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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624154

RESUMO

Despite advances in the theoretical and empirical literature, a better understanding of the etiological determinants of callous-unemotional (CU) traits is needed. In this study, we tested the hypotheses advanced by the Sensitivity to Threat and Affiliative Reward (STAR) model, a theoretical framework, which proposes that individual differences in two temperament dimensions, fearlessness and low affiliation, jointly contribute to the development of CU traits. Specifically, we examined the unique and interactive effects of fearlessness and low affiliation on CU traits, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and within and across informants (teachers and parents) in a large community sample of Spanish preschoolers (N = 2467, 48.1% girls, M = 4.25 years; SD = 0.91). Both fearlessness and low affiliation were independently related to higher CU traits across models. Consistent with the purported relationships outlined in the STAR model, we also found that a significant interaction between fearlessness and low affiliation explained unique variance in CU traits. The results suggested that main and interactive effects were specific to CU traits and not to other related dimensions of psychopathic traits that are measurable in early childhood (i.e. grandiose-deceitfulness and impulse need of stimulation). Thus, we provide new empirical support to the hypotheses generated by the STAR model in relation to the development of CU traits. Fearlessness and low affiliation are potential targets of future child-focused interventions to prevent or treat the development of CU traits and childhood conduct problems.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987641

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine the effects of the Spanish confinement derived from the COVID-19 crisis on children and their families, accounting for child's age. A range of child negative (e.g., conduct problems) and positive outcomes (e.g., routine maintenance) were examined, along with a set of parent-related variables, including resilience, perceived distress, emotional problems, parenting distress and specific parenting practices (e.g., structured or avoidant parenting), which were modeled through path analysis to better understand child adjustment. Data were collected in April 2020, with information for the present study provided by 940 (89.6%) mothers, 102 (9.7%) fathers and 7 (0.7%) different caregivers, who informed on 1049 Spanish children (50.4% girls) aged 3 to 12 years (Mage = 7.29; SD = 2.39). The results suggested that, according to parents' information, most children did not show important changes in behavior, although some increasing rates were observed for both negative and positive outcomes. Child adjustment was influenced by a chain of effects, derived from parents' perceived distress and emotional response to the COVID-19 crisis, via parenting distress and specific parenting practices. While parenting distress in particular triggered child negative outcomes, specific parenting practices were more closely related to child positive outcomes. These findings may help to better inform, for potential future outbreaks, effective guidelines and prevention programs aimed at promoting the child's well-being in the family.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Poder Familiar , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Espanha
3.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 81-87, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195043

RESUMO

Child emotion regulation (ER) skills and specific parenting practices during the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to influence children adjustment in these unprecedented times. On this assumption, we first aimed to examine the predictive value of ER skills in relation to diverse indicators of behavioral and socioemotional adjustment. Then, we tested whether some of these associations could be partially explained through the mediator role of the specific parenting practices displayed within the pandemic context. These hypotheses were tested considering the previous levels of child reactivity as a potential moderator of the examined relations. Using parent-reported data from a sample of 874 Galician children (49.6% girls) aged 5 to 9 (Mage = 7.09; SD= 1.04), multiple regression and mediation analyses were conducted. Robust associations between ER skills and diverse indicators of child adjusment were found. Moreover, it was found that specific parenting practices mediate the relation between child ER skills and specific behavioral outcomes (i.e., child routine maintenance). Thus, our findings highlight the importance of ER skills for child adjustment during the COVID-19 crisis, not only through direct, but also indirect effects, suggesting that the kind of parenting style that children receive during the pandemic conditions might be partially elicited by their individual characteristics


