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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(3): e15346, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smart Walk is a culturally relevant, social cognitive theory-based, smartphone-delivered intervention designed to increase physical activity (PA) and reduce cardiometabolic disease risk among African American (AA) women. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the development and initial usability testing results of Smart Walk. METHODS: Smart Walk was developed in 5 phases. Phases 1 to 3 focused on initial intervention development, phase 4 involved usability testing, and phase 5 included intervention refinement based on usability testing results. In phase 1, a series of 9 focus groups with 25 AA women (mean age 38.5 years, SD 7.8; mean BMI 39.4 kg/m2, SD 7.3) was used to identify cultural factors associated with PA and ascertain how constructs of social cognitive theory can be leveraged in the design of a PA intervention. Phase 2 included the analysis of phase 1 qualitative data and development of the structured PA intervention. Phase 3 focused on the technical development of the smartphone app used to deliver the intervention. Phase 4 consisted of a 1-month usability trial of Smart Walk (n=12 women; mean age 35.0 years, SD 8.5; mean BMI 40 kg/m2, SD 5.0). Phase 5 included refinement of the intervention based on the usability trial results. RESULTS: The 5-phase process resulted in the development of the Smart Walk smartphone-delivered PA intervention. This PA intervention was designed to target social cognitive theory constructs of behavioral capability, outcome expectations, social support, self-efficacy, and self-regulation and address deep structure sociocultural characteristics of collectivism, racial pride, and body appearance preferences of AA women. Key features of the smartphone app included (1) personal profile pages, (2) multimedia PA promotion modules (ie, electronic text and videos), (3) discussion boards, and (4) a PA self-monitoring tool. Participants also received 3 PA promotion text messages each week. CONCLUSIONS: The development process of Smart Walk was designed to maximize the usability, cultural relevance, and impact of the smartphone-delivered PA intervention.

2.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(5): 1392-1399, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Venous thrombosis (VT) is a complex condition with a highly heritable genetic component that predisposes one to its development. Certain microRNAs (miRNAs) might be used as biomarkers of VT, but few studies have examined miRNA expression in this respect. The aim of the present work was to identify a plasma miRNA profile associated with VT. Approach and Results: miRNAs were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in plasma samples from members of the GAIT-2 (Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia 2) population (n=935). A discovery phase involving the screening of 752 miRNAs from a subset of 104 GAIT-2 subjects was followed by an internal validation phase in which the selected miRNAs were quantified in the whole GAIT-2 population. In the discovery phase, 16 miRNAs were selected, including 9 associated with VT and 7 that correlated with an intermediate phenotype of VT. In the next phase, 4 miRNAs were validated as differentially expressed (false discovery rate, <0.1) in VT: hsa-miR-126-3p, hsa-miR-885-5p, hsa-miR-194-5p, and hsa-miR-192-5p. The 4 miRNAs each returned a significant (P<0.05) odds ratio for VT (range of 1.3-1.8). A risk model including the 4 miRNAs, age, and sex returned an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.77. Moreover, all 4 miRNAs showed significant correlations with intermediate phenotypes of VT (eg, protein S and factor VII). The targets of the miRNAs in the blood coagulation pathway and their interactions are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest a 4-miRNA plasma profile associated with VT is of potential use in predicting the risk of this condition.

3.
Opt Lett ; 45(3): 623-626, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004267

RESUMO

Phase birefringence in optical fibers typically fluctuates over their length due to geometrical imperfections induced from the drawing process or during installation. Currently commercially available fibers exhibit remarkably low birefringence, prompting a high standard for characterization methods. In this work, we detail a method that uses chirped-pulse phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry to directly measure position-resolved linear birefringence of single-mode optical fibers. The technique is suitable for fiber characterization over lengths of tens of kilometers, relying on a fast measurement ($ {\sim} 1\,\, {\rm s} $∼1s) with single-ended access to the fiber. The proposed method is experimentally validated with three different commercial single-mode optical fibers.

