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1.
ACS Nano ; 13(7): 7716-7728, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173684

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties of spinel oxide magnetic nanoparticles depend critically on both their size and shape. In particular, spinel oxide nanocrystals with cubic morphology have shown superior properties in comparison to their spherical counterparts in a variety of fields, like, for example, biomedicine. Therefore, having an accurate control over the nanoparticle shape and size, while preserving the crystallinity, becomes crucial for many applications. However, despite the increasing interest in spinel oxide nanocubes there are relatively few studies on this morphology due to the difficulty to synthesize perfectly defined cubic nanostructures, especially below 20 nm. Here we present a rationally designed synthesis pathway based on the thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate to obtain high quality nanocubes over a wide range of sizes. This pathway enables the synthesis of monodisperse Fe3O4 nanocubes with edge length in the 9-80 nm range, with excellent cubic morphology and high crystallinity by only minor adjustments in the synthesis parameters. The accurate size control provides evidence that even 1-2 nm size variations can be critical in determining the functional properties, for example, for improved nuclear magnetic resonance T2 contrast or enhanced magnetic hyperthermia. The rationale behind the changes introduced in the synthesis procedure (e.g., the use of three solvents or adding Na-oleate) is carefully discussed. The versatility of this synthesis route is demonstrated by expanding its capability to grow other spinel oxides such as Co-ferrites, Mn-ferrites, and Mn3O4 of different sizes. The simplicity and adaptability of this synthesis scheme may ease the development of complex oxide nanocubes for a wide variety of applications.

2.
Chem Sci ; 10(7): 2171-2178, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881641

RESUMO

Atomic layer deposition is a chemical deposition technology that provides ultimate control over the conformality of films and their thickness, even down to Ångström-scale precision. Based on the marked superficial character and gas phase process of the technique, metal sources and their ligands shall ideally be highly volatile. However, in numerous cases those ligands corrode the substrate or compete for adsorption sites, well-known as side reactions of these processes. Therefore, the ability to control such side reactions might be of great interest, since it could achieve synchronous coating and alteration of a substrate in one process, saving time and energy otherwise needed for a post-treatment of the sample. Consequently, advances in this way must require understanding and control of the chemical processes that occur during the coating. In this work, we show how choosing an appropriate ligand of the metal source can unveil a novel approach to concertedly coat and reduce γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles to form a final product composed of Fe3O4/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles. To this aim, we envisage that appropriate design of precursors and selection of substrates will pave the way for numerous new compositions, while the ALD process itself allows for easy upscaling to large amounts of coated and reduced particles for industrial use.

3.
Nanoscale ; 10(39): 18672-18679, 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265263

RESUMO

The combination of magnetic and plasmonic materials and their nanostructurization have revealed a prominent pathway to develop novel photonic materials for the active control of the light polarization using a magnetic field. Until now, physical growth methods have been the only exploitable approach to prepare these types of nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the chemical synthesis of magneto-plasmonic core/shell nanocrystals with enhanced magnetic control of optical properties comparable to the best results reported for nanostructure growth by physical methods. Ag/FeCo core/shell nanocrystals were synthesized using a combination of hot injection and polyol approaches, demonstrating that the well-defined structures of both components, their interface and the optimized morphology, where the plasmonic and magnetic components are placed in the core and the shell regions, are responsible for the observed large enhancement of magnetic control of light polarization. Therefore, there is a possibility to develop tunable magneto-optical materials from hybrid magneto-plasmonic structures synthesized by chemical methods.

4.
Nano Lett ; 18(9): 5854-5861, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165026

RESUMO

The atomic structure of nanoparticles can be easily determined by transmission electron microscopy. However, obtaining atomic-resolution chemical information about the individual atomic columns is a rather challenging endeavor. Here, crystalline monodispersed spinel Fe3O4/Mn3O4 core-shell nanoparticles have been thoroughly characterized in a high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements performed with atomic resolution allow the direct mapping of the Mn2+/Mn3+ ions in the shell and the Fe2+/Fe3+ in the core structure. This enables a precise understanding of the core-shell interface and of the cation distribution in the crystalline lattice of the nanoparticles. Considering how the different oxidation states of transition metals are reflected in EELS, two methods of performing a local evaluation of the cation inversion in spinel lattices are introduced. Both methods allow the determination of the inversion parameter in the iron oxide core and manganese oxide shell, as well as detecting spatial variations in this parameter, with atomic resolution. X-ray absorption measurements on the whole sample confirm the presence of cation inversion. These results present a significant advance toward a better correlation of the structural and functional properties of nanostructured spinel oxides.