Las habilidades de regulación emocional (HRE) de los niños/as y las prácticas parentales específicas surgidas como consecuencia de los importantes cambios originados por la pandemia del COVID-19, podrían contribuir a su adaptación durante esta época sin precedentes. Bajo estas consideraciones, nos propusimos, en primer lugar, examinar el valor predictivo de las HRE en relación a diversos indicadores conductuales y socioemocionales de ajuste, para después estudiar si algunas de estas asociaciones podrían ser parcialmente explicadas a través del rol mediador de las prácticas parentales específicas desplegadas por los padres/madres en estas circunstancias. Contrastamos nuestras hipótesis considerando los niveles previos de reactividad del niño/a como moderadores de las relaciones analizadas. Usando los datos proporcionados por los padres/madres de 874 niños/as gallegos (49.6% niñas) de 5 a 9 años (Medad = 7.09; SD = 1.04), se llevaron a cabo múltiples análisis de regresión y mediación. Se encontraron asociaciones robustas entre las HRE y diversos indicadores de ajuste. Además, se encontró que prácticas parentales específicas median la relación entre las HRE y un tipo de consecuencias conductuales positivas (i.e., el mantenimiento de rutinas por parte de los niños/as). Nuestros resultados constatan, por tanto, la importancia de las HRE para la adaptación de los niños/as a las condiciones derivadas de la crisis, no solo por sus efectos directos, sino también por su influencia a través de efectos indirectos, que sugieren que el tipo de prácticas parentales que los niños/as reciben durante la pandemia, podría ser parcialmente elicitado por sus características personales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Ajustamento Emocional/classificação , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Assessment ; 27(6): 1242-1257, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845808

RESUMO

This is the first study that tested the psychometric properties of the Child Problematic Traits Inventory (CPTI) in clinic-referred children (ages 6-13 years). Teachers (N = 159) and parents (N = 173) completed the CPTI and various other measures. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the CPTI's three-factor structure when teachers and parents rated the 28 CPTI items. Teacher- and parent-reported CPTI scores showed the expected relations with external correlates (e.g., conduct problems and proactive aggression). Crucially, the validity of the CPTI scores was also supported across informants (i.e., when linking teacher-reported CPTI scores to parent-reported external correlates, and vice versa) and across methods (i.e., regardless if a questionnaire or a diagnostic interview was used to measure external correlates). We conclude that the CPTI holds promise as a research tool for assessing psychopathic traits in clinic-referred children. Until our findings have been replicated and extended, the CPTI should not be used for clinical decision making.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861641

RESUMO

In the current study, we tested the relations between cyberbullying roles and several psychological well-being outcomes, as well as the potential mediation effect of perceived social support from family, friends, and teachers in school. This was investigated in a cross-sectional sample of 1707 young adolescents (47.5% girls, aged 10-13 years, self-reporting via a web questionnaire) attending community and private schools in a mid-sized municipality in Sweden. We concluded from our results that the Cyberbully-victim group has the highest levels of depressive symptoms, and the lowest of subjective well-being and family support. We also observed higher levels of anxiety symptoms in both the Cyber-victims and the Cyberbully-victims. Moreover, we conclude that some types of social support seem protective in the way that it mediates the relationship between cyberbullying and psychological well-being. More specifically, perceived social support from family and from teachers reduce the probability of depressive and anxiety symptoms, and higher levels of social support from the family increase the probability of higher levels of subjective well-being among youths being a victim of cyberbullying (i.e., cyber-victim) and being both a perpetrator and a victim of cyber bullying (i.e., cyberbully-victim). Potential implications for prevention strategies are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Educação , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
6.
Psychol Assess ; 31(11): 1357-1367, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368737

RESUMO

The Proposed Specifiers for Conduct Disorder (PSCD) scale (Salekin & Hare, 2016) was developed as a measure of the broader construct of psychopathy in childhood and adolescence. In addition to conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, the PSCD addresses the interpersonal (grandiose-manipulative), affective (callous-unemotional), and lifestyle (daring-impulsive) traits of psychopathic personality. The PSCD can be scored by parents and teachers. The present study is a preliminary test of the psychometric properties of the PSCD-Parent Version in a sample of 2,229 children aged 3 to 6 years. Confirmatory factor analyses supported both a 3- and 4-factor structure being invariant across gender groups. The validity of the PSCD was also supported by convergent-divergent associations with an alternative measure of psychopathic traits as well as by the expected relations with fearlessness, conduct problems, reactive and proactive aggression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, and social competence skills. Overall, the PSCD is a promising alternative measure for assessing early manifestation of the broader construct of psychopathy in children. Its use should facilitate discussion of the conceptualization, assessment, predictive value, and clinical usefulness of the psychopathic construct as it relates to CD at early developmental stages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Tradução
7.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 63(10): 1896-1913, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973032

