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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821736

RESUMO

In Europe, African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most threatening infectious transboundary diseases of domestic pigs and wild boar. In September 2018, ASF was detected in wild boar in the South of Belgium. France, as a bordering country, is extremely concerned about the ASF situation in Belgium, and an active preparedness is ongoing in the country. One of the questions raised by this situation relates to disturbing activities that may affect wild boar movements and their possible impact on the spread of ASFV. Despite evidence of disturbance related to hunting practices, there is a paucity of information on the impact of forestry and human leisure activities. To assess this impact on wild boar movements, a systematic review was first conducted but very few useful data were obtained. For this reason, an expert elicitation was carried out by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety in order to deal with this knowledge gap. A total of 30 experts originating from France and adjacent neighbouring countries (Spain, Belgium and Switzerland) were elicited about the relative importance of six factors of spatial disturbance of wild boar (noise, smell, invasion of space, modification of the environment, duration and frequency of the activity). Then, for each factor of disturbance, they were asked about the impact of 16 different commercial forestry and human leisure activities. A global weighted score was estimated in order to capture the variability of a wide range of territorial conditions and the uncertainty of expert elicitation. This estimate permitted ranking all 16 activities and aggregating them in three groups according to their potential for disturbance of wild boar, using a regression tree analysis. The results of this expert elicitation provide a methodological approach that may be useful for French and other European decision makers and stakeholders involved in the crisis management of ASF.

2.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 48(4): 695-701, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute phase protein (APP) concentrations can change due to inflammation and be used to monitor disease in the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to validate Haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) analytes, establish reference values, and characterize Hp and SAA responses in the Iberian ibex after experimentally induced inflammation and experimental bluetongue virus (BTV) infection. METHODS: Sera from 40 free-ranging box-trapped ibexes were used to establish Hp and SAA reference values. Six healthy ibexes were subcutaneously injected with 5 mL of turpentine, then, blood samples were taken, and clinical evaluations were performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 postinjection. Another seven ibexes were challenged with BTV. Serum Hp and SAA concentrations were quantified using commercial assays following the manufacturer's instructions. RESULTS: Intra-assay precision and linearity were acceptable for both Hp and SAA. Intra-assay variation for high and low concentration of Hp and SAA were 9.74% and 17.31% and 16.49% and 12.89%, respectively. Inter-assay variation was higher for the low APP concentrations. Reference values for the healthy Iberian ibexes were (median, minimum, and maximum values) 0.2 (0.12-0.64) g/L for Hp and 4.74 (0.05-29.54) mg/L for SAA. Both Hp and SAA acted as a moderate and a major APP, respectively, and each could distinguish animals with turpentine-induced inflammation from those without. Hp and SAA did not change in asymptomatic BTV-infected animals. CONCLUSION: This study validated Hp and SAA analytes and provided basal reference values for these analytes in the Iberian ibex. Both APPs were able to discriminate between healthy and diseased Iberian ibexes animals during turpentine-induced inflammatory processes.

3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 405, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange is a broadly distributed parasitic disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei that affects wild mammals from all over the world, including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Selective culling of the scabietic individuals is the main management measure for disease control in Iberian ibex populations. Although visual identification of mange-compatible lesions is the reference method to decide the target individual, both false negative and positive cases are common in the wild. The aim of this work is to determine the sensitivity (SE), and the specificity (SP) of selective culling after evaluating 403 ibexes hunted in the Sierra Nevada Nature Space for sarcoptic mange control between 2002 and 2015. METHODS: A combination of skin scrapings and potassium hidroxide (KOH) skin digestion was used for sarcoptic mange diagnosis. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to assess the effects of sex, age (juveniles and adults) and period of the year (wet and dry periods) on the SE and SP of the visual diagnosis method. RESULTS: The SE obtained for the visual determination of scabietic ibexes was 87.14%, whereas the SP was 60.71%. According to our model selection, SE of the visual diagnosis was explained by the additive effects of age and the period of the year. In fact, SE was lower in juveniles (64.76%) than in adults (94.26%) and during the dry period (73.44%) as compared to the wet period (92.09%). On the other hand, SP was best explained by the GLM including the additive effects of sex and the period of the year. The visual diagnosis of sarcoptic mange resulted less specific in females (22.73%) than in males (74.19%) and during the wet (55.22%) than in the dry period (82.35%). CONCLUSIONS: Maximizing SE and SP is essential to achieving a high rate of removal of affected individuals from the environment without eliminating potentially resistant individuals. Selective culling must be conservative during the wet period and with females due to the lower SP. Conversely, visual diagnosis of scabietic juveniles and during the dry period has to be improved, due to the lower SE.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Cabras/parasitologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Pele/patologia , Animais , Clima , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Masculino , Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais , Pele/parasitologia , Espanha
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 228: 7-11, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593383