4.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 91: 105956, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-based programs have had modest success in combating obesity in Latino populations. Latino families' norms and beliefs about weight often hold larger body sizes to be normal, leading to lower engagement in weight-focused programs. Because improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness confer health benefits, regardless of weight, they offer an alternative to obesity-focused approaches. We describe the rationale and design of Athletes for Life (AFL), a community- and family-based intervention for Latino families. METHODS/DESIGN: This two-group randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of AFL for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and diet in 6- to 11-year-old children (N = 160) and their parents, relative to a wait-list control group. Children will participate in 12 weeks of semiweekly sports skill programing and nutrition sessions. Concurrently, parents will participate in sports-focused activity and behavior change sessions that focus on nutrition, chronic disease prevention, and healthy eating. Cardiovascular fitness will be measured by the 1-mile run and 3-min step-test for both parents and children. Secondary outcomes include changes in objectively measured physical activity, dietary measures, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk (waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein). DISCUSSION: AFL, implemented with a strong community partnership, will provide a test of the efficacy of culturally tailored intervention programming to promote positive health behaviors and improve health outcomes in Latino families. Intervention content, structure, and messaging will provide guidance for future methods to engage Latino families in health promotion programs that highlight their cultural norms, and beliefs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT03761589 (12/3/2018).

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109268

RESUMO

We employ a combined density functional theory (DFT) and experimental approach to screen different elements (M) and Pt3M alloys (M = Sc, Y, V, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Hf, Cr, Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Cu, Ag, Au and Al) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and stability. The results of the calculations are validated using a series of carbon supported alloy nanoparticles measured within membrane electrode assembly (MEA) environments. We assess the reliability of descriptors such as surface d-band centre and O adsorption energy as computed from DFT calculations. We also assess the stability of the alloy surfaces under different adsorbate environments as encountered under ORR conditions. Our calculations predict that under an oxygen atmosphere segregation of M to the surface is likely to occur. The calculated segregation energies correlate reasonably well with the amount of base metal leached in the carbon-supported catalysts and good correlation of computed O adsorption energies with ORR activity is also shown.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075221

RESUMO

Human cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) is known to induce cementoblast and osteoblast differentiation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human periodontal ligament-derived cells in vitro and promotes bone regeneration in vivo. CEMP1's secondary structure analysis shows that it has a random-coiled structure and is considered an Intrinsic Disordered Protein (IDP). CEMP1's short peptide sequences mimic the biological capabilities of CEMP1. However, the role and mechanisms of CEMP1's C-terminal-derived synthetic peptide (CEMP1-p4) in the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway are yet to be described. Here we report that CEMP1-p4 promotes proliferation and differentiation of Human Oral Mucosa Stem Cells (HOMSCs) by activating the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. CEMP1-p4 stimulation upregulated the expression of ß-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3B) and activated the transcription factors TCF1/7 and Lymphoid Enhancer binding Factor 1 (LEF1) at the mRNA and protein levels. We found translocation of ß-catenin to the nucleus in CEMP1-p4-treated cultures. The peptide also penetrates the cell membrane and aggregates around the cell nucleus. Analysis of CEMP1-p4 secondary structure revealed that it has a random-coiled structure. Its biological activities included the induction to nucleate hydroxyapatite crystals. In CEMP1-p4-treated HOMSCs, ALP activity and calcium deposits increased. Expression of Osterix (OSX), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), Integrin binding sialoproptein (IBSP) and osteocalcin (OCN) were upregulated. Altogether, these data show that CEMP1-p4 plays a direct role in the differentiation of HOMSCs to a "mineralizing-like" phenotype by activating the ß-catenin signaling cascade.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046270