RESUMO

One of the main purposes of juvenile risk assessment is to distinguish different risk profiles, which may lead to referring youths into specific intervention programs tailored to their specific needs. This study is devoted to identifying main typologies of risk in a sample of 286 Spanish young offenders aged 14 to 22 (M = 17.36; SD = 1.61) years. Participants were classified into different profiles, representing different levels of risk in terms of individual and psychosocial dynamic variables. A three-class (low-, middle-, and high-risk profiles) and a four-class (low-, middle-, high-risk family problems/callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and high-risk impulsive/undercontrolled) solutions were identified. These profiles showed their distinctiveness and meaningfulness in a set of comparisons on antisocial behavior and prior offenses measures. These findings highlight the presence of diverse patterns of risk and suggest that a limited number of specialized interventions may respond to the main needs of most institutionalized youths.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/classificação , Delinquência Juvenil , Medição de Risco , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Ira , Conflito Familiar , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Grupo Associado , Resiliência Psicológica , Assunção de Riscos , Apoio Social , Espanha , Ideação Suicida , Violência , Adulto Jovem
8.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 48(4): 619-631, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27714483

RESUMO

Developmental heterogeneity of youth conduct problems has been widely assumed, leading to the identification of distinctive groups at particular risk of more serious problems later in development. The present study intends to expand the main results of a prior study focused on identifying developmental trajectories of conduct problems (Stable-low, Stable-high, and Decreasing), by analyzing their developmental course and related outcomes during middle/late adolescence and early adulthood. Two follow-up studies were conducted 10 and 12 years after the initial study with 115 and 122 youths respectively (mean = 17.29 and 19.18). Overall results underline that the Early-onset persistent group showed the highest risk-profile; the Childhood-limited group revealed a moderate level of later maladjustment; and the Adolescence-onset group, currently identified, showed a significant peak of risk particularly in middle/late adolescence. These findings provide a more comprehensive representation of youth conduct problems, and open new means of discussion in terms of preventive intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 46(5): 762-73, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25354563

RESUMO

Understanding youth conduct problems requires examination from a developmental perspective, analyzing distinctive pathways across childhood and adolescence, and identifying early predictors which will lead to specific adolescent outcomes. Bearing this in mind, developmental trajectories of conduct problems were identified from a person-oriented perspective, and using data collected from three waves over a six-year period, in a sample of Spanish children aged 6-11 at the onset of the study. Conduct problems showed five distinctive trajectories which were grouped into three major pathways in further analyses: Stable low, Stable high, and Decreasing. Associations with early personality and psychopathic traits, as well as with a wide range of adolescent behavioral and psychosocial outcomes were examined, revealing the Stable high group as exhibiting the highest risk profile. These results contribute to improving our knowledge about one of the most relevant problems in youth populations, and will help in refining interventions strategies by recognizing the developmental heterogeneity of the construct.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Empatia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Personalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Habilidades Sociais
10.
Span. j. psychol ; 17: e97.1-e97.11, ene.-dic. 2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-130509