RESUMO

Mycoplasma conjunctivae is an obligate microparasite that causes Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) in Caprinae species. IKC is a long-recognised disease, but little attention has been paid to the mechanisms of transmission of the mycoplasma and its occurrence in locations other than the eyes. In this study, the presence of M. conjunctivae is assessed in the eyes, external ear canals (EEC), nasal cavity, and vagina of host species as well as in potential vectors, which may be involved in the transmission and persistence of infection within the host. M. conjunctivae was detected by qPCR in 7.2 % (CI 95% 4.7-11.0) of the ear swabs and 9.5 % (CI 95% 6.4-13.9) of the nasal swabs from Pyrenean chamois, Iberian ibex, domestic sheep and mouflon without statistical differences between species. Mycoplasma detection in nasal swabs was mostly associated with ocular infection (95.6%), but this was not the case for EEC (52.6%). Among the eye-positive ruminants, 27.3% were positive in ear swabs and 64.7% in nasal swabs, and the threshold cycle values of the qPCR were correlated only between eye and nasal swabs (p < 0.01; r2 = 0.56). M. conjunctivae was detected in 1.7% - 7.1 % of Musca spp. captured during an IKC outbreak in Iberian ibex and in one out of three endemic sheep flocks. The results indicate that the transmission of M. conjunctivae may occur by direct contact with eye or nasal secretions and/or indirectly through flies. The M. conjunctivae DNA detection in EEC suggests that it can colonise the auditory tract, but the significance for its persistence within the host should be further assessed.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/transmissão , Mycoplasma conjunctivae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Animais , Olho/microbiologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/epidemiologia , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Vagina/microbiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202289, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157225

RESUMO

Wild boar (Sus scrofa) population spread into urban and periurban areas has exacerbated conflicts with humans. There is a need for planned wild boar management strategies, and Population viability analysis (PVA) combined with perturbation analyses allow the assessment of the management effort of control methods. Our study aims to develop stochastic predictive models of the increasing wild boar population of the 80 km2 peri-urban Mediterranean area of Collserola Natural Park (CNP), located near Barcelona, Spain, as well as assessing specific management measures (including reduced food availability, selective harvest, and reduction in fertility). Population parameters were estimated from previously published census and hunting data provided by the CNP and the local hunting administration. The results revealed that under the current conditions the CNP wild boar population will continue to increase. The most efficient strategy to reduce wild boar abundance was a combination of reducing supplementary anthropogenic food resources and selective removal of juvenile (<1 year) and yearling (1-2 years) wild boar. These strategies will probably be also the most efficient ones in other oversupplemented increasing wild boar populations in similar situations, although specific studies will be needed to fine-tune the best management option for each context. PVA allows the prediction of future population trends and the assessment of the efficacy and efficiency of potential management strategies before implementing management measures.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Sus scrofa , Animais , Cidades , Feminino , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Controle da População/métodos , Reprodução , Espanha , Processos Estocásticos
6.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0186069, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016676