5.
Small ; 14(30): e1800804, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952138

RESUMO

Understanding the microstructure in heterostructured nanoparticles is crucial to harnessing their properties. Although microscopy is ideal for this purpose, it allows for the analysis of only a few nanoparticles. Thus, there is a need for structural methods that take the whole sample into account. Here, a novel bulk-approach based on the combined analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction with whole powder pattern modeling, Rietveld and pair distribution function is presented. The microstructural temporal evolution of FeO/Fe3 O4 core/shell nanocubes is studied at different time intervals. The results indicate that a two-phase approach (FeO and Fe3 O4 ) is not sufficient to successfully fit the data and two additional interface phases (FeO and Fe3 O4 ) are needed to obtain satisfactory fits, i.e., an onion-type structure. The analysis shows that the Fe3 O4 phases grow to some extent (≈1 nm) at the expense of the FeO core. Moreover, the FeO core progressively changes its stoichiometry to accommodate more oxygen. The temporal evolution of the parameters indicates that the structure of the FeO/Fe3 O4 nanocubes is rather stable, although the exact interface structure slightly evolves with time. This approach paves the way for average studies of interfaces in different kinds of heterostructured nanoparticles, particularly in cases where spectroscopic methods have some limitations.

6.
Small ; 14(24): e1800868, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761629

RESUMO

A crucial challenge in nanotherapies is achieving accurate and real-time control of the therapeutic action, which is particularly relevant in local thermal therapies to minimize healthy tissue damage and necrotic cell deaths. Here, a nanoheater/thermometry concept is presented based on magnetoplasmonic (Co/Au or Fe/Au) nanodomes that merge exceptionally efficient plasmonic heating and simultaneous highly sensitive detection of the temperature variations. The temperature detection is based on precise optical monitoring of the magnetic-induced rotation of the nanodomes in solution. It is shown that the phase lag between the optical signal and the driving magnetic field can be used to detect viscosity variations around the nanodomes with unprecedented accuracy (detection limit 0.0016 mPa s, i.e., 60-fold smaller than state-of-the-art plasmonic nanorheometers). This feature is exploited to monitor the viscosity reduction induced by optical heating in real-time, even in highly inhomogeneous cell dispersions. The magnetochromic nanoheater/thermometers show higher optical stability, much higher heating efficiency and similar temperature detection limits (0.05 °C) compared to state-of-the art luminescent nanothermometers. The technological interest is also boosted by the simpler and lower cost temperature detection system, and the cost effectiveness and scalability of the nanofabrication process, thereby highlighting the biomedical potential of this nanotechnology.

7.
Small ; 14(15): e1703963, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479814

RESUMO

Although cubic rock salt-CoO has been extensively studied, the magnetic properties of the main nanoscale CoO polymorphs (hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende structures) are rather poorly understood. Here, a detailed magnetic and neutron diffraction study on zinc blende and wurtzite CoO nanoparticles is presented. The zinc blende-CoO phase is antiferromagnetic with a 3rd type structure in a face-centered cubic lattice and a Néel temperature of TN (zinc-blende) ≈225 K. Wurtzite-CoO also presents an antiferromagnetic order, TN (wurtzite) ≈109 K, although much more complex, with a 2nd type order along the c-axis but an incommensurate order along the y-axis. Importantly, the overall magnetic properties are overwhelmed by the uncompensated spins, which confer the system a ferromagnetic-like behavior even at room temperature.

