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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(2): 100-112, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The X-chromosome gene USP9X encodes a deubiquitylating enzyme that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders primarily in female subjects. USP9X escapes X inactivation, and in female subjects de novo heterozygous copy number loss or truncating mutations cause haploinsufficiency culminating in a recognizable syndrome with intellectual disability and signature brain and congenital abnormalities. In contrast, the involvement of USP9X in male neurodevelopmental disorders remains tentative. METHODS: We used clinically recommended guidelines to collect and interrogate the pathogenicity of 44 USP9X variants associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in males. Functional studies in patient-derived cell lines and mice were used to determine mechanisms of pathology. RESULTS: Twelve missense variants showed strong evidence of pathogenicity. We define a characteristic phenotype of the central nervous system (white matter disturbances, thin corpus callosum, and widened ventricles); global delay with significant alteration of speech, language, and behavior; hypotonia; joint hypermobility; visual system defects; and other common congenital and dysmorphic features. Comparison of in silico and phenotypical features align additional variants of unknown significance with likely pathogenicity. In support of partial loss-of-function mechanisms, using patient-derived cell lines, we show loss of only specific USP9X substrates that regulate neurodevelopmental signaling pathways and a united defect in transforming growth factor ß signaling. In addition, we find correlates of the male phenotype in Usp9x brain-specific knockout mice, and further resolve loss of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the involvement of USP9X variants in a distinctive neurodevelopmental and behavioral syndrome in male subjects and identify plausible mechanisms of pathogenesis centered on disrupted transforming growth factor ß signaling and hippocampal function.

2.
Mol Cell ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785928

RESUMO

Mutations affecting exon 9 of the CALR gene lead to the generation of a C-terminally modified calreticulin (CALR) protein that lacks the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal and consequently mislocalizes outside of the ER where it activates the thrombopoietin receptor in a cell-autonomous fashion, thus driving myeloproliferative diseases. Here, we used the retention using selective hooks (RUSH) assay to monitor the trafficking of CALR. We found that exon-9-mutated CALR was released from cells in response to the biotin-mediated detachment from its ER-localized hook, in vitro and in vivo. Cellular CALR release was confirmed in suitable mouse models bearing exon-9-mutated hematopoietic systems or tumors. Extracellular CALR mediated immunomodulatory effects and inhibited the phagocytosis of dying cancer cells by dendritic cells (DC), thereby suppressing antineoplastic immune responses elicited by chemotherapeutic agents or by PD-1 blockade. Altogether, our results demonstrate paracrine immunosuppressive effects for exon-9-mutated CALR.

4.
Nature ; 574(7780): 712-716, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597163

RESUMO

Cancers are caused by genomic alterations known as drivers. Hundreds of drivers in coding genes are known but, to date, only a handful of noncoding drivers have been discovered-despite intensive searching1,2. Attention has recently shifted to the role of altered RNA splicing in cancer; driver mutations that lead to transcriptome-wide aberrant splicing have been identified in multiple types of cancer, although these mutations have only been found in protein-coding splicing factors such as splicing factor 3b subunit 1 (SF3B1)3-6. By contrast, cancer-related alterations in the noncoding component of the spliceosome-a series of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)-have barely been studied, owing to the combined challenges of characterizing noncoding cancer drivers and the repetitive nature of snRNA genes1,7,8. Here we report a highly recurrent A>C somatic mutation at the third base of U1 snRNA in several types of tumour. The primary function of U1 snRNA is to recognize the 5' splice site via base-pairing. This mutation changes the preferential A-U base-pairing between U1 snRNA and the 5' splice site to C-G base-pairing, and thus creates novel splice junctions and alters the splicing pattern of multiple genes-including known drivers of cancer. Clinically, the A>C mutation is associated with heavy alcohol use in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, and with the aggressive subtype of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable regions. The mutation in U1 snRNA also independently confers an adverse prognosis to patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Our study demonstrates a noncoding driver in spliceosomal RNAs, reveals a mechanism of aberrant splicing in cancer and may represent a new target for treatment. Our findings also suggest that driver discovery should be extended to a wider range of genomic regions.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14938, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624306

RESUMO

Tardigrades, also known as water bears, are small aquatic animals that inhabit marine, fresh water or limno-terrestrial environments. While all tardigrades require surrounding water to grow and reproduce, species living in limno-terrestrial environments (e.g. Ramazzottius varieornatus) are able to undergo almost complete dehydration by entering an arrested state known as anhydrobiosis, which allows them to tolerate ionic radiation, extreme temperatures and intense pressure. Previous studies based on comparison of the genomes of R. varieornatus and Hypsibius dujardini - a less tolerant tardigrade - have pointed to potential mechanisms that may partially contribute to their remarkable ability to resist extreme physical conditions. In this work, we have further annotated the genomes of both tardigrades using a guided approach in search for novel mechanisms underlying the extremotolerance of R. varieornatus. We have found specific amplifications of several genes, including MRE11 and XPC, and numerous missense variants exclusive of R. varieornatus in CHEK1, POLK, UNG and TERT, all of them involved in important pathways for DNA repair and telomere maintenance. Taken collectively, these results point to genomic features that may contribute to the enhanced ability to resist extreme environmental conditions shown by R. varieornatus.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547314

