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1.
Am J Transplant ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550408

RESUMO

Oral fosfomycin may constitute an alternative for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), particularly in view of recent safety concerns with fluroquinolones. Specific data on the efficacy and safety of fosfomycin in KTR are scarce. We performed a retrospective study in 14 Spanish hospitals including KTRs treated with oral fosfomycin (calcium and trometamol salts) for posttransplant cystitis between January 2005 and December 2017. A total of 133 KTRs developed 143 episodes of cystitis. Most episodes (131 [91.6%]) were produced by gram-negative bacilli (GNB), and 78 (54.5%) were categorized as multidrug resistant (including extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae [14%] or carbapenem-resistant GNB [3.5%]). A median daily dose of 1.5 g of fosfomycin (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.5-2) was administered for a median of 7 days (IQR: 3-10). Clinical cure (remission of UTI-attributable symptoms at the end of therapy) was achieved in 83.9% (120/143) episodes. Among those episodes with follow-up urine culture, microbiological cure at month 1 was achieved in 70.2% (59/84) episodes. Percutaneous nephrostomy was associated with a lower probability of clinical cure (adjusted odds ratio: 10.50; 95% confidence interval: 0.98-112.29; P = 0.052). In conclusion, fosfomycin is an effective orally available alternative for treating cystitis among KTRs.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219701, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318908

RESUMO

OBJETIVES: The aim of this study was to identify CMV drug resistance mutations (DRM) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with suspected resistance comparing next-generation sequencing (NGS) with Sanger sequencing and assessing risk factors and the clinical impact of resistance. METHODS: Using Sanger sequencing as the reference method, we prospectively assessed the ability of NGS to detect CMV DRM in the UL97 and UL54 genes in a nationwide observational study from September 2013 to August 2016. RESULTS: Among 44 patients recruited, 14 DRM were detected by Sanger in 12 patients (27%) and 20 DRM were detected by NGS, in 16 (36%). NGS confirmed all the DRM detected by Sanger. The additional six mutations detected by NGS were present in <20% of the sequenced population, being located in the UL97 gene and conferring high-level resistance to ganciclovir. The presence of DRM by NGS was associated with lung transplantation (p = 0.050), the administration of prophylaxis (p = 0.039), a higher mean time between transplantation and suspicion of resistance (p = 0.038) and longer antiviral treatment duration before suspicion (p = 0.024). However, the latter was the only factor independently associated with the presence of DRM by NGS in the multivariate analysis (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.87). CONCLUSIONS: NGS showed a higher yield than Sanger sequencing for detecting CMV resistance mutations in SOT recipients. The presence of DRM detected by NGS was independently associated with longer antiviral treatment.

4.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(5): 977-983, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924012

RESUMO

CoNS is the main cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). Current guidelines recommend catheter withdrawal followed by antibiotics for at least 5 days. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of a shorter course of antibiotherapy in patients with CoNS CRBSI. All proven cases of CoNS CRBSI at our institution (Jan 12/Dec 17) were retrospectively analysed. Comparison of clinical characteristics and outcomes between patients receiving a short (SC ≤ 3 days) versus long antibiotic course (LC > 3 days) was performed. Cox regression models predicting the risk for complications (including propensity score [PS] for treatment assignment as covariate) were designed to adjust baseline differences among both treatment groups. A total of 79 cases were included. Most patients (75.9%) showed clinical response at day 7 after catheter removal. Complications occurred in 3.8% (three cases of septic thrombophlebitis) with no cases of endocarditis. Microbiological relapse (MR) occurred in 13 patients (16.5%). SC and LC were administered to 25 (31.6%) and 54 (68.4%) patients, respectively, with no significant differences in MR-free survival between SC and LC groups (87.8 vs 86.3%; P = 0.6). In PS-adjusted Cox regression analyses, a tunnelled catheter as the source of CRBSI was the only independent risk factor for MR (hazard ratio, 5.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-21) whereas the duration of therapy had no apparent impact. Shortening antibiotic therapy to ≤ 3 days is not associated with a poorer outcome or a greater risk of MR in patients with CoNS CRBI with catheter withdrawal.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Remoção de Dispositivo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Criança , Coagulase/deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
World J Urol ; 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701336