RESUMO

Functional roles of domestic and wild host populations in infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) epidemiology have been extensively discussed claiming a domestic reservoir for the more susceptible wild hosts, however, based on limited data. With the aim to better assess IKC epidemiology in complex host-pathogen alpine systems, the long-term infectious dynamics and molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma conjunctivae was investigated in all host populations from six study areas in the Pyrenees and one in the Cantabrian Mountains (Northern Spain). Detection of M. conjunctivae was performed by qPCR on 3600 eye swabs collected during seven years from hunted wild ungulates and sympatric domestic sheep (n = 1800 animals), and cluster analyses of the strains were performed including previous reported local strains. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was consistently detected in three Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) populations, as well as in sheep flocks (17.0% of sheep) and occasionally in mouflon (Ovis aries musimon) from the Pyrenees (22.2% in one year/area); statistically associated with ocular clinical signs only in chamois. Chamois populations showed different infection dynamics with low but steady prevalence (4.9%) and significant yearly fluctuations (0.0%- 40.0%). Persistence of specific M. conjunctivae strain clusters in wild host populations is demonstrated for six and nine years. Cross-species transmission between chamois and sheep and chamois and mouflon were also sporadically evidenced. Overall, independent M. conjunctivae sylvatic and domestic cycles occurred at the wildlife-livestock interface in the alpine ecosystems from the Pyrenees with sheep and chamois as the key host species for each cycle, and mouflon as a spill-over host. Host population characteristics and M. conjunctivae strains resulted in different epidemiological scenarios in chamois, ranging from the fading out of the mycoplasma to the epidemic and endemic long-term persistence. These findings highlight the capacity of M. conjunctivae to establish diverse interactions and persist in host populations, also with different transmission conditions.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Ceratoconjuntivite/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Rupicapra/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Ceratoconjuntivite/epidemiologia , Gado , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma conjunctivae , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Espanha
7.
Vet Rec ; 181(9): 237, 2017 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765500

RESUMO

Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a contagious eye disease primarily caused by Mycoplasma conjunctivae in domestic and wild Caprinae. Chlamydophila species have also been detected in ruminants with IKC. The objectives of this study are to investigate the ocular infection of M. conjunctivae and Chlamydiaceae and assess its interaction in relation to IKC in sheep and goats from remote communities around the Central Karakoram National Park in Pakistan, performing a combination of cross-sectional and case-control study design. Mostly asymptomatic and endemic infections of M. conjunctivae and Chlamydiaceae were found in sheep (19.3 per cent and 4.5 per cent, respectively) and goats (9.5 per cent and 1.9 per cent, respectively) from all communities, assessed by qPCR. Prevalence significantly differed between species only for M. conjunctivae (P=0.0184), which was also more prevalent in younger sheep (P<0.01). Chlamydophila pecorum was identified by sequencing and was related with IKC only when coinfection with M. conjunctivae occurred, which suggest a synergic interaction. Cluster analysis of M. conjunctivae strains revealed higher diversity of strains than expected, evidenced interspecific transmission and suggested a higher local livestock trade than previously assumed. These results highlight the widespread occurrence of M conjunctivae in sheep worldwide and its implications for wildlife should be assessed from a conservation perspective.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydiaceae/veterinária , Chlamydiaceae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma conjunctivae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Chlamydiaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydiaceae/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 83(15)2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28526790

