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1.
Blood ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738823

RESUMO

Pediatric large B-cell lymphomas (LBCL) share morphological and phenotypic features with adult types but have better prognosis. The higher frequency of some subtypes such as LBCL with IRF4 rearrangement (LBCL-IRF4) in children, suggests that some age-related biological differences may exist. To characterize the genetic and molecular heterogeneity of these tumors, we studied 31 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified (DLBCL, NOS), 20 LBCL-IRF4, and 12 high grade B-cell lymphomas, NOS (HGBCL, NOS) in patients {less than or equal to}25 years-old using an integrated approach including targeted gene sequencing, copy number arrays and gene expression profiling. Each subgroup displayed different molecular profiles. LBCL-IRF4 had frequent mutations in IRF4 and NF-kB pathway genes (CARD11, CD79B and MYD88), losses of 17p13 and gains of chr7, 11q12.3-q25 whereas DLBCL,NOS were predominantly of germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype and carried gene mutations similar to the adult counterpart (e.g. SOCS1 and KMT2D), gains of 2p16/REL and losses of 19p13/CD70. A subset of HGBCL, NOS displayed recurrent alterations of Burkitt lymphoma related genes such as MYC, ID3 and DDX3X and homozygous deletions of 9p21/CDKN2A whereas other cases were genetically closer to GCB-DLBCL. Factors related to unfavorable outcome were age >18y old, activated B-cell DLBCL profile, HGBCL, NOS, high genetic complexity, 1q21-q44 gains, 2p16/REL gains/amplifications, 19p13/CD70 homozygous deletions, and TP53 and MYC mutations. In conclusion, these findings further unravel the molecular heterogeneity of pediatric/young-adult LBCL, improve the classification of this group of tumors and provide new parameters for risk stratification.

2.
Oncogene ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616059

RESUMO

Targeting Notch signaling has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), particularly in NOTCH1-mutated patients. We provide first evidence that the Notch ligand DLL4 is a potent stimulator of Notch signaling in NOTCH1-mutated CLL cells while increases cell proliferation. Importantly, DLL4 is expressed in histiocytes from the lymph node, both in NOTCH1-mutated and -unmutated cases. We also show that the DLL4-induced activation of the Notch signaling pathway can be efficiently blocked with the specific anti-Notch1 antibody OMP-52M51. Accordingly, OMP-52M51 also reverses Notch-induced MYC, CCND1, and NPM1 gene expression as well as cell proliferation in NOTCH1-mutated CLL cells. In addition, DLL4 stimulation triggers the expression of protumor target genes, such as CXCR4, NRARP, and VEGFA, together with an increase in cell migration and angiogenesis. All these events can be antagonized by OMP-52M51. Collectively, our results emphasize the role of DLL4 stimulation in NOTCH1-mutated CLL and confirm the specific therapeutic targeting of Notch1 as a promising approach for this group of poor prognosis CLL patients.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(31): 2815-2824, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339826

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The PRIMA study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00140582) established that 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line immunochemotherapy significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with follicular lymphoma compared with observation. Here, we report the final PFS and overall survival (OS) results from the PRIMA study after 9 years of follow-up and provide a final overview of safety. METHODS: Patients (> 18 years of age) with previously untreated high-tumor-burden follicular lymphoma were nonrandomly assigned to receive one of three immunochemotherapy induction regimens. Responding patients were randomly assigned (stratified by induction regimen, response to induction treatment, treatment center, and geographic region) 1:1 to receive 2 years of rituximab maintenance (375 mg/m2, once every 8 weeks), starting 8 weeks after the last induction treatment, or observation (no additional treatment). All patients in the extended follow-up provided their written informed consent (data cutoff: December 31, 2016). RESULTS: In total, 1,018 patients completed induction treatment and were randomly assigned to rituximab maintenance (n = 505) or observation (n = 513). Consent for the extended follow-up was provided by 607 patients (59.6%) of 1,018 (rituximab maintenance, n = 309; observation, n = 298). After data cutoff, median PFS was 10.5 years in the rituximab maintenance arm compared with 4.1 years in the observation arm (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.73; P < .001). No OS difference was seen in patients randomly assigned to rituximab maintenance or observation (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.40; P = .7948); 10-year OS estimates were approximately 80% in both study arms. No new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSION: Rituximab maintenance after induction immunochemotherapy provides a significant long-term PFS, but not OS, benefit over observation.