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our purpose is to present the results of our working group, with a view to reduce the incidence and improve the management of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in a urology ward. METHODS: The study consists on an observational database designed with the view to analyse the incidence and characteristics of HAIs in Urology. Based on the results obtained, a critical evaluation was carried out and specific measures put in place to reduce HAIs. Finally, the impact and results of the implemented measures were periodically evaluated. RESULTS: The incidence of HAIs in urology decreased from 6.6 to 7.3% in 2012-2014 to 5.4-5.8% in 2016-2018. In patients with immunosuppression the incidence of HAIs decreased from 12.8 to 18% in 2012-2013 to 8.1-10.2% in 2017-2018, in those with a previous urinary infection fell from 13.6 to 4.8%, in those with a urinary catheter prior to admission from 12.6 to 10.8%, and in patients with a nephrostomy tube from 16 to 10.9%. The effect of the protocol also demonstrated a reduction in the percentage of patients with suspicion of HAIs for whom no culture was taken, from 6% in 2012 to zero in 2017 and 2018. Moreover, the implementation of protocols for empirical treatment has reduced the incidence of patients experiencing inadequate empirical antimicrobial therapy from 20 to 8.1%. CONCLUSION: It is essential to monitor the incidence of HAIs, and preventive measures play a useful role in reducing the rate of infection and in optimising their management.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 380(5): 500, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702244
7.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(1): 25-30, ene. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176997

RESUMO

Introducción: Una de las principales herramientas para optimizar el uso de los antibióticos es la formación de los prescriptores. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la opinión de los estudiantes de Medicina españoles sobre la formación en enfermedades infecciosas. Material y métodos: Se distribuyó un cuestionario on line anonimizado entre estudiantes de sexto curso a través de distintos canales. El cuestionario incluyó 45 preguntas sobre conocimientos, actitudes y percepciones sobre el diagnóstico, resistencia antimicrobiana, uso de antibióticos y la formación de pregrado en enfermedades infecciosas. Resultados: Se recibieron un total de 441 encuestas de 21 facultades. Se obtuvieron 374 respuestas (84,8%) de las 8 facultades más representadas, con una tasa de respuesta del 28,9%. La mayoría de los alumnos se sentían preparados para identificar los signos clínicos de infección (418; 94,8%) y para interpretar correctamente las pruebas de laboratorio (382; 86,6%). Reconocieron saber elegir un antibiótico con seguridad sin consultar libros ni guías (178; 40,4%). Solo 107 alumnos (24,3%) consideraron haber recibido suficiente formación en el uso prudente de los antimicrobianos. Respecto a los métodos de aprendizaje, se percibieron como más útiles la discusión de casos clínicos, los rotatorios en servicios o unidades de enfermedades infecciosas y los talleres de pequeños grupos: se evaluaron favorablemente en un 76,9; en un 76 y en un 68,8% de los casos, respectivamente. Conclusión: Los estudiantes de Medicina se encuentran más seguros en el diagnóstico de enfermedades infecciosas que en el tratamiento antibiótico. Asimismo, sienten la necesidad de recibir mayor formación en antibioterapia y uso prudente en antibióticos


Introduction: One of the main tools to optimize antibiotics use is education of prescribers. The aim of this article is to study undergraduate education in the field of infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic stewardship from the perspective of Spanish medical students. Material and methods: An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed among sixth grade students using different channels in Europe, within the ESGAP Student-Prepare survey. The questionnaire included 45 questions about knowledge, attitudes and perceptions about diagnosis, bacterial resistance, use of antibiotics and undergraduate training in infectious diseases. We present here the Spanish results. Results: A total of 441 surveys were received from 21 medical schools. A total of 374 responses (84.8%) were obtained from the 8 most represented faculties, with a response rate of 28.9%. Most students felt adequately prepared to identify clinical signs of infection (418; 94.8%) and to accurately interpret laboratory tests (382; 86.6%). A total of 178 (40.4%) acknowledged being able to choose an antibiotic with confidence without consulting books or guidelines. Only 107 (24.3%) students considered that they had received sufficient training in judicious use of antibiotics. Regarding learning methods, the discussion of clinical cases, infectious diseases units rotatories and small group workshops were considered the most useful, being evaluated favorably in 76.9%, 76% and 68.8% of the cases. Conclusion: Medical students feel more confident in the diagnosis of infectious diseases than in antibiotic treatment. They also feel the need to receive more training in antibiotics and judicious antibiotic use