RESUMO

Previous research has shown the relevance of psychopathic traits as predictors of severe and persistent antisocial behavior. Given that personality traits refer to developmental constructs, the main purposes of this study were to analyze the stability of psychopathic traits from childhood to adolescence, and to examine differential outcomes derived from distinctive pathways of stability and change. Data was collected in a Spanish sample of 138 children aged 6-11 at the onset of the study (T1), and 12-17 in the subsequent follow-up conducted 6 years later (T2). The stability of psychopathic traits was assessed in terms of differential continuity (rank-order), absolute stability (mean-level) and individual level change (Reliable Change Index). Results confirmed that psychopathic traits remained moderately to highly stable from childhood to adolescence (p < .001). There were, however, some differences depending on the informant (parents vs. teachers) and the particular assessment method used (rank order vs. mean-level and RCI). A stable high and an increasing developmental pattern of psychopathic traits were related with severe adolescent behavioral and psychosocial problems (ŋ² = .10-.36). These results support the usefulness of youth psychopathic personality as a developmental construct, and highlight its relevance as a predictor of long-lasting maladjustment, with relevant implications in terms of prevention and treatment (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Psicologia do Adolescente/tendências , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Apoio Social , Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Seguimentos
11.
J Psychopathol Behav Assess ; 36(1): 4-21, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24610971

RESUMO

Understanding the development of psychopathic personality from childhood to adulthood is crucial for understanding the development and stability of severe and long-lasting conduct problems and criminal behavior. This paper describes the development of a new teacher rated instrument to assess psychopathic personality from age three to 12, the Child Problematic Traits Inventory (CPTI). The reliability and validity of the CPTI was tested in a Swedish general population sample of 2,056 3- to 5-year-olds (mean age = 3.86; SD = .86; 53 % boys). The CPTI items loaded distinctively on three theoretically proposed factors: a Grandiose-Deceitful Factor, a Callous-Unemotional factor, and an Impulsive-Need for Stimulation factor. The three CPTI factors showed reliability in internal consistency and external validity, in terms of expected correlations with theoretically relevant constructs (e.g., fearlessness). The interaction between the three CPTI factors was a stronger predictor of concurrent conduct problems than any of the three individual CPTI factors, showing that it is important to assess all three factors of the psychopathic personality construct in early childhood. In conclusion, the CPTI seems to reliably and validly assess a constellation of traits that is similar to psychopathic personality as manifested in adolescence and adulthood.

12.
Span J Psychol ; 17: E97, 2014 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26055900

RESUMO

Previous research has shown the relevance of psychopathic traits as predictors of severe and persistent antisocial behavior. Given that personality traits refer to developmental constructs, the main purposes of this study were to analyze the stability of psychopathic traits from childhood to adolescence, and to examine differential outcomes derived from distinctive pathways of stability and change. Data was collected in a Spanish sample of 138 children aged 6-11 at the onset of the study (T1), and 12-17 in the subsequent follow-up conducted 6 years later (T2). The stability of psychopathic traits was assessed in terms of differential continuity (rank-order), absolute stability (mean-level) and individual-level change (Reliable Change Index). Results confirmed that psychopathic traits remained moderately to highly stable from childhood to adolescence (p < .001). There were, however, some differences depending on the informant (parents vs. teachers) and the particular assessment method used (rank order vs. mean-level and RCI). A stable high and an increasing developmental pattern of psychopathic traits were related with severe adolescent behavioral and psychosocial problems (ŋ² = .10-.36). These results support the usefulness of youth psychopathic personality as a developmental construct, and highlight its relevance as a predictor of long-lasting maladjustment, with relevant implications in terms of prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Comportamento Social
13.
Psicol. conduct ; 20(3): 603-623, sept.-dic. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-113384

RESUMO

Durante la última década se ha generado un interés creciente por el análisis y comprensión de los mecanismos etiológicos relacionados con el desarrollo de rasgos psicopáticos en la infancia. A pesar de que los factores contextuales han sido escasamente analizados, ciertos planteamientos proponen que determinadas variables ambientales, entre las que cabe destacar las prácticas educativas parentales, juegan un papel relevante en la evolución y manifestación de la personalidad psicopática. En esta línea, el presente trabajo pretende analizar, por una parte, la relación existente entre rasgos psicopáticos y prácticas educativas parentales y, por otra, en qué medida los diversos estilos de socialización parental se relacionan con la personalidad psicopática. Para ello se han empleado los datos proporcionados por padres (173) y profesores (113) de 192 niños entre 6 y 11 años. Los resultados muestran la existencia de relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre prácticas y estilos de socialización parental y la presencia de rasgos psicopáticos a edades tempranas, tanto de tipo afectivo-interpersonal como conductual (AU)