8.
Small ; 14(6)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323449

RESUMO

Nonlinear optical nanostructured materials are gaining increased interest as optical limiters for various applications, although many of them suffer from reduced efficiencies at high-light fluences due to photoinduced deterioration. The nonlinear optical properties of ferrite core/shell nanoparticles showing their robustness for ultrafast optical limiting applications are reported. At 100 fs ultrashort laser pulses the effective two-photon absorption (2PA) coefficient shows a nonmonotonic dependence on the shell thickness, with a maximum value obtained for thin shells. In view of the local electric field confinement, this indicates that core/shell is an advantageous morphology to improve the nonlinear optical parameters, exhibiting excellent optical limiting performance with effective 2PA coefficients in the range of 10-12 cm W-1 (100 fs excitation), and optical limiting threshold fluences in the range of 1.7 J cm-2 . These values are comparable to or better than most of the recently reported optical limiting materials. The quality of the open aperture Z-scan data recorded from repeat measurements at intensities as high as 35 TW cm-2 , indicates their considerably high optical damage thresholds in a toluene dispersion, ensuring their robustness in practical applications. Thus, the high photostability combined with the remarkable nonlinear optical properties makes these nanoparticles excellent candidates for ultrafast optical limiting applications.

9.
Ultramicroscopy ; 185: 42-48, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182918

RESUMO

In this work, the use of cluster analysis algorithms, widely applied in the field of big data, is proposed to explore and analyze electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data sets. Three different data clustering approaches have been tested both with simulated and experimental data from Fe3O4/Mn3O4 core/shell nanoparticles. The first method consists on applying data clustering directly to the acquired spectra. A second approach is to analyze spectral variance with principal component analysis (PCA) within a given data cluster. Lastly, data clustering on PCA score maps is discussed. The advantages and requirements of each approach are studied. Results demonstrate how clustering is able to recover compositional and oxidation state information from EELS data with minimal user input, giving great prospects for its usage in EEL spectroscopy.

10.
Nano Lett ; 16(8): 5068-73, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383904

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties used in numerous advanced nanostructured devices are directly controlled by the oxidation states of their constituents. In this work we combine electron energy-loss spectroscopy, blind source separation, and computed tomography to reconstruct in three dimensions the distribution of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions in a FeO/Fe3O4 core/shell cube-shaped nanoparticle with nanometric resolution. The results highlight the sharpness of the interface between both oxides and provide an average shell thickness, core volume, and average cube edge length measurements in agreement with the magnetic characterization of the sample.

11.
Nanoscale ; 7(7): 3002-15, 2015 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25600147

RESUMO

The intimate relationship between stoichiometry and physicochemical properties in transition-metal oxides makes them appealing as tunable materials. These features become exacerbated when dealing with nanostructures. However, due to the complexity of nanoscale materials, establishing a distinct relationship between structure-morphology and functionalities is often complicated. In this regard, in the FexO/Fe3O4 system a largely unexplained broad dispersion of magnetic properties has been observed. Here we show, thanks to a comprehensive multi-technique approach, a clear correlation between the magneto-structural properties in large (45 nm) and small (9 nm) FexO/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles that can explain the spread of magnetic behaviors. The results reveal that while the FexO core in the large nanoparticles is antiferromagnetic and has bulk-like stoichiometry and unit-cell parameters, the FexO core in the small particles is highly non-stoichiometric and strained, displaying no significant antiferromagnetism. These results highlight the importance of ample characterization to fully understand the properties of nanostructured metal oxides.

12.
Nanoscale ; 6(20): 11911-20, 2014 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25174899

RESUMO

Core-shell nanoparticles attract continuously growing interest due to their numerous applications, which are driven by the possibility of tuning their functionalities by adjusting structural and morphological parameters. However, despite the critical role interdiffused interfaces may have in the properties, these are usually only estimated in indirect ways. Here we directly evidence the existence of a 1.1 nm thick (Fe,Mn)3O4 interdiffused intermediate shell in nominally γ-Fe2O3-Mn3O4 core-shell nanoparticles using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy combined with magnetic circular dichroism (RIXS-MCD). This recently developed magneto-spectroscopic probe exploits the unique advantages of hard X-rays (i.e., chemical selectivity, bulk sensitivity, and low self-absorption at the K pre-edge) and can be advantageously combined with transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy to quantitatively elucidate the buried internal structure of complex objects. The detailed information on the structure of the nanoparticles allows understanding the influence of the interface quality on the magnetic properties.

