B 12/sangue
16.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 43(3): 267-71, 2005 May-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16138462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify social and familial characteristics in the pregnant adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 74 pregnant adolescents referred to the Mexican Institute of Social Security's (IMSS) Vicente Guerrero Regional General Hospital High-Risk Module in Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico from September to November, 2003. An opinion-descriptive questionnaire was formulated by a Committee of Experts and was applied to pregnant adolescents. Variables studied included personal data, obstetrics, and family characteristics. RESULTS: With regard to personal characteristics, average participant age was 17 years, 21 (28%) participants had a high-school academic level, 66 (89%) entertained an interest in continuing their academic studies, 49 (66%) were married, 66 (89%)were homemakers, 35 (47%) mentioned that the reason they got pregnant was to get married, while (36%) got married to leave their original home situation, 54 (73%) accepted the pregnancy, and 71 (96%) of participants reported feelings of responsibility with regard to caring for their infants. Obstetrical characteristics included sexual activity beginning at an average age of 15 years, 63 (85%) of participants' mothers had a pregnancy during adolescence, and 63 (85%) received information on contraceptives but 51 (69%) did not use these. Family characteristics showed 48 cases (65%) had parents who were married, 58 (62%) of participants lived with their spouses' family, 26 (35%) reported more confidence with their mothers, and 68 (92%) had support from their spouse during the pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to develop and organize a strategy to improve integral care for pregnant adolescents individually, in the family, and socially that includes active participation in the health education process, needs identification, and deciding on the best choices.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Motivação , Gravidez na Adolescência , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cad. saúde pública ; 14(2): 313-8, abr.-jun. 1998. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-214396

RESUMO

Tiene por objetivo conocer las repercusiones de la prematurez en el crecimiento y desarrollo del niño, para lo cual se hace un seguimiento de niños nacidos en hospitales de la Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, de los más representativos del Sistema de Atención Médica en México. Estos niños fueron seguidos con evaluaciones semestrales, tanto en lo que se refere al estado nutricional (crecimiento), como al desarrollo (Prueba Selectiva de Denver). El análisis de los resultados se realiza con la consideración de las clases sociales, como categorías determinantes, para ubicar posteriormente a la prematurez como variable dependiente. Los resultados sugieren que tanto la prematurez como las clases sociales son aspectos que, en Salud Pública, deben ser considerados en el momento de planificar las acciones de atención a la salud.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Bogota; s.n.; 1988. 175 p. ilus, mapas, tab.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-133771

RESUMO

Estudio descriptivo que demuestra la magnitud de las dermatosis en la poblacion menor de 15 anos residente en el Municipio de La Calera (Cund.) y establece su relacion con las condiciones de vida de la poblacion. Durante el primer semestre de 1988 se detectaron 250 casos en este grupo de poblacion, de los cuales 121 fueron dermatosis inflamatorias, 79 infecciosas y 50 idiopaticas. De los ninos afectados 188 provenian del area rural y 62 del area urbana. De acuerdo a la procedencia, en el primer grupo predominaron las inflamatorias y las infecciosas, mientras que en el segundo fueron mas frecuentes las inflamatorias y las idiopaticas. Co relacion a la edad el gupo mas afectado fue el de los escolares (132) entre 5 y 10 anos. En terminos generales los dos sexos se vieron igualmente afectados; sinembrago, las dermatosis idiopaticas fueron mas frecuentes en los varones y las infecciosas en las mujeres. Una proporcion alta de los pacientes con afecciones de piel convivia con animales, y las lesiones fueron mas frecuentes en ninos que habitaban en casas con piso de madera. Tambien se pudo correlacionar el estado nutricional deficiente con la queratosis folicular y la pitiariasis alba. El estaso higienico general de los menores se califico como inadecuado y se correlaciona con mayor incidencia de micosis superficiales (63 por ciento ), escabiosis (87 por ciento ) y pitiriasis alba (94 por ciento ), mientras que el colecho fue mas frecuente en quemaduras solares cronicas (67.3 por ciento ), micosis superficiales (59.3 por ciento ) y escabiosis. La disposicion de excretas y basuras no pudo relacionarse con las dermatosis


Assuntos
Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Fatores de Risco , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Dermatopatias/classificação , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/terapia , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/fisiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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