During the last decade, a growing interest has been generated in the analysis and understanding of etiological mechanisms related to the development of psychopathic traits in childhood. Although contextual factors have been poorly studied, some approaches suggest that certain environmental factors, namely parenting practices, may play an important role in the development and expressions of psychopathic personality. In this line, this study aims to analyze, firstly, the relationship between psychopathic traits and parenting practices and, secondly, to what extent the different styles of parental socialization are related to psychopathic personality in childhood. To achieve this objective, data were collected from parents (173) and teachers (113) about 192 children (aged 6-11 years). The results show the existence of statistically significant relationships between parenting practices/styles, and the presence of psychopathic traits, both affective-interpersonal and behavioral, at early ages


Assuntos
Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Relações Familiares , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Youth Adolesc ; 41(11): 1397-408, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22865303

RESUMO

Child and youth conduct problems are known to be a heterogeneous category that implies different factors and processes. The current study aims to analyze whether the early manifestation of psychopathic traits designates a group of children with severe, pervasive and persistent conduct problems. To this end, cluster analysis was conducted in a sample of 138 children (27.6 % female), aged 6-11 at the first wave of the study (T1) and 12-17 in a follow-up carried out 6 years later (T2). Results allowed the identification of four distinctive clusters: Primarily externalizing, Externalizing-psychopathic, Primarily psychopathic and Non-problematic. As was expected, the Externalizing-psychopathic cluster showed the most severe and persistent pattern of behavioral, temperamental and social disruptions across the 6 years of the study. Early psychopathic traits seemed also to be relevant in predicting higher levels of conduct problems in T2, even when conduct disorders had not manifested in T1. These results highlight the role of psychopathic traits in predicting adolescent psychosocial disorders and the relevance to analyze them at early developmental stages.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Transtorno da Conduta/classificação , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Testes Psicológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ajustamento Social , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
An. psicol ; 28(2): 629-637, mayo-ago. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-102844

RESUMO

Tradicionalmente las prácticas educativas disfuncionales han sido confirmadas como una de las fuentes de riesgo más importantes de los problemas de conducta infanto-juveniles. Por otra parte, en la última década se ha corroborado la importancia de la manifestación temprana de rasgos psicopáticos a la hora de delimitar los patrones más graves y persistentes de conducta antisocial. En esta línea, se ha diseñado el presente trabajo a partir de la información proporcionada por padres y profesores de 192 niños entre 6 y 11 años, de los cuales 133 fueron nuevamente evaluados en un seguimiento realizado tres años después. De este modo, se analiza en qué medida rasgos psicopáticos y prácticas parentales permiten predecir el desarrollo de los problemas de conducta, se examinan las posibles interacciones entre variables partiendo de las hipótesis que la escasa literatura sobre el tema ha formulado, y se realiza una aproximación al papel diferencial que rasgos psicopáticos y prácticas parentales parecen jugar en la trayectoria evolutiva de las conductas externalizantes. Los resultados obtenidos constatan la existencia de interacciones entre rasgos psicopáticos y prácticas parentales, de forma que las prácticas educativas pierden poder predictivo sobre los problemas de conducta ante la presencia de rasgos psicopáticos afectivo-interpersonales (AU)


Dysfunctional parenting practices have been evidenced as one of the most important sources of risk for child and adolescent behavioural problems. On the other hand, during the last decade, psychopathic traits have also been shown as important ingredients in order to identify the most severe and persistent patterns of antisocial behaviours. In this line, this study was developed taking into account data collected from parents and teachers about 192 children (aged 6-11 years); a follow up which take place three years later could collect new data on a subsample of 133 children. This study analyzes to what extent psychopathic traits and parenting practices predict the development of behavioural problems. Moreover, interactions among psychopathic traits and family variables are examined, on the basis of the hypotheses suggested by previous studies about the differential role placed by these factors in the developmental pathways of externalizing problems. Results confirm the existence of interactions between psychopathic traits and parenting practices, leading to a loss of influence of educational practices on behavioural problems in the presence of psychopathic affective-interpersonal traits (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , /métodos , /psicologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia
16.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 23(4): 660-665, oct.-dic. 2011. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-91426