13.
Microsc Microanal ; 20(3): 698-705, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24750576

RESUMO

Physicochemical properties of transition metal oxides are directly determined by the oxidation state of the metallic cations. To address the increasing need to accurately evaluate the oxidation states of transition metal oxide systems at the nanoscale, here we present "Oxide Wizard." This script for Digital Micrograph characterizes the energy-loss near-edge structure and the position of the transition metal edges in the electron energy-loss spectrum. These characteristics of the edges can be linked to the oxidation states of transition metals with high spatial resolution. The power of the script is demonstrated by mapping manganese oxidation states in Fe3O4/Mn3O4 core/shell nanoparticles with sub-nanometer resolution in real space.

14.
Nanoscale ; 5(12): 5561-7, 2013 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23681182

RESUMO

The controlled filling of the pores of highly ordered mesoporous antiferromagnetic Co3O4 replicas with ferrimagnetic FexCo3-xO4 nanolayers is presented as a proof-of-concept toward the integration of nanosized units in highly ordered, heterostructured 3D architectures. Antiferromagnetic (AFM) Co3O4 mesostructures are obtained as negative replicas of KIT-6 silica templates, which are subsequently coated with ferrimagnetic (FiM) FexCo3-xO4 nanolayers. The tuneable magnetic properties, with a large exchange bias and coercivity, arising from the FiM/AFM interface coupling, confirm the microstructure of this novel two-phase core-shell mesoporous material. The present work demonstrates that ordered functional mesoporous 3D-materials can be successfully infiltrated with other compounds exhibiting additional functionalities yielding highly tuneable, versatile, non-siliceous based nanocomposites.

15.
ACS Nano ; 7(2): 921-31, 2013 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23320459

RESUMO

Here it is demonstrated that multiple-energy, anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) provides significant enhancement in sensitivity to internal material boundaries of layered nanoparticles compared with the traditional modeling of a single scattering energy, even for cases in which high scattering contrast naturally exists. Specifically, the material-specific structure of monodispersed Fe3O4|γ-Mn2O3 core|shell nanoparticles is determined, and the contribution of each component to the total scattering profile is identified with unprecedented clarity. We show that Fe3O4|γ-Mn2O3 core|shell nanoparticles with a diameter of 8.2 ± 0.2 nm consist of a core with a composition near Fe3O4 surrounded by a (Mn(x)Fe(1-x))3O4 shell with a graded composition, ranging from x ≈ 0.40 at the inner shell toward x ≈ 0.46 at the surface. Evaluation of the scattering contribution arising from the interference between material-specific layers additionally reveals the presence of Fe3O4 cores without a coating shell. Finally, it is found that the material-specific scattering profile shapes and chemical compositions extracted by this method are independent of the original input chemical compositions used in the analysis, revealing multiple-energy ASAXS as a powerful tool for determining internal nanostructured morphology even if the exact composition of the individual layers is not known a priori.

16.
Ultramicroscopy ; 122: 12-8, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22974761

RESUMO

Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to Fe(x)Co((3-x))O(4)@Co(3)O(4) mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(42): 16738-41, 2011 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21973012

RESUMO

Magnetic multilayered, onion-like, heterostructured nanoparticles are interesting model systems for studying magnetic exchange coupling phenomena. In this work, we synthesized heterostructured magnetic nanoparticles composed of two, three, or four components using iron oxide seeds for the subsequent deposition of manganese oxide. The MnO layer was allowed either to passivate fully in air to form an outer layer of Mn(3)O(4) or to oxidize partially to form MnO|Mn(3)O(4) double layers. Through control of the degree of passivation of the seeds, particles with up to four different magnetic layers can be obtained (i.e., FeO|Fe(3)O(4)|MnO|Mn(3)O(4)). Magnetic characterization of the samples confirmed the presence of the different magnetic layers.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(27): 9398-407, 2010 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20568759

RESUMO

The magnetic properties of bimagnetic core/shell nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic MnO core and a ferrimagnetic passivation shell have been investigated. It is found that the phase of the passivation shell (gamma-Mn(2)O(3) or Mn(3)O(4)) depends on the size of the nanoparticles. Structural and magnetic characterizations concur that while the smallest nanoparticles have a predominantly gamma-Mn(2)O(3) shell, larger ones have increasing amounts of Mn(3)O(4). A considerable enhancement of the Néel temperature, T(N), and the magnetic anisotropy of the MnO core for decreasing core sizes has been observed. The size reduction also leads to other phenomena such as persistent magnetic moment in MnO up to high temperatures and an unusual temperature behavior of the magnetic domains.

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