RESUMO

Until recently, the amount of solar irradiance reaching the Earth surface was considered to be a steady value over the years. However, there is increasing observational evidence showing that this quantity undergoes substantial variations over time, which need to be addressed in different scenarios ranging from climate change to solar energy applications. With the growing interest in developing solar energy technology with enhanced efficiency and optimized management, the monitoring of solar irradiance at the ground level is now considered to be a fundamental input in the pursuit of that goal. Here, we propose the first fiber-based distributed sensor able of monitoring ground solar irradiance in real time, with meter scale spatial resolutions over distances of several tens of kilometers (up to 100 km). The technique is based on an optical fiber reflectometry technique (CP-ϕOTDR), which enables real time and long-range high-sensitivity bolometric measurements of solar radiance with a single optical fiber cable and a single interrogator unit. The method is explained and analyzed theoretically. A validation of the method is proposed using a solar simulator irradiating standard optical fibers, where we demonstrate the ability to detect and quantify solar irradiance with less than a 0.1 W/m2 resolution.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(5): 780-788, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases active tuberculosis (TB) risk and worsens TB outcomes, jeopardizing TB control especially in TB-endemic countries with rising DM prevalence rates. We assessed DM status and clinical correlates in TB patients across settings in Indonesia, Peru, Romania, and South Africa. METHODS: Age-adjusted DM prevalence was estimated using laboratory glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or fasting plasma glucose in TB patients. Detailed and standardized sociodemographic, anthropometric, and clinical measurements were made. Characteristics of TB patients with or without DM were compared using multilevel mixed-effect regression models with robust standard errors. RESULTS: Of 2185 TB patients (median age 36.6 years, 61.2% male, 3.8% human immunodeficiency virus-infected), 12.5% (267/2128) had DM, one third of whom were newly diagnosed. Age-standardized DM prevalence ranged from 10.9% (South Africa) to 19.7% (Indonesia). Median HbA1c in TB-DM patients ranged from 7.4% (Romania) to 11.3% (Indonesia). Compared to those without DM, TB-DM patients were older and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (P value < .05). Compared to those with newly diagnosed DM, TB patients with diagnosed DM had higher BMI and HbA1c, less severe TB, and more frequent comorbidities, DM complications, and hypertension (P value < .05). CONCLUSIONS: We show that DM prevalence and clinical characteristics of TB-DM vary across settings. Diabetes is primarily known but untreated, hyperglycemia is often severe, and many patients with TB-DM have significant cardiovascular disease risk and severe TB. This underlines the need to improve strategies for better clinical management of combined TB and DM.

9.
Appetite ; 144: 104482, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine if first-year roommates made similar meal plan decisions. METHODS: Residence information for 1186 first-year students (N = 593 roommate pairs) and 559 floormates was obtained for the 2015-2016 academic year. Linear generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to examine if the number of meals students used over the semester was higher if their roommate used their meal plan more frequently. A logistic GEE examined joint meal plan usage between students and roommates for each month of the semester. To determine if residence, rather than roommate, explained the results, a simulation was conducted by randomly assigning the floormates to a same-sex roommate. RESULTS: The number of meals students used in spring was higher if the students' roommate had used more meals in spring, even after controlling for the number of meals students used in fall (Female: ß = 0.07, 99% CI = 0.00, 0.13; Male: ß = 0.10, 99% CI = 0.02, 0.18). Students were more likely to use a meal with their roommate if they were on the same meal plan (Female: OR = 1.61, 99% CI = 1.27, 2.04; Male: OR = 1.57, 99% CI = 1.09, 2.25), and less likely after the first month of being roommates (Female: OR = 0.57-0.25; Male: OR = 0.50-0.22; p < 0.001). The simulation analysis indicated these findings were not due to shared residence. DISCUSSION: Students' meal plan choices were associated with their roommates' meal plan choices. Roommates' joint meal plan usage was highest at the start of the year. Strategic roommate pairings may result in students using their meal plan more. Further research should determine the extent of roommate influence on students' diet.

10.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 89: 105914, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843638