RESUMO

The susceptibility of the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) to Mycoplasma conjunctivae ocular infection and the changes in their interaction over time were studied in terms of clinical outcome, molecular detection, and IgG immune response in a captive population that underwent a severe infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) outbreak. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was detected in the Iberian ibex, coinciding with the IKC outbreak. Its prevalence had a decreasing trend in 2013 that was consistent with the clinical resolution (August, 35.4%; September, 8.7%; November, 4.3%). Infections without clinical outcome were, however, still detected in the last handling in November. Sequencing and cluster analyses of the M. conjunctivae strains found 1 year later in the ibex population confirmed the persistence of the same strain lineage that caused the IKC outbreak but with a high prevalence (75.3%) of mostly asymptomatic infections and with lower DNA load of M. conjunctivae in the eyes (mean quantitative PCR [qPCR] cycle threshold [CT ], 36.1 versus 20.3 in severe IKC). Significant age-related differences of M. conjunctivae prevalence were observed only under IKC epizootic conditions. No substantial effect of systemic IgG on M. conjunctivae DNA in the eye was evidenced with a linear mixed-models selection, which indicated that systemic IgG does not necessarily drive the resolution of M. conjunctivae infection and does not explain the epidemiological changes observed. The results show how both epidemiological scenarios, i.e., severe IKC outbreak and mostly asymptomatic infections, can consecutively occur by entailing mycoplasma persistence.IMPORTANCEMycoplasma infections are reported in a wide range of epidemiological scenarios that involve severe disease to asymptomatic infections. This study allows a better understanding of the transition between two different Mycoplasma conjunctivae epidemiological scenarios described in wild host populations and highlights the ability of M. conjunctivae to adapt, persist, and establish diverse interactions with its hosts. The proportion of asymptomatic and clinical M. conjunctivae infections in a host population may not be regarded only in response to intrinsic host species traits (i.e., susceptibility) but also to a specific host-pathogen interaction, which in turn influences the infection dynamics. Both epidemic infectious keratoconjunctivitis and a high prevalence of asymptomatic M. conjunctivae infections may occur in the same host population, depending on the circulation of M. conjunctivae, its maintenance, and the progression of the host-pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Mycoplasma conjunctivae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Cabras , Mycoplasma conjunctivae/genética , Mycoplasma conjunctivae/fisiologia
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 200, 2017 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28431550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though male-biased parasitism is common in mammals, little effort has been made to evaluate whether higher parasitic burden in males results in an extra biological cost, and thus a decrease in fitness. Body condition impairment and the augmentation of oxidative stress can be used as indicators of the cost of parasite infections. Here, we examined relationships between gastrointestinal and respiratory helminths, body condition and oxidative stress markers (glutathione peroxidase, paraoxonase-1) in 28 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) sampled in autumn. RESULTS: Only male chamois showed a reduction in body condition and higher oxidative stress due to parasite infection, likely because of the extremely high parasite burdens observed in males. CONCLUSIONS: This study made evident a disparity in the physiological cost of multiple parasitism between sexes in a wild mammal, mainly due to parasitic richness. Because of the similar life expectancy in male and female chamois, we suggest that males may have developed natural mechanisms to compensate for higher parasite loads during the rut.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Rupicapra/parasitologia , Animais , Composição Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 9(1): 558, 2016 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27769278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange is a contagious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting different mammalian species worldwide including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), in which mortalities over 90 % of the population have been reported. No efficient diagnostic methods are available for this disease, particularly when there are low mite numbers and mild or no clinical signs. In this study, three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) developed for dog (ELISA A), Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica parva) (ELISA B) and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) (ELISA C), were evaluated to detect specific antibodies (IgG) to sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex sera. METHODS: Serum samples from 131 Iberian ibexes (86 healthy and 45 scabietic) were collected from 2005 to 2012 in the Sierra Nevada Natural and National Parks (southern Spain). Based on visual inspection, ibexes were classified into one of three categories, namely healthy (without scabietic compatible lesions), mildly affected (skin lesions over less than 50 % of the body surface) and severely affected (skin lesions over more than 50 % of the body surface). The optimal cut-off point, specificity, sensitivity and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated, and the agreement between tests was determined. Moreover, differences in the optical density (OD) related to scabies severity have been evaluated for the best test. RESULTS: ELISA C showed better performance than the two other tests, reaching higher values of sensitivity (93.0 %) and specificity (93.5 %) against the visual estimation of the percentage of affected skin, chosen as the gold standard. Significantly higher concentrations of specific antibodies were observed with this test in the mildly and severely infested ibexes than in healthy ones. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ELISA C was an optimal test to diagnose sarcoptic mange in the Iberian ibex. Further studies characterizing immune response during the course of the disease, including spontaneous or drug induced recovery, should follow in order to better understand sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex populations.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Sarcoptes scabiei/imunologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Cabras , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Arch Virol ; 161(11): 3249-53, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27535412