Assuntos
Humanos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Estudantes de Medicina , Educação Médica , Espanha
8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463889

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the predictive value of PCR cycle threshold (Ct) for recurrence/severity, compared to toxin detection plus clinical variables.Methods: First episodes of CDI diagnosed during 2015 at our institution were included. Samples were tested for GDH and toxin A/B with a single EIA. Xpert® C. difficile PCR assay was performed to GDH positive samples. Medical data were reviewed by investigators blinded to diagnostic results to compare patients with/without recurrence or poor outcome (severe/severe-complicated CDI episode and all-cause death). We generated two sets of predictive models by incorporating to clinical variables the presence of a positive toxin EIA ("EIA-including model") and the optimal PCR Ct cut-off value ("PCR-including model"), respectively.Results: Among 227 episodes of CDI included, the rates of recurrence and poor outcome were 15.8% and 30.8%. Mean PCR Ct was lower in episodes with recurrence (24.00±3.28 vs. 26.02±4.54; P-value=0.002) and poor outcome (24.9 ± 4.24 vs. 26.05 ± 4.47; P-value = 0.07). The optimal cut-off value for recurrence was 25.65 [sensitivity 77.8% (95% CI: 60.9-89.9), specificity 46.6% (95% CI: 39.4-53.9)]. The auROC for the "PCR-including model" was similar to that of the "EIA-including model" (0.785 vs. 0.775, respectively). The optimal PCR Ct value was 27.55 [sensitivity 78.6% (95% CI: 67.1-87.5), specificity of 35.7% (95% CI: 28.2-43.7)]. The auROC of the "PCR-including model" was again similar to that of the "EIA-including model" (0.804 vs. 0.801).Conclusions: Despite the inverse correlation between PCR Ct and the risk of CDI recurrence/severity, this determination does not meaningfully increase the predictive value of clinical variables plus toxin EIA.

9.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; : 1-10, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated improved survival when the management of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) is compliant with evidence-based therapeutic interventions. Whether this effect extends to low-risk sources, such as catheter-related BSI, remains unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively included 225 episodes of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus catheter-related BSI diagnosed in our centre during two non-consecutive periods: 2002-2004 (first period (101 episodes)) and 2009-2013 (second period (124 episodes)). We evaluated the adherence (percentage of compliance = (no. of interventions performed/no. of interventions recommended) × 100) to the following bundle: early catheter removal (≤72 hours), early initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy, adequate sampling of follow-up blood cultures, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) during hospitalization and adequate duration of therapy. RESULTS: Patients in the second period had a higher burden of comorbidities and more severe underlying conditions. All-cause 30-day mortality was 9.3%, with a significant difference between the first and second periods (13.9% versus 5.6%; p value = .035). Bundle adherence was significantly higher in the second period, particularly for follow-up blood cultures (26.7% versus 48.4%; p value = .001), performance of TTE (45.5% versus 84.7%; p value < .001) and appropriate duration of therapy (34.7% versus 50.0%; p value = .022). Bundle adherence ≥ 55% was associated with lower 30-day mortality (hazard ratio: 0.31; 95% confidence interval: 0.13-0.76). This effect remained significant across propensity score-based models adjusted for septic shock, study period and underlying conditions. CONCLUSIONS: There was a survival benefit in adhering to a bundle of evidence-based interventions in the specific setting of catheter-related BSI due to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus.