RESUMO

Latinx adolescents are at higher risk for chronic diseases relative to adolescents of other ethnic groups, in part because of their lack of adherence to diet recommendations and their higher rates of substance use. Given the proximal influence of family factors during the developmental stage of adolescence, parenting interventions may be an effective way to promote healthy nutrition and substance use prevention simultaneously. This article describes the design and theoretical rationale of a study assessing the effects of Families Preparing the New Generation Plus (FPNG Plus), a 10-week culturally-tailored nutrition and substance use prevention parenting program, on diet and substance use outcomes among Latinx middle school students (6th-8th grade). The 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial compares FPNG Plus (substance use prevention and healthy nutrition), FPNG (substance use prevention only), and a comparison condition (focusing on academic success) in 1494 parent-child dyads from 18 schools, randomized at the school level. Adolescents and parents will complete surveys pre- and post-intervention, and 16-weeks after program participation, regarding diet behaviors, substance use, and parenting practices. A random subsample of 126 dyads (42 from each program), will participate in additional data collection to assess the home food environment, detailed dietary intake (via two 24-h recalls), and provide biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk (blood pressure, total cholesterol and HbA1c). If successful, this study will provide evidence contributing to helping Latinx parents assist their adolescent children develop and maintain long-lasting positive lifestyle behaviors in order to prevent concurrent substance use and diet-related chronic diseases.

12.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(4): 452-457, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1056484

RESUMO

RESUMEN: La caries temprana de la infancia severa (CTI-S) es una enfermedad crónica que afecta a niños menores de 6 años, produce dolor, infección y destrucción de los tejidos dentales. El dolor que experimentan los niños con CTI-S puede llevar a hábitos alimenticios alterados que pueden causar deficiencias nutricionales. El objetivo fue evaluar los valores de hemograma en niños con CTI-S y compararlos con los valores normales de referencia para la edad. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo observacional. Se analizaron las fichas y hemogramas de 47 niños con CTI-S, clasificados como ASA 1, atendidos bajo anestesia general en el Hospital de la Fuerza Aérea de Chile. Se tomaron en cuenta los valores del hemograma en relación a: Hematocrito, Hemoglobina y VCM. Se realizaron test descriptivos para las variables en estudio y se utilizó el testt para comparar los valores de hemograma con los valores normales de referencia. Se encontró una disminución de los valores de hematocrito en 4 pacientes (8,5 %) y una disminución del valor de VCM en 17 pacientes (36,7 %). Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar los promedios obtenidos en relación a hematocrito, VCM y hemoglobina en niños con CTI-S con el promedio de referencia (p <0,001). De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, podemos concluir que los niños con caries temprana de la infancia severa, tienen alteraciones en los valores promedio de hemograma en relación a hematocrito, hemoglobina y VCM.


ABSTRACT: Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) is a multifactorial chronic disease that affects children under 6 years of age, produces pain, infection and destruction of the dental tissues. The pain experienced by children with SECC may lead to altered eating habits that may cause nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemogram values in children with severe early childhood caries, and compare them with age population reference values. An observational retrospective study was carried out. We analyzed the medical records and their respective hemograms of 47 children with S-ECC, classified as ASA1, attended at the Chilean Air Force Hospital under general anesthesia. The hemogram values were taken into account in relation to: hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Descriptive tests were carried out for the variables under study and the t-test was used to compare the hemogram values with the normal reference values. A decrease in hematocrit values was found in 4 patients (8.5 %) and a decrease in the value of MCV in 17 patients (36.7 %). Significant differences were found when comparing the averages obtained in relation to hematocrit, hemoglobin and MCV in children with S-ECC with the reference average (p <0.001). According to the results obtained, in this study, we can conclude that children with severe early childhood caries, have alterations in the average of hemogram values in relation to hematocrit, hemoglobin and MCV.

13.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 111(12): 973, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696725

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus infection has been associated with many dermatologic conditions such as lichen planus, porphyria cutanea tarda, and cryoglobulinemia. Recently, an association of HCV with systemic sclerosis has been reported. However, there are few reports of the association of localized scleroderma or morphea with Hepatitis C Virus infection. We describe the case of a 36 years old female patient suffering from prolonged morphea with difficult management, who was recently diagnosed of Hepatitis C Virus and received direct-acting antiviral agents treatment with Hepatitis C Virus clearance. Skin lesion faded away in a short period after successful therapy.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5139, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723138