5.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296574

RESUMO

CD38 is expressed in several types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and constitutes a promising target for antibody-based therapy. Daratumumab (Darzalex) is a first-in-class anti-CD38 antibody approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. It has also demonstrated clinical activity in Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia and amyloidosis. Here, we have evaluated the activity and mechanism of action of daratumumab in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models of mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma, as monotherapy or in combination with standard chemo-immunotherapy. In vitro, daratumumab engages Fc-mediated cytotoxicity by antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis in all lymphoma subtypes. In the presence of human serum, complement-dependent cell cytotoxicity was marginally engaged. We demonstrated by Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy that daratumumab fully penetrated a 3D lymphoma organoid and decreased organoid volume. In vivo, daratumumab completely prevents tumor outgrowth in models of mantle cell and follicular lymphoma, and shows comparable activity to rituximab in a disseminated in vivo model of blastic mantle cell lymphoma. Moreover, daratumumab improves overall survival in a mouse model of transformed CD20dim follicular lymphoma, where rituximab showed limited activity. Daratumumab potentiates the antitumor activity of CHOP and R-CHOP in mantle cell and follicular lymphoma xenografts. Furthermore, in a patient-derived diffuse large B cell lymphoma xenograft model, daratumumab anti-tumor activity was comparable to R-CHOP and the addition of daratumumab to either CHOP or R-CHOP led to full tumor regression. In summary, daratumumab constitutes a novel therapeutic opportunity in certain scenarios and these results warrant further clinical development.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) with early therapy failure (ETF) within 2 years of frontline therapy have poor overall survival (OS). We recently reported the results of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients from the Grupo Español de Linfomas y Trasplantes de Médula Ósea (GELTAMO) registry treated with rituximab prior to ASCT and with ETF after first-line immunochemotherapy, leading to 81% 5-year OS since ASCT. We explored whether ASCT is also an effective option in the pre-rituximab era-that is, in patients treated in induction and rescued only with chemotherapy. METHODS: ETF was defined as relapse/progression within 2 years of starting first-line therapy. We identified two groups: the ETF cohort (n = 87) and the non-ETF cohort (n = 47 patients receiving ASCT but not experiencing ETF following first-line therapy). RESULTS: There was a significant difference in 5-year progression-free survival between the ETF and non-ETF cohorts (43% vs. 57%, respectively; p = .048). Nevertheless, in patients with ETF with an interval from first relapse after primary treatment to ASCT of <1 year, no differences were observed in 5-year progression-free survival (48% vs. 66%, respectively; p = .44) or in 5-year OS (69% vs. 77%, p = .4). Patients in the ETF cohort transplanted in complete remission showed a plateau in the OS curves, at 56%, beyond 13.7 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: ASCT may be a curative option for ETF in patients who respond to rescue chemotherapy, without the need for immunotherapy or other therapies, and should be considered as an early consolidation, especially in patients with difficult access to rituximab.

7.
Histopathology ; 75(5): 704-714, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173643

RESUMO

AIMS: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogeneous disease with an aggressive behaviour in most cases, which is associated with expression of sex determining region-Y-box11 (SOX11). Experimental studies have shown that SOX11 expression is associated with an angiogenic switch characterised by increased expression of angiogenic-related signatures and vascularisation of murine tumours. However, the relationship between angiogenesis and SOX11 expression in primary tumours is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the development of microvascular angiogenesis in primary MCL in relation to SOX11 expression and its potential prognostic value. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-six patients diagnosed with MCL, 38 SOX11-positive and 18 SOX11-negative, were studied. The relative intratumoral microvascular area (MVA) and microvessel density (MVD) (number of intratumoral microvessels/µm2 ) were measured on CD34-stained slides using a computerised image analysis system. SOX11-positive MCL showed a significant higher microvascular development than negative tumours (median MVA = 14.5 × 10-3 versus 5.0 × 10-3 P < 0.001; median MVD = 18.6/µm2 versus 14.2/µm2 , P = 0.021). Analysing the MVA and MVD as continuous variables, a high MVD was associated with shorter overall survival (P = 0.004), and a similar tendency was observed for high MVA (P = 0.064). The microvascular development was not related to the Ki-67 proliferative index or 17p/TP53, 9p or 11q alterations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that SOX11 promotes an angiogenic phenotype in primary MCL, which may contribute to the more aggressive behaviour of these tumours.