RESUMO

High prevalence (46 %) of a gammaherpesvirus was confirmed by molecular detection in the lungs of hunted Pyrenean chamois. The partial glycoprotein B sequence up to the DNA polymerase gene showed 96.6 % nucleotide sequence identity to the Rupicapra rupicapra gammaherpesvirus 1 and 81.5 % to ovine herpesvirus 2. This novel sequence clusters within sequences derived from the malignant catarrhal fever group of viruses, and the corresponding virus is tentatively named Rupicapra pyrenaica gammaherpesvirus 1 (RpHV-1). No specific histological lesions were associated with RpHV-1, nor were any detrimental effects on host health. The epidemiological, phylogenetic and histopathological results suggest that Pyrenean chamois is the natural host of RpHV-1.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Gammaherpesvirinae/classificação , Gammaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Rupicapra/virologia , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Glicoproteínas/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
12.
Acta Vet Scand ; 58: 26, 2016 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27121001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species and causes the disease Q fever. Both wild and domestic ruminants may be relevant in the epidemiology of C. burnetii infection. In order to investigate the significance of the ruminant host community in the alpine and subalpine ecosystems of the Eastern Pyrenees, Northeastern Spain, in the epidemiology of Q fever, a serological survey was performed on samples from 599 wild and 353 sympatric domestic ruminants. RESULTS: Specific antibodies against C. burnetii were detected with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Domestic sheep showed the highest prevalence (12.7 %, CI 95 % 8.6-16.9), followed by European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) with a 6.8 % prevalence (CI 95 % 1.6-12.1), red deer (Cervus elaphus) with 2.4 % (CI 95 % 0-5.6), and cattle with a prevalence of 1.1 % (CI 95 % 0-3.2). No positive domestic goats, fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) were detected. Sheep flock prevalence was 75 % (nine of the 12 sheep flocks sampled were positive, within-flock prevalence ranging from 11.1 to 25.0 %), whereas cattle herd prevalence was 11.1 % (one out of the nine cattle herds sampled was positive, within-herd prevalence of 10.0 %. CONCLUSIONS: Both domestic and wild ruminants from the alpine and subalpine ecosystems of the Eastern Pyrenees were exposed to C. burnetii. The higher seroprevalence in sheep and its relative abundance suggest that this species may have a major contribution to the ecology of C. burnetii. Conversely, wild ruminants do not seem to represent a relevant host community for C. burnetii maintenance in the Eastern Pyrenees.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Cervos , Febre Q/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 115(5): 2103-5, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26973238

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the limitations of the coprological sedimentation test to assess Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus infestation in 59 wild boars (Sus scrofa) from central Spain. The coprological sedimentation test appeared to be a poor predictor of both prevalence of infestation and the real parasite burden due to the high number of false negative results (prevalence was reduced from 61 to 16 %). Because of the potential increased risk of this zoonosis, it is suggested that alternative techniques be used in wildlife surveillance programmes.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Suínos
14.
Parasitol Res ; 114(11): 4005-10, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26227139