10.
Am J Transplant ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346659

RESUMO

The replication kinetics of nonpathogenic anelloviruses belonging to the Alphatorquevirus genus (such as torque teno virus) might reflect the overall state of posttransplant immunosuppression. We analyzed 221 kidney transplant (KT) recipients in whom plasma alphatorquevirus DNA load was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline and regularly through the first 12 posttransplant months. Study outcomes included posttransplant infection and a composite of opportunistic infection and/or de novo malignancy (immunosuppression-related adverse event [iRAE]). Alphatorquevirus DNA loads at month 1 were higher among patients who subsequently developed posttransplant infection (P  = .023) or iRAE (P  = .009). Likewise, those with iRAE beyond months 3 and 6 also exhibited higher peak viral loads over the preceding periods. Areas under the curve for log10 alphatorquevirus DNAemia estimated by months 1 or 6 were significantly higher in patients experiencing study outcomes. Alphatorquevirus DNA loads above 3.15 and 4.56 log10 copies/mL at month 1 predicted the occurrence of posttransplant infection (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-7.36; P  = .027) and iRAE (aHR: 5.17; 95% CI: 2.01-13.33; P  = .001). In conclusion, posttransplant monitoring of plasma alphatorquevirus DNA kinetics may be useful to identify KT recipients at increased risk of immunosuppression-related complications.

11.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 20(6): e12988, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported an increased susceptibility to infection among vitamin D-deficient kidney transplant (KT) recipients, although methodological concerns remain. METHODS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured in 246 KT recipients at post-transplant months 1, 3, 6 and 12. Vitamin D status was analysed in terms of deficiency (Endocrine Society [<20 ng/mL] and Institute of Medicine [IoM, <12 ng/mL] criteria) and as a continuous variable. Cox models for overall, bacterial and opportunistic infection were adjusted for nutritional status and immunosuppression-related covariates. RESULTS: Median serum 25(OH)D increased from month 1 (10.5 ng/mL) to month 6 (16.3 ng/mL; P-value = 0.001). Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency at month 1 ranged from 87.0% to 61.0% (depending on the diagnostic criteria) and significantly decreased over the next months. After adjustment for age and nutritional status, vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D < 12 ng/mL) at month 1 was an independent risk factor for overall (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.69; P-value = 0.023) and opportunistic infection (HR: 4.05; 95% CI: 1.57-10.46; P-value = 0.004), but not for bacterial infection. A protective effect for overall (adjusted HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63-0.93; P-value = 0.007) and opportunistic infection (adjusted HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.45-0.86; P-value = 0.004) was observed when 25(OH)D levels were analyzed per one-quartile increases. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status influences the risk of infection among KT recipients, with the association being particularly evident for opportunistic events and mainly restricted to the early post-transplant period.

12.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 31(supl.1): 52-55, sept. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-179451

RESUMO

Solid organ transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing infections due to the lifelong treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. Herein we review recent (2015-2017) and relevant published advances in the field of bacterial, viral and fungal-infections in this population. We also address the most up-to-date immunological assays that can predict the risk of infection. Finally, we review current guidelines and how they improve the usual clinical care


Los receptores de un trasplante de órgano sólido tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar infecciones secundario a la inmunosupresión. En este artículo, revisamos los avances más recientes (2015-2017) y significativos en el campo de las infecciones bacterianas, virales y fúngicas en esta población. También revisamos los estudios inmunológicos que midiendo la respuesta inmune pueden predecir el riesgo de desarrollar una infección. Por último, revisamos las guías clínicas más recientes y cómo pueden mejorar la atención prestada a estos pacientes


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635410

RESUMO

Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is frequent in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). However, there is no consensus on diagnosis or management. We conducted a European survey to explore current practice related to the diagnosis and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria in adult KTRs. Methods: A panel of experts from the European Renal Association-European Dialysis Transplant Association/Developing Education Science and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States working group and the European Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases designed this cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, self-administered survey. Invitations to participate were e-mailed to European physicians involved in the care of KTRs. Results: Two hundred and forty-four participants from 138 institutions in 25 countries answered the survey (response rate 30%). Most participants [72% (176/244)] said they always screen for asymptomatic bacteriuria in KTRs. Six per cent (15/240) reported never treating asymptomatic bacteriuria with antibiotics. When antimicrobial treatment was used, 24% of the participants (53/224) said they would start with empirical antibiotics. For an episode of asymptomatic bacteriuria caused by a fully susceptible microorganism and despite no contraindications, a majority of participants (121/223) said they would use a fluoroquinolone (n = 56), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (n = 38) or oral cephalosporins (n = 27). Conclusions: Screening for and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in KTRs despite uncertainties around the benefits and harms. In an era of antimicrobial resistance, further studies are needed to address the diagnosis and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria in these patients.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(9): 1322-1329, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635437