8.
J Clin Exp Hematop ; 59(1): 1-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918139

RESUMO

The microenvironment influences the behavior of follicular lymphoma (FL) but the specific roles of the immunomodulatory BTLA and TNFRSF14 (HVEM) are unknown. Therefore, we examined their immunohistochemical expression in the intrafollicular, interfollicular and total histological compartments in 106 FL cases (57M/49F; median age 57-years), and in nine relapsed-FL with transformation to DLBCL (tFL). BTLA expression pattern was of follicular T-helper cells (TFH) in the intrafollicular and of T-cells in the interfollicular compartments. The mantle zones were BTLA+ in 35.6% of the cases with similar distribution of IgD. TNFRSF14 expression pattern was of neoplastic B lymphocytes (centroblasts) and "tingible body macrophages". At diagnosis, the averages of total BTLA and TNFRSF14-positive cells were 19.2%±12.4STD (range, 0.6%-58.2%) and 46.7 cells/HPF (1-286.5), respectively. No differences were seen between low-grade vs. high-grade FL but tFL was characterized by low BTLA and high TNFRSF14 expression. High BTLA correlated with good overall survival (OS) (total-BTLA, Hazard Risk=0.479, P=0.022) and with high PD-1 and FOXP3+Tregs. High TNFRSF14 correlated with poor OS and progression-free survival (PFS) (total-TNFRSF14, HR=3.9 and 3.2, respectively, P<0.0001), with unfavorable clinical variables and higher risk of transformation (OR=5.3). Multivariate analysis including BTLA, TNFRSF14 and FLIPI showed that TNFRSF14 and FLIPI maintained prognostic value for OS and TNFRSF14 for PFS. In the GSE16131 FL series, high TNFRSF14 gene expression correlated with worse prognosis and GSEA showed that NFkB pathway was associated with the "High-TNFRSF14/dead-phenotype".In conclusion, the BTLA-TNFRSF14 immune modulation pathway seems to play a role in the pathobiology and prognosis of FL.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Membro 14 de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos B/química , Linfócitos B/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/química
9.
Histopathology ; 75(6): 799-812, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861172

RESUMO

AIMS: The clinical implications of the programmed cell death 1 (PD1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis in patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are largely unknown, and its association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status and PD-L1 copy number alterations (CNAs) has not been thoroughly studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: PD1/PD-L1 expression was studied in 50 adult post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, and the correlations with PD-L1 CNAs, EBV, clinicopathological features and outcome were evaluated. Thirty-seven (74%) cases were classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), nine (18%) cases were classified as polymorphic, and four (8%) cases were classified as classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Thirty-four cases were EBV-positive, with 29 of 34 (85%) having latency II or III, and 15 of 34 (44%) having viral replication. PD-L1 expression in tumour cells and tumour-associated macrophages was observed in 30 (60%) and 37 (74%) cases, respectively. PD1 positivity was seen in 16 (32%) cases. PD-L1 expression was associated with EBV with latency II or III (P = 0.001) and organ rejection (P = 0.04), and, in DLBCL, with non-germinal centre type DLBCL (P < 0.001). Cases with PD-L1-positive tumour cells showed a higher number of PD-L1 CNAs than PD-L1-negative cases (P = 0.001). Patients with EBV/latency III/replication and simultaneous PD-L1 expression showed the worst overall survival (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The PD1/PD-L1 axis is deregulated in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, with frequent PD-L1 expression and PD1 negativity. PD-L1 expression is associated with EBV latency II or III and PD-L1 CNAs, and probably reflects a proinflammatory tumour microenvironment. The combined analysis of EBV status and PD-L1 expression may help to identify deeply immunosuppressed patients who can benefit from immune reconstitution approaches.