RESUMO

Research on healthy aging shows that lifespan reductions are often caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, it is very interesting that the deletion of mitochondrial matrix peptidase LonP1 was observed to abolish embryogenesis, while deletion of the mitochondrial matrix peptidase Caseinolytic Mitochondrial Matrix Peptidase Proteolytic Subunit (ClpP) prolonged survival. To unveil the targets of each enzyme, we documented the global proteome of LonP1+/- mouse embryonal fibroblasts (MEF), for comparison with ClpP-/- depletion. Proteomic profiles of LonP1+/- MEF generated by label-free mass spectrometry were further processed with the STRING (Search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes) webserver Heidelberg for protein interactions. ClpP was previously reported to degrade Eral1 as a chaperone involved in mitoribosome assembly, so ClpP deficiency triggers the accumulation of mitoribosomal subunits and inefficient translation. LonP1+/- MEF also showed Eral1 accumulation, but no systematic effect on mitoribosomal subunits. In contrast to ClpP-/- profiles, several components of the respiratory complex-I membrane arm, of the glutathione pathway and of lysosomes were accumulated, whereas the upregulation of numerous innate immune defense components was similar. Overall, LonP1, as opposed to ClpP, appears to have no effect on translational machinery, instead it shows enhanced respiratory dysfunction; this agrees with reports on the human CODAS syndrome (syndrome with cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies) caused by LonP1 mutations.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3615, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399598

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have provided evidence for inherited genetic predisposition to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying CLL risk we analyze chromatin accessibility, active regulatory elements marked by H3K27ac, and DNA methylation at 42 risk loci in up to 486 primary CLLs. We identify that risk loci are significantly enriched for active chromatin in CLL with evidence of being CLL-specific or differentially regulated in normal B-cell development. We then use in situ promoter capture Hi-C, in conjunction with gene expression data to reveal likely target genes of the risk loci. Candidate target genes are enriched for pathways related to B-cell development such as MYC and BCL2 signalling. At 14 loci the analysis highlights 63 variants as the probable functional basis of CLL risk. By integrating genetic and epigenetic information our analysis reveals novel insights into the relationship between inherited predisposition and the regulatory chromatin landscape of CLL.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Cromatina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
8.
Cell Metab ; 30(4): 754-767.e9, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422903

RESUMO

Autophagy facilitates the adaptation to nutritional stress. Here, we show that short-term starvation of cultured cells or mice caused the autophagy-dependent cellular release of acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP, also known as diazepam-binding inhibitor, DBI) and consequent ACBP-mediated feedback inhibition of autophagy. Importantly, ACBP levels were elevated in obese patients and reduced in anorexia nervosa. In mice, systemic injection of ACBP protein inhibited autophagy, induced lipogenesis, reduced glycemia, and stimulated appetite as well as weight gain. We designed three approaches to neutralize ACBP, namely, inducible whole-body knockout, systemic administration of neutralizing antibodies, and induction of antiACBP autoantibodies in mice. ACBP neutralization enhanced autophagy, stimulated fatty acid oxidation, inhibited appetite, reduced weight gain in the context of a high-fat diet or leptin deficiency, and accelerated weight loss in response to dietary changes. In conclusion, neutralization of ACBP might constitute a strategy for treating obesity and its co-morbidities.

9.
Cell Res ; 29(10): 804-819, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444470

RESUMO

In vivo genome editing represents a powerful strategy for both understanding basic biology and treating inherited diseases. However, it remains a challenge to develop universal and efficient in vivo genome-editing tools for tissues that comprise diverse cell types in either a dividing or non-dividing state. Here, we describe a versatile in vivo gene knock-in methodology that enables the targeting of a broad range of mutations and cell types through the insertion of a minigene at an intron of the target gene locus using an intracellularly linearized single homology arm donor. As a proof-of-concept, we focused on a mouse model of premature-aging caused by a dominant point mutation, which is difficult to repair using existing in vivo genome-editing tools. Systemic treatment using our new method ameliorated aging-associated phenotypes and extended animal lifespan, thus highlighting the potential of this methodology for a broad range of in vivo genome-editing applications.