RESUMO

How and when tumoral clones start spreading to surrounding and distant tissues is currently unclear. Here we leveraged a model-based evolutionary framework to investigate the demographic and biogeographic history of a colorectal cancer. Our analyses strongly support an early monoclonal metastatic colonization, followed by a rapid population expansion at both primary and secondary sites. Moreover, we infer a hematogenous metastatic spread under positive selection, plus the return of some tumoral cells from the liver back to the colon lymph nodes. This study illustrates how sophisticated techniques typical of organismal evolution can provide a detailed, quantitative picture of the complex tumoral dynamics over time and space.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Progressão da Doença , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica
15.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721023

RESUMO

One of the objectives in the field of artificial intelligence for some decades has been the development of artificial agents capable of coexisting in harmony with people and other systems. The computing research community has made efforts to design artificial agents capable of doing tasks the way people do, tasks requiring cognitive mechanisms such as planning, decision-making, and learning. The application domains of such software agents are evident nowadays. Humans are experiencing the inclusion of artificial agents in their environment as unmanned vehicles, intelligent houses, and humanoid robots capable of caring for people. In this context, research in the field of machine ethics has become more than a hot topic. Machine ethics focuses on developing ethical mechanisms for artificial agents to be capable of engaging in moral behavior. However, there are still crucial challenges in the development of truly Artificial Moral Agents. This paper aims to show the current status of Artificial Moral Agents by analyzing models proposed over the past two decades. As a result of this review, a taxonomy to classify Artificial Moral Agents according to the strategies and criteria used to deal with ethical problems is proposed. The presented review aims to illustrate (1) the complexity of designing and developing ethical mechanisms for this type of agent, and (2) that there is a long way to go (from a technological perspective) before this type of artificial agent can replace human judgment in difficult, surprising or ambiguous moral situations.

16.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(8): 1602460, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413912

RESUMO

Intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the most effective treatment for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), unfortunately there is no validated biomarker to predict clinical outcome. Here we tried to explore the possibility that a combination of the density of peritumoral infiltrating cells (Th1, Th2 and PD-L1) and the composition of peripheral immune cells (neutrophil and lymphocyte counts) could generate a more reliable prognostic biomarker. Twenty-two patients with high-risk NMIBC treated with BCG (10 BCG nonresponders and 12 BCG responders) were selected. BCG responders had significantly lower level of peritumoral T-bet+ cells with an associated higher GATA-3+/T-bet+ ratio (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, the immune polarization in tissue (GATA-3+/T-bet+ ratio) adjusted for the systemic inflammation (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) showed a significantly higher association with the BCG response (p = 0.004). A survival analysis demonstrated prolonged recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients with a lower T-bet+/Lymphocyte ratio and higher GTR/NLR (p = 0.01). No association was observed between peritumoral PD-L1+ expression and the BCG response. In conclusion, alterations in overall immune function, both local and systemic, may influence the therapeutic response to BCG, therefore a combined analysis of tumoral (Th2/Th1 ratio) and peripheral (NLR) immune composition prior to treatment may be a promising approach to predict the BCG response in high-risk NMIBC patients.

17.
Prev Med Rep ; 15: 100915, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297309

RESUMO

This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the literature on early care and education center (ECEC)-based physical activity interventions to identify ecologic environmental factors that improve cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in preschool-aged children. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Trials, CINHAL, Science Direct, PsychINFO and SPORTDiscus. Peer-reviewed publications of studies that met the following criteria were eligible for inclusion: (1) mean age of participants between two and a half and five and a half years old enrolled in a pre-primary school; (2) randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental interventions with a control group; (3) interventions occurring before, during, or immediately after school; (4) use of an objective measure or field-based estimate of CVF; (5) enrolled apparently healthy children. In June of 2018, titles (n = 1197) were reviewed for inclusion into the study and 74 abstracts/full texts were assessed for eligibility. Ten articles met all eligibility criteria and were included in the final review. A random effects meta-analysis suggested a moderate-to-large effect size for ECEC-based interventions to increase CVF (g = 0.75; 95%CI [0.40-1.11]). Interventions that included three or more ecologic environments (g = 0.79 [0.34-1.25]) were more effective than interventions occurring at the individual level (g = 0.67 [0.12-1.22]). Study quality was moderate, and (mean ±â€¯SD) 17.9 ±â€¯4.3 (63.9%) of 28 checklist items were reported. Preliminary evidence suggests that ECEC-based interventions to increase CVF are highly effective at improving preschool children's exercise test scores. Although ECEC-based interventions show promise, the small number of studies included in this review limits confidence in these findings. Review registered at PROSPERO CRD42018099115.