10.
Br J Haematol ; 185(3): 480-491, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793290

RESUMO

The use of immunochemotherapy has improved the outcome of follicular lymphoma (FL). Recently, complete response at 30 months (CR30) has been suggested as a surrogate for progression-free survival. This study aimed to analyse the life expectancy of FL patients according to their status at 30 months from the start of treatment in comparison with the sex and age-matched Spanish general population (relative survival; RS). The training series comprised 263 patients consecutively diagnosed with FL in a 10-year period who needed therapy and were treated with rituximab-containing regimens. An independent cohort of 693 FL patients from the Grupo Español de Linfomas y Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Ósea (GELTAMO) group was used for validation. In the training cohort, 188 patients were in CR30, with a 10-year overall survival (OS) of 53% and 87% for non-CR30 and CR30 patients, respectively. Ten-year RS was 73% and 100%, showing no decrease in life expectancy for CR30 patients. Multivariate analysis indicated that the FL International Prognostic Index was the most important variable predicting OS in the CR30 group. The impact of CR30 status on RS was validated in the independent GELTAMO series. In conclusion, FL patients treated with immunochemotherapy who were in CR at 30 months showed similar survival to a sex- and age-matched Spanish general population.

11.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(2): e67-e78, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have shown synergistic antitumour effects between ibrutinib and immune-checkpoint blockade. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and activity of ibrutinib in combination with nivolumab in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell malignant diseases. METHODS: We did a two-part, open-label, phase 1/2a study at 21 hospitals in Australia, Israel, Poland, Spain, Turkey, and the USA. The primary objective of part A (dose escalation) was to assess the safety of daily oral ibrutinib (420 mg or 560 mg) in combination with intravenous nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) to ascertain a recommended phase 2 dose in patients with relapsed or refractory high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (del17p or del11q), follicular lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Dose optimisation was investigated using a modified toxicity probability interval design. The primary objective of the part B expansion phase was to establish the preliminary activity (the proportion of patients who achieved an overall response) of the combination of ibrutinib and nivolumab in four cohorts: relapsed or refractory high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (del17p or del11q), follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and Richter's transformation. All participants who received at least one dose of treatment were included in the primary analysis and analyses were done by disease cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02329847. The trial is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between March 12, 2015, and April 11, 2017, 144 patients were enrolled in the study. Three patients died before receiving study treatment; thus, 141 patients were included in the analysis, 14 in part A and 127 in part B. One dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 hyperbilirubinaemia) was reported at the 420 mg dose in the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cohort, which resolved after 5 days. The combination of ibrutinib and nivolumab led to overall responses in 22 (61%) of 36 patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma, 13 (33%) of 40 patients with follicular lymphoma, 16 (36%) of 45 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and 13 (65%) of 20 patients with Richter's transformation. The most common all-grade adverse events were diarrhoea (47 [33%] of 141 patients), neutropenia (44 [31%]), and fatigue (37 [26%]). 11 (8%) of 141 patients had adverse events leading to death; none were reported as drug-related. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (40 [28%] of 141 patients) and anaemia (32 [23%]). The incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia ranged from eight (18%) of 45 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma to 19 (53%) of 36 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma; incidence of grade 3-4 anaemia ranged from five (13%) of 40 patients with follicular lymphoma to seven (35%) of 20 patients with Richter's transformation. The most common serious adverse events included anaemia (six [4%] of 141 patients) and pneumonia (five [4%]). The most common grade 3-4 immune-related adverse events were rash (11 [8%] of 141 patients) and increased alanine aminotransferase (three [2%]). INTERPRETATION: The combination of ibrutinib and nivolumab had an acceptable safety profile and preliminary activity was similar to that reported with single-agent ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The clinical response in patients with Richter's transformation was promising and supports further clinical assessment. FUNDING: Janssen R&D.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Segurança , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva
12.
Br J Haematol ; 184(5): 797-807, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548583