10.
Nat Med ; 25(8): 1234-1242, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332389

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is emerging as a key regulator of several metabolic, immune and neuroendocrine pathways1,2. Gut microbiome deregulation has been implicated in major conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty acid liver disease and cancer3-6, but its precise role in aging remains to be elucidated. Here, we find that two different mouse models of progeria are characterized by intestinal dysbiosis with alterations that include an increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, and a decrease in the abundance of Verrucomicrobia. Consistent with these findings, we found that human progeria patients also display intestinal dysbiosis and that long-lived humans (that is, centenarians) exhibit a substantial increase in Verrucomicrobia and a reduction in Proteobacteria. Fecal microbiota transplantation from wild-type mice enhanced healthspan and lifespan in both progeroid mouse models, and transplantation with the verrucomicrobia Akkermansia muciniphila was sufficient to exert beneficial effects. Moreover, metabolomic analysis of ileal content points to the restoration of secondary bile acids as a possible mechanism for the beneficial effects of reestablishing a healthy microbiome. Our results demonstrate that correction of the accelerated aging-associated intestinal dysbiosis is beneficial, suggesting the existence of a link between aging and the gut microbiota that provides a rationale for microbiome-based interventions against age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Longevidade , Progéria/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
11.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(3): 407-418.e6, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303548

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) residing in the bone marrow (BM) accumulate during aging but are functionally impaired. However, the role of HSC-intrinsic and -extrinsic aging mechanisms remains debated. Megakaryocytes promote quiescence of neighboring HSCs. Nonetheless, whether megakaryocyte-HSC interactions change during pathological/natural aging is unclear. Premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome recapitulates physiological aging features, but whether these arise from altered stem or niche cells is unknown. Here, we show that the BM microenvironment promotes myelopoiesis in premature/physiological aging. During physiological aging, HSC-supporting niches decrease near bone but expand further from bone. Increased BM noradrenergic innervation promotes ß2-adrenergic-receptor(AR)-interleukin-6-dependent megakaryopoiesis. Reduced ß3-AR-Nos1 activity correlates with decreased endosteal niches and megakaryocyte apposition to sinusoids. However, chronic treatment of progeroid mice with ß3-AR agonist decreases premature myeloid and HSC expansion and restores the proximal association of HSCs to megakaryocytes. Therefore, normal/premature aging of BM niches promotes myeloid expansion and can be improved by targeting the microenvironment.

12.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol ; 20(7): 385-386, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164727
13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(8): 1559-1564, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045254

RESUMO

Frailty has long been an important concept in the practice of geriatric medicine and in gerontological research, but integration and implementation of frailty concepts into clinical practice in the United States has been slow. The National Institute on Aging (NIA) Intramural Research Program and the Johns Hopkins Older Americans Independence Center sponsored a symposium to identify potential barriers that impede the movement of frailty into clinical practice and to highlight opportunities to facilitate the further integration of frailty into clinical practice. Primary and subspecialty care providers, and investigators working to integrate and translate new biological aging knowledge into more specific preventive and treatment strategies for frailty provided the meeting content. Recommendations included a call for more specific language that clarifies conceptual differences between frailty definitions and measurement tools; the development of randomized controlled trials to test whether specific intervention strategies for a variety of conditions differently affect frail and non-frail individuals; development of implementation studies and therapeutic trials aimed at tailoring care as a function of pragmatic frailty markers; the use of deep learning and dynamic systems approaches to improve the translatability of findings from epidemiological studies; and the incorporation of advances in aging biology, especially focused on mitochondria, stem cells, and senescent cells, toward the further development of biologically targeted intervention and prevention strategies that can be used to treat or prevent frailty. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:1559-1564, 2019.

14.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(4)2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862662

RESUMO

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by progerin, a mutant lamin A variant. HGPS patients display accelerated aging and die prematurely, typically from atherosclerosis complications. Recently, we demonstrated that progerin-driven vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) loss accelerates atherosclerosis leading to premature death in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. Using a transcriptomic approach, we identify here endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER) and the unfolded protein responses as drivers of VSMC death in two mouse models of HGPS exhibiting ubiquitous and VSMC-specific progerin expression. This stress pathway was also activated in HGPS patient-derived cells. Targeting ER stress response with a chemical chaperone delayed medial VSMC loss and inhibited atherosclerosis in both progeria models, and extended lifespan in the VSMC-specific model. Our results identify a mechanism underlying cardiovascular disease in HGPS that could be targeted in patients. Moreover, these findings may help to understand other vascular diseases associated with VSMC death, and provide insight into aging-dependent vascular damage related to accumulation of unprocessed toxic forms of lamin A.

15.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 423-426, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778239

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas9-based therapies hold considerable promise for the treatment of genetic diseases. Among these, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, caused by a point mutation in the LMNA gene, stands out as a potential candidate. Here, we explore the efficacy of a CRISPR/Cas9-based approach that reverts several alterations in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome cells and mice by introducing frameshift mutations in the LMNA gene.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Terapia Genética/métodos , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Progéria/terapia , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação Puntual , Progéria/genética
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