RESUMO

Sarcoptic mange is a contagious skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting both domestic and wild mammals, including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), a medium-sized mountain ungulate almost endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. Acute phase proteins (APPs) could be an indicator of sarcoptic mange disease and severity in Iberian ibex. Serum samples from 131 healthy and sarcoptic mange-affected Iberian ibexes were collected from 2005 to 2012 in Sierra Nevada Natural Space in southern Spain. Serum alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations were quantified, and statistically significant differences according to sarcoptic mange disease and severity were assessed. Both AGP and SAA were significantly higher in the sarcoptic mange-affected ibexes than in the healthy ones as well as in the severely affected ibexes as compared to those with less than 50 % of the body surface affected. For the first time, changes in APP are reported in relation to sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex. It is also reported for the first time that the intensity of APP increase depends on the severity of sarcoptic mange, which could be related with the pathological secondary amyloidosis, leading to organ dysfunction in severely mange-affected animals. Species and population differences in the increase of APP in response to sarcoptic mange could indicate individual and population differences in the immune capability of each population to deal with mange, population prevalence and mortality being the last indicators of such sensitivity.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Doenças das Cabras/metabolismo , Cabras/parasitologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/fisiologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/imunologia , Escabiose/metabolismo , Escabiose/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Espanha
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 8: 165, 2015 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25888900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) is a nearly monomorphic mountain ungulate with an unbiased sex-specific overwinter adult survival. Few differences in gastrointestinal parasitism have been reported by coprology as yet. This study aims to assess diversity, prevalence, intensity of infection and aggregation of gastrointestinal nematodes in male and female adult chamois. We expect no differences in the parasite infection rates between sexes. FINDINGS: Gastrointestinal tracts of 28 harvested Pyrenean chamois in the Catalan Pyrenees (autumn 2012 and 2013) were necropsied and sexual differences in the diversity and structure of parasite community, prevalence, intensity of infection, and richness were investigated. We found 25 helminth species belonging to 13 different genera. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our expectations, male chamois showed different parasite communities, higher prevalence, intensity of infection and richness than females. Such sexual differences were clear irrespective of age of individuals. Hence, male chamois must cope with a more diverse and abundant parasite community than females, without apparent biological cost. Further research will be required to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Rupicapra , Animais , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 209(1-2): 133-7, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25725547

RESUMO

The most widely used technique to assess helminth infection in both domestic and wild mammals is the faecal egg count (FEC). Most efforts to test the reliability of FEC as a proxy for parasite load are in small ruminant studies and limited work has evaluated the use of FEC in pigs. The aim of this study was to explore whether FEC is a reliable indicator of helminth load, and to evaluate the effects of sample storage on FEC accuracy in 59 wild boars. Though FEC was useful for assessing most helminth infections (e.g., Metastrongylus spp., Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis), stomach nematodes were often missed. The accuracy of FEC decreased over time, and thus it is recommended that samples be processed within 5 days of collection.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Animais , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Suínos
17.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e100027, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24940879