RESUMO

We conducted a phase 2 trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bendamustine instead of BCNU (carmustine) in the BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan) regimen (BendaEAM) as conditioning for autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with aggressive lymphomas. The primary endpoint was 3-year progression-free survival (PFS). Sixty patients (median age 55 [28-71] years) were included. All patients (except one who died early) engrafted after a median of 11 (9-72) and 14 (4-53) days to achieve neutrophil and platelet counts of >0.5 × 109 /l and >20 × 109 /l, respectively. Non-relapse mortality at 100 days and 1 year were 3.3% and 6.7%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 67 (40-77) months, the estimated 3-year PFS and overall survival (OS) were 58% and 75%, respectively. Patients in partial response at study entry had significantly worse PFS and OS than patients who underwent ASCT in complete metabolic remission, and this was the only prognostic factor associated with both PFS (Relative risk [RR], 0.27 [95% confidence interval {CI} [0.12-0.56]) and OS (RR, 0.40 [95% CI 0.17-0.97]) in the multivariate analysis. BendaEAM conditioning is therefore a feasible and effective regimen in patients with aggressive lymphomas. However, patients not in complete metabolic remission at the time of transplant had poorer survival and so should be considered for alternative treatment strategies.

13.
Br J Haematol ; 184(3): 373-383, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565652

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) comprise a family of non-coding transcripts that are emerging as relevant gene expression regulators of different processes, including tumour development. To determine the possible contribution of lncRNA to the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma (FL) we performed RNA-sequencing at high depth sequencing in primary FL samples ranging from grade 1-3A to aggressive grade 3B variants using unpurified (n = 16) and purified (n = 12) tumour cell suspensions from nodal samples. FL grade 3B had a significantly higher number of differentially expressed lncRNAs (dif-lncRNAs) with potential target coding genes related to cell cycle regulation. Nine out of the 18 selected dif-lncRNAs were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction in an independent series (n = 43) of FL. RP4-694A7.2 was identified as the top deregulated lncRNA potentially involved in cell proliferation. RP4-694A7.2 silencing in the WSU-FSCCL FL cell line reduced cell proliferation due to a block in the G1/S phase. The relationship between RP4-694A7.2 and proliferation was confirmed in primary samples as its expression levels positively related to the Ki-67 proliferation index. In summary, lncRNAs are differentially expressed across the clinico-biological spectrum of FL and a subset of them, related to cell cycle, may participate in cell proliferation regulation in these tumours.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma Folicular/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/genética , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética
14.
Br J Haematol ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515755

RESUMO

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent disease characterized by long survival but frequent relapses. Before the introduction of rituximab, the clinical course of these patients showed a shorter response duration (RD) after each relapse. In this study, we analysed if this pattern of shortened responses remains in patients treated in the rituximab era. We selected 348 patients newly diagnosed with FL in two institutions between 2001 and 2014 that received chemoimmunotherapy. After a median follow-up of 6·3 years, 10-year progression-free and overall survivals were 53% and 72%, respectively. All patients received first-line, 111 second-line and 41 third-line treatments, with a 5-year RD of 62%, 39% and 24%, respectively (P < 0·0001). Variables predicting longer RD after first-line treatment were normal ß2microglobulin, complete remission achievement and maintenance with rituximab. Patients with longer RD after first-line showed significantly longer RD after second-line therapy. Autologous stem-cell transplantation after second-line therapy did not significantly impact RD. Median survival after first, second and third therapies was not reached, 7·6 and 4·8 years, respectively, whereas relative survival with respect to a sex- and age-matched Spanish population, the decrease in the life expectancy at 10 years was 17%, 45% and 79%, respectively. Thus, RD still shortens after each relapse in patients with FL treated in first line with rituximab combinations.