18.
Rev Gastroenterol Peru ; 39(2): 193-196, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333240

RESUMO

Mucormycosis is a rare, usually fatal, opportunistic infection that mostly affects people with immune deficiency or associated pathologies. There are few reports of this disease in patients without the traditional risk factors, still unknown what could be the real predisposing causes involved. The forms of presentation are rhinocerebral, cutaneous, pulmonary, gastrointestinal and disseminated. This is why, due to the difficult diagnosis, high mortality and uncommon presentation, we report the case of a 4-year-old child without immunodeficiency or background pathologies who developed an esophagogastric mucormycosis.


Assuntos
Mucormicose , Gastropatias/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Masculino , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Gastropatias/diagnóstico
19.
Hisp Health Care Int ; : 1540415319858075, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234651

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Middle-aged Hispanic women have the highest prevalence of overweight and lifetime risk for diabetes of all gender/racial groups. This study examines use of alternative medicine for weight loss and diabetes management among overweight and obese Mexican American women with or at risk for diabetes. METHOD: As part of a diabetes risk-reduction intervention targeting overweight and obese Hispanic women at a federally qualified health center in Hillsboro, Oregon, we administered a survey of different treatment modalities, including alternative medicine, traditional Mexican medicine, and home remedies to 85 Hispanic women. We also asked participants how often they disclosed their use of alternative methods to their providers. RESULTS: Nearly all participants with diabetes (97%) reported using at least one alternative strategy for diabetes control, with home remedies, commercial weight-loss products, and herbal teas being the most endorsed. Most participants with diabetes and half of those without diabetes reported never telling their provider. CONCLUSION: This group of women reported a high prevalence of use of alternative methods for weight control and diabetes management. Yet most participants with diabetes never reported this use to a health care provider. To ensure patient safety, providers treating Hispanic women need to probe for complementary and alternative medicine practices.

20.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180359, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970114

RESUMO

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of enamel development disorders that alter the structure and chemical composition of the tissue. There is great variability in the clinical presentation; according to Witkop, AI can be categorized into 14 subtypes, which makes its diagnosis extremely complex. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe and determine the frequency of clinical and radiographic features and inheritance patterns found in 41 Chilean families diagnosed with diverse types of AI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the clinical records, photographs, pedigrees and radiographs of 121 individuals recruited between 2003 and 2016. All of the information was included in a database that was analyzed using the application Stata 14. RESULTS: The 72 affected individuals had average age of 16 years, and no sex association with the presence of AI was found. The most frequent clinical subtypes were as follows: 43% hypomature, 25% hypoplastic, 21% hypomature/hypoplastic, 7% hypocalcified and 4% hypocalcified/hypoplastic. The number of severely affected teeth was 22, which occurred in the patients with hypocalcified and hypocalcified/hypoplasic AI who presented the highest number of damaged teeth. Caries and periodontal disease were found in 47 and 32% of the patients, respectively. Malocclusions were observed in 43% of the individuals with AI, with open bite being the most frequent. Radiographically, the thickness of the enamel decreased in 51% of the patients, and 80% showed decreased radiopacity of the enamel compared to that of dentin. Autosomal dominant inheritance pattern was found in 37% of the families with hypoplastic AI, and autosomal recessive pattern was present in 56% of the other clinical subtypes, but more frequently in those affected with hypomature and hypocalcified AI. CONCLUSION: Of the five clinical subtypes, autosomal recessive hypomature, autosomal dominant hypoplastic and autosomal recessive hypomature/hypoplastic AI were the most prevalent subtypes in this group.


Assuntos
Amelogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico por imagem , Amelogênese Imperfeita/genética , Genealogia e Heráldica , Padrões de Herança , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amelogênese Imperfeita/epidemiologia , Amelogênese Imperfeita/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile/epidemiologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Distribuição por Sexo , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
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