RESUMO

Wild and domestic ruminants are susceptible to Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection. Three BTV serotypes (BTV-4, BTV-1 and BTV-8) have been detected in Spain in the last decade. Even though control strategies have been applied to livestock, BTV circulation has been frequently detected in wild ruminant populations in Spain. The aim of the present study is to assess the role for wild ruminants in maintaining BTV after the vaccination programs in livestock in mainland Spain. A total of 931 out 1,914 (48.6%) serum samples, collected from eight different wild ruminant species between 2006 and 2011, were BTV positive by ELISA. In order to detect specific antibodies against BTV-1, BTV-4 and BTV-8, positive sera were also tested by serumneutralisation test (SNT). From the ELISA positive samples that could be tested by SNT (687 out of 931), 292 (42.5%) showed neutralising antibodies against one or two BTV serotypes. For each BTV serotype, the number of outbreaks in livestock (11,857 outbreaks in total) was modelled with pure autoregressive models and the resulting smoothed values, representing the predicted number of BTV outbreaks in livestock at municipality level, were positively correlated with BTV persistence in wild species. The strength of this relationship significantly decreased as red deer (Cervus elaphus) population abundance increased. In addition, BTV RNA was detected by real time RT-PCR in 32 out of 311 (10.3%) spleen samples from seropositive animals. Although BT outbreaks in livestock have decreased substantially after vaccination campaigns, our results indicated that wild ruminants have been exposed to BTV in territories where outbreaks in domestic animals occurred. The detection of BTV RNA and spatial association between BT outbreaks in livestock and BTV rates in red deer are consistent with the hypothesis of virus circulation and BTV maintenance within Iberian wild ruminant populations.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Vírus Bluetongue/isolamento & purificação , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ruminantes/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bluetongue/prevenção & controle , Bluetongue/transmissão , Bluetongue/virologia , Vírus Bluetongue/classificação , Vírus Bluetongue/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Testes de Neutralização , RNA Viral/sangue , Sorotipagem , Espanha/epidemiologia , Baço/virologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 9: 107, 2013 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23702232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables. After the procedure, 14 of these wild boar were monitored for 20 days using GPS-GSM collars. RESULTS: Pre-release mortality during capture and handling (6.5%) was associated with severe trauma in corral traps. Capture specificity for wild boar was 96.3% and trapping effort was 16.5 days per captured wild boar. Mean induction period was 4.5 ± 2.2 min, hypnosis period enabling effective handling was 61.6 ± 25.4 min, and recovery period was 12.8 ± 12.1 min. No heart or respiratory failure due to added stress occurred and post-release monitoring by GPS-devices revealed no mortality due to anaesthesia. According to the best statistical model obtained, the main factor driving anaesthetic efficacy and stress indicators is trap type. CONCLUSIONS: Both cage and corral traps are efficient methods to capture wild boar. Cage traps are safer, as demonstrated by mortality rates as well as anaesthetic, physiological, and serum biochemical responses. This anaesthetic protocol is useful for prolonged handling of wild boar and allows sampling and collecting data for ecological and epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos Dissociativos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Medetomidina , Restrição Física/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Tiletamina , Zolazepam , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Masculino , Restrição Física/métodos , Espanha
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 44(4): 1083-5, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24450074

RESUMO

Perphenazine enanthate was used to allow adaptation to captivity in 11 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). At the time of capture, all animals received 0.10 mg/kg of acepromazine maleate and 2.5 mg/kg of perphenazine enanthate intramuscularly. The effect was evaluated by means of three behaviors: alertness, defecation, and flight distance. The tranquilization and lack of fear of humans of all animals were determined and the usefulness of this long-acting tranquilizer for chamois adaptation to captivity was confirmed.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Perfenazina/análogos & derivados , Rupicapra , Animais , Perfenazina/farmacologia , Tranquilizantes/farmacologia
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 161(1-2): 26-35, 2012 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22835526

RESUMO

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a double-stranded RNA virus transmitted by blood-feeding biting midges of the genus Culicoides to wild and domestic ruminants, causing high morbidity and variable mortality. The aim of this study was to characterize differential gene expression in skin biopsies of red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds experimentally infected with BTV serotypes 1 and 8. Skin biopsies were collected from BTV-1 and BTV-8 experimentally infected and control hinds at 14 and 98 days post-infection (dpi). Global gene expression profile in response to BTV infection was characterized at 14 dpi using a bovine microarray together with real-time RT-PCR analysis of differentially expressed genes at 14 and 98 dpi. Eighteen genes were upregulated and three were downregulated in response to virus infection, with no significant differences between BTV-1 and BTV-8 infected hinds. Seven unique genes, six upregulated (ISG15, PSMB8, PSMB9, BOLA, C1qA, C4) and one downregulated (FOS) were over-represented after conditional test for biological process gene ontology, which affected five molecular pathways (RIG-1, proteasome, MHC-1, complement, TLR) implicated in host immune response. BTV infection had a minor and transient effect on gene expression in hinds, as shown by the very few genes that were differentially expressed in response to infection at 14 dpi, most of which had similar expression levels between infected and uninfected animals at 98 dpi. These results suggested that red deer could control BTV infection with little effect on host molecular pathways.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Bluetongue/imunologia , Cervos/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Pele/imunologia , Animais , Biópsia , Bluetongue/genética , Cervos/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes MHC da Classe II/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Tempo
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