15.
Haematologica ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262568

RESUMO

Mutations in genes of the RAS-BRAF-MAPK-ERK pathway have not been fully explored in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. To provide a better comprehension, we analyzed the clinical and biological characteristics of patients with mutations in this pathway and investigated the in vitro response of primary cells to BRAF and ERK inhibitors. Putative damaging mutations were found in 25 of 452 patients (5.5%). Of those, BRAF was mutated in 9 patients (2.0%), genes upstream of BRAF (KITLG, KIT, PTPN11, GNB1, KRAS and NRAS) were mutated in 12 patients (2.6%), and genes downstream of BRAF (MAPK2K1, MAPK2K2, and MAPK1) were mutated in 5 patients (1.1%). The most frequent mutations were missense, subclonal and mutually exclusive. Patients with these mutations had more frequently increased lactate dehydrogenase, high expression of ZAP-70, CD49d, CD38, trisomy 12 and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene and had a worse 5-year time to first treatment (hazard ratio 1.8, p=0.025). Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of genes of the MAPK pathway in the group carrying RAS-BRAF-MAPK-ERK mutations. BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib were not able to inhibit ERK phosphorylation, the downstream effector of the pathway, in primary cells. In contrast, ulixertinib, a pan-ERK inhibitor, decreased phospho-ERK levels. In conclusion, although larger series of patients are needed to corroborate these findings, our results suggest that RAS-BRAF-MAPK-ERK pathway is one of the core cellular processes affected by novel mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, it is associated with adverse clinical features and it could be pharmacologically inhibited.

16.
N Engl J Med ; 379(10): 934-947, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab plus chemotherapy has been shown to be effective in patients with advanced-stage, previously untreated follicular lymphoma; nevertheless, most patients will have a relapse. Combination immunotherapy with lenalidomide and rituximab is an immunomodulatory regimen that has shown promising activity in patients with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. METHODS: We conducted this multicenter, international, phase 3 superiority trial to evaluate rituximab plus lenalidomide, as compared with rituximab plus chemotherapy, in patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the two regimens, followed by maintenance monotherapy with rituximab. Treatment with rituximab plus lenalidomide consisted of 18 cycles of the two drugs, followed by rituximab maintenance therapy every 8 weeks for 12 cycles (six additional doses). Treatment with rituximab plus chemotherapy consisted of the investigator's choice of one of three rituximab-based regimens, followed by maintenance monotherapy with rituximab every 8 weeks for 12 cycles. The primary end points were complete response (confirmed or unconfirmed) at 120 weeks and progression-free survival. RESULTS: A total of 1030 patients were randomly assigned to receive rituximab plus lenalidomide (513 patients) or rituximab plus chemotherapy (517 patients). The rate of confirmed or unconfirmed complete response at 120 weeks was similar in the two groups: 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 53) in the rituximab-lenalidomide group and 53% (95% CI, 49 to 57) in the rituximab-chemotherapy group (P=0.13). The interim 3-year rate of progression-free survival was 77% (95% CI, 72 to 80) and 78% (95% CI, 74 to 82), respectively. A higher percentage of patients in the rituximab-chemotherapy group had grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (32% vs. 50%) and febrile neutropenia of any grade (2% vs. 7%), and a higher percentage of patients in the rituximab-lenalidomide group had grade 3 or 4 cutaneous reactions (7% vs. 1%). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma, efficacy results were similar with rituximab plus lenalidomide and rituximab plus chemotherapy (with both regimens followed by rituximab maintenance therapy). The safety profile differed in the two groups. (Funded by Celgene; RELEVANCE ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01476787 and NCT01650701 , and EudraCT number, 2011-002792-42 .).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Lenalidomida , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Taxa de Sobrevida , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/efeitos adversos
17.
Blood ; 132(22): 2375-2388, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181176

RESUMO

Genomic studies have recently identified RPS15 as a new driver gene in aggressive and chemorefractory cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). RPS15 encodes a ribosomal protein whose conserved C-terminal domain extends into the decoding center of the ribosome. We demonstrate that mutations in highly conserved residues of this domain affect protein stability, by increasing its ubiquitin-mediated degradation, and cell-proliferation rates. On the other hand, we show that mutated RPS15 can be loaded into the ribosomes, directly impacting on global protein synthesis and/or translational fidelity in a mutation-specific manner. Quantitative mass spectrometry analyses suggest that RPS15 variants may induce additional alterations in the translational machinery, as well as a metabolic shift at the proteome level in HEK293T and MEC-1 cells. These results indicate that CLL-related RPS15 mutations might act following patterns known for other ribosomal diseases, likely switching from a hypo- to a hyperproliferative phenotype driven by mutated ribosomes. In this scenario, loss of translational fidelity causing altered cell proteostasis can be proposed as a new molecular mechanism involved in CLL pathobiology.