RESUMO

Background: Seasonal influenza infection may cause significant morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of symptomatic influenza infection posttransplant and determine risk factors for severe disease. Methods: Twenty centers in the United States, Canada, and Spain prospectively enrolled solid organ transplant (SOT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients with microbiologically confirmed influenza over 5 consecutive years (2010-2015). Demographics, microbiology data, and outcomes were collected. Serial nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at diagnosis and upto 28 days, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for influenza A was performed. Results: We enrolled 616 patients with confirmed influenza (477 SOT; 139 HSCT). Pneumonia at presentation was in 134 of 606 (22.1%) patients. Antiviral therapy was given to 94.1% for a median of 5 days (range, 1-42 days); 66.5% patients were hospitalized and 11.0% required intensive care unit (ICU) care. The receipt of vaccine in the same influenza season was associated with a decrease in disease severity as determined by the presence of pneumonia (odds ratio [OR], 0.34 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .21-.55], P < .001) and ICU admission (OR, 0.49 [95% CI, .26-.90], P = .023). Similarly, early antiviral treatment (within 48 hours) was associated with improved outcomes. In patients with influenza A, pneumonia, ICU admission, and not being immunized were also associated with higher viral loads at presentation (P = .018, P = .008, and P = .024, respectively). Conclusions: Annual influenza vaccination and early antiviral therapy are associated with a significant reduction in influenza-associated morbidity, and should be emphasized as strategies to improve outcomes of transplant recipients.

17.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(suppl_4): iv6-iv12, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608751

RESUMO

Objectives: We assessed the potential role of T2Candida MR (T2MR) and serological biomarkers [ß-d-glucan (BDG) or Candida albicans germ tube antibodies (CAGTA)], alone or in combination with standard cultures, for identifying patients with suspected invasive candidiasis (IC), who may benefit from maintaining antifungal therapy. Methods: Prospective observational multicentre study including all adult patients receiving empirical antifungal therapy for suspected IC, from January to June 2017. CAGTA, BDG and T2MR were determined at baseline and at +2 and +4 days after enrolment. Primary endpoint was the diagnostic value of CAGTA, BDG and T2MR, alone or in combination with standard culture, to predict diagnosis of IC and/or mortality in the first 7 days after starting antifungal therapy (poor outcome). Results: Overall, 14/49 patients (28.6%) had a poor outcome (7 died within the first 7 days of antifungal therapy, whereas 7 ended with a diagnosis of IC). CAGTA [3/14 (21.4%) versus 8/35 (22.9%), P = 1] and BDG [8/14 (57.1%) versus 17/35 (48.6%), P = 0.75] results were similar in poor- and good-outcome patients. Conversely, a positive T2MR was associated with a higher risk of poor outcome [5/14 (35.7%) versus 0/35 (0.0%) P = 0.0001]. Specificity and positive predictive value of a positive T2MR for predicting poor outcome were both 100%, with a negative predictive value of 79.6%. After testing the combinations of biomarkers/standard cultures and T2MR/standard cultures, the combination of T2MR/standard cultures showed a high capacity to discriminate patients with poor outcome from those with good clinical evolution. Conclusions: T2MR may be of significant utility to identify patients who may benefit from maintaining antifungal therapy.

18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(suppl_4): iv13-iv19, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608752

RESUMO

Objectives: Diagnosis of complicated candidaemia represents a challenge for clinicians since early clinical manifestations may be non-specific and difficult to identify, thus precluding an appropriate treatment. Patients and methods: This was a multicentre prospective study for predicting complicated episodes in patients with bloodstream infection caused by Candida species, while assessing the value of follow-up blood cultures (BCs) and the persistence of positive results for T2Candida MR (T2MR) and blood ß-d-glucan (BDG) tests. Immediately after the first positive BC yielding Candida species, samples were obtained on days 0, +2, +4, +7 and +14, to simultaneously perform follow-up BC, T2MR and BDG. An episode of candidaemia was defined as 'complicated' when (i) it caused septic metastasis; and/or (ii) it was the cause of the patient's death. Results: From January to June 2017, 30 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, nine (30%) had complicated candidaemia. Values of persistently positive samples for the prediction of complicated episodes for BCs, T2MR and BDG, respectively, were as follows: sensitivity (44.4%, 100%, 100%); specificity (76.1%, 76.1%, 38.9%); positive predictive value (PPV) (44.4%, 64.2%, 40.9%) and negative predictive value (NPV) (76.1%, 100%, 100%). In multivariate analysis, having a positive T2MR within the first 5 days was associated with an almost 37-fold higher risk of developing complicated candidaemia. Conclusions: The T2MR test performed in patients with proven candidaemia may be a better marker of complicated infection than follow-up BCs or BDG. It is possible that this test may change current clinical practice, influencing the length and type of antifungal therapy in this population.

19.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One of the main tools to optimize antibiotics use is education of prescribers. The aim of this article is to study undergraduate education in the field of infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic stewardship from the perspective of Spanish medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed among sixth grade students using different channels in Europe, within the ESGAP Student-Prepare survey. The questionnaire included 45 questions about knowledge, attitudes and perceptions about diagnosis, bacterial resistance, use of antibiotics and undergraduate training in infectious diseases. We present here the Spanish results. RESULTS: A total of 441 surveys were received from 21 medical schools. A total of 374 responses (84.8%) were obtained from the 8 most represented faculties, with a response rate of 28.9%. Most students felt adequately prepared to identify clinical signs of infection (418; 94.8%) and to accurately interpret laboratory tests (382; 86.6%). A total of 178 (40.4%) acknowledged being able to choose an antibiotic with confidence without consulting books or guidelines. Only 107 (24.3%) students considered that they had received sufficient training in judicious use of antibiotics. Regarding learning methods, the discussion of clinical cases, infectious diseases units rotatories and small group workshops were considered the most useful, being evaluated favorably in 76.9%, 76% and 68.8% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Medical students feel more confident in the diagnosis of infectious diseases than in antibiotic treatment. They also feel the need to receive more training in antibiotics and judicious antibiotic use.

20.
Atherosclerosis ; 269: 204-210, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality after kidney transplantation (KT). The potential role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of post-transplant CVD remains unexplored. METHODS: Serum complement (C3 and C4) levels were measured at baseline and post-transplant months 1 and 6 in 447 kT recipients. The study outcome was post-transplant atherothrombotic event (PAE), a composite of acute coronary syndrome, critical peripheral arterial disease, stroke and/or transient ischemic attack. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 4.2 years, 48 PAEs occurred in 43 patients (cumulative incidence: 9.6%; incidence rate: 2.6 events per 100 transplant-years). No differences were found in C3 and C4 levels at baseline or month 1 between patients with or without PAE. However, C3 levels at month 6 were significantly lower in patients developing PAE beyond that point (i.e., late PAE) (96.9 ±â€¯22.3 vs. 109.6 ±â€¯24.0 mg/dL; p = 0.013). The presence of C3 hypocomplementemia at month 6 was associated with a lower PAE-free survival (p = 0.002). After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors and acute graft rejection, C3 hypocomplementemia at month 6 remained as an independent risk factor for late PAE in all the exploratory models (minimum hazard ratio: 3.24; p = 0.011). With respect to a model exclusively based on clinical variables, the inclusion of C3 levels at month 6 improved predictive capacity (areas under ROC curves: 0.788 and 0.812, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Post-transplant monitoring of serum C3 levels might be useful to identify KT recipients at increased risk of CVD.

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