18.
Lancet Haematol ; 5(8): e359-e367, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histological transformation of follicular lymphoma to aggressive lymphoma is a serious event with a substantial effect on patient outcome. The aim of the Aristotle study was to assess the effect of rituximab on the risk of histological transformation and its outcome. METHODS: 11 cooperative groups or institutions across Europe contributed data to this study. Eligible patients (≥18 years) had histologically confirmed follicular lymphoma grade 1, 2, or 3a, diagnosed between Jan 2, 1997, and Dec 20, 2013. Histological transformation was defined as a biopsy-proven aggressive lymphoma that occurred as a first event after first-line therapy. The primary endpoints were the cumulative hazard of histological transformation and survival after transformation. FINDINGS: Information was available for 10 001 patients with follicular lymphoma, 8116 of whom were eligible for analysis. 509 histological transformations were reported. After a median follow-up of 87 months (range 1-221; 2·5-97·5th percentile 5-160), the 10-year cumulative hazard of histological transformation was 7·7% (95% CI 6·9-8·5). The 10-year cumulative hazard of histological transformation was 5·2% (95% CI 4·5-6·2) in patients who received rituximab and 8·7% (7·2-10·6) in those who did not (hazard ratio [HR] 0·73, 95% CI 0·58-0·90; p=0·004). The 10-year cumulative hazard of histological transformation was 5·9% (95% CI 5·0-7·0) for patients who received induction rituximab only and 3·6% (95% CI 2·3-5·5) for those treated with induction and maintenance rituximab (HR 0·55, 95% CI 0·37-0·81; p=0·003). This finding was confirmed in a multivariate analysis (p=0·016). 287 deaths were recorded in 509 patients with histological transformation, resulting in a 10-year survival after transformation of 32% (95% CI 26-38). Survival after transformation did not differ between patients not exposed to rituximab and those who received rituximab in induction only (HR 0·94, 95% CI 0·69-1·28; p=0·70), and those who received rituximab in induction and maintenance (0·96, 0·58-1·61; p=0·88). INTERPRETATION: The risk of histological transformation as a first event can be significantly reduced by the use of rituximab. These findings support the need to inform patients using rituximab nowadays that the risk of transformation is lower than it was before the introduction of rituxumab. FUNDING: Associazione Angela Serra per la Ricerca sul Cancro, European Lymphoma Institute, European Hematology Association Lymphoma Group, Fondazione Italiana Linfomi, Spanish Group of Lymphoma and Bone Marrow Transplantation.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Rituximab/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Br J Haematol ; 182(4): 534-541, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978453

RESUMO

The Grupo Español de Linfomas y Trasplantes de Médula Ósea International Prognostic Index (GELTAMO-IPI) stratifies four risk groups in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with immunochaemotherapy: low (LR), low-intermediate (LIR), high-intermediate (HIR), and high (HR). The present study explores the effect of GELTAMO-IPI in the DLBCL subtypes defined by the immunohistochaemistry-based Hans algorithm, Germinal Centre B (GCB) and non-GCB. A multivariate Cox regression model including GELTAMO-IPI risk groups, cell of origin (COO) subtypes and their product was developed to evaluate interaction between the two variables. The COO subtype was available in 839 patients (380 GCB; 459 non-GCB) and both the GELTAMO-IPI and the COO subtype in 780 (353 GCB; 427 non-GCB). There were no differences in 5-year overall survival (OS) between the two subtypes. The Cox model revealed interaction between the GELTAMO-IPI risk groups and the COO subtypes (P = 0·005), indicating that GELTAMO-IPI has a different effect in the two subtypes. Three risk groups were stratified in both COO subtypes: in the GCB subtype, LR, LIR and the combined HIR+HR had 5-year OS of 100%, 75% and 52%, respectively. In the non-GCB subtype, LR, the combined LIR+HIR and HR had a 5-year OS of, 97%, 82% and 35% respectively. GELTAMO-IPI identifies a genuine poor outcome group of patients in the DLBCL non-GCB subtype.

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