RESUMO

Los problemas de conducta constituyen uno de los fenómenos más analizados durante la infancia y la adolescencia. Dada su heterogeneidad, durante las últimas décadas se ha planteado la necesidad de delimitar los problemas de conducta de inicio temprano a partir de la manifestación de rasgos afectivos, interpersonales y conductuales similares a los que definen la psicopatía adulta. El presente trabajo pretende analizar, desde una perspectiva transversal y longitudinal, si la manifestación temprana de rasgos psicopáticos permite distinguir a un grupo de sujetos con problemas conductuales más severos y persistentes. Para ello, se analizaron los datos obtenidos en una muestra de 192 niños de entre 6 y 11 años, de los cuales 133 fueron nuevamente evaluados en un seguimiento realizado tres años después. A partir de los resultados obtenidos en el mCPS y CBCL (padres) y en el APSD y TRF (profesores), se observó que los niños que manifestaban rasgos psicopáticos de forma temprana presentaban mayor frecuencia, gravedad y persistencia de problemas de conducta. Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de tener en cuenta el papel de los rasgos psicopáticos, especialmente de tipo afectivo-interpersonal, como factor de riesgo con el que delimitar los patrones más severos y persistentes de conducta externalizante (AU)


Conduct problems are among the most discussed behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence. Given their heterogeneity, in recent years, researchers on this topic have called for delineation of early-onset conduct problems on the basis of affective, interpersonal and behavioral traits that resemble adult psychopathy. The present study aims to analyze, from both a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective, whether early psychopathic traits allow identification of a group of individuals defined by severe and persistent behavioral problems. To achieve this goal, data from a sample of 192 children (aged 6 to 11) were analyzed; from this sample, 133 children were followed-up in a new data collection that took place three years later. From the data obtained with the mCPS and CBCL (parents), and APSD and TRF (teachers), we observed that children who showed early psychopathic traits, also showed greater frequency, severity and persistence of conduct problems. These results suggest the need to take into account the role of psychopathic traits (particularly, affective and interpersonal) as risk factors to delimit the most serious and persistent patterns of externalizing behavior (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Longitudinais
17.
Psicothema ; 23(4): 660-5, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22047855

RESUMO

Conduct problems are among the most discussed behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence. Given their heterogeneity, in recent years, researchers on this topic have called for delineation of early-onset conduct problems on the basis of affective, interpersonal and behavioral traits that resemble adult psychopathy. The present study aims to analyze, from both a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective, whether early psychopathic traits allow identification of a group of individuals defined by severe and persistent behavioral problems. To achieve this goal, data from a sample of 192 children (aged 6 to 11) were analyzed; from this sample, 133 children were followed-up in a new data collection that took place three years later. From the data obtained with the mCPS and CBCL (parents), and APSD and TRF (teachers), we observed that children who showed early psychopathic traits, also showed greater frequency, severity and persistence of conduct problems. These results suggest the need to take into account the role of psychopathic traits (particularly, affective and interpersonal) as risk factors to delimit the most serious and persistent patterns of externalizing behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/complicações , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
J Genet Psychol ; 172(4): 440-6, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22256687

RESUMO

Recent studies have emphasized the need to consider psychosocial and motivational variables in the study of antisocial behavior in adolescents. Thus, several studies have highlighted the importance of reputation management as a possible explanatory factor. This process of reputation management enables young people to form an image of themselves that they may use in their social interactions. In this study the authors carried out an investigation with data from a sample of 493 adolescents and analyzed (a) the relationships between adolescent reputation management and antisocial behavior and (b) the role of gender in this relationship. The results revealed that a perceived social identity as nonconforming was the best predictor of adolescent antisocial behavior, especially for girls, The data support previous findings on the importance of considering the establishment and management of reputation in the analysis of adolescent antisocial behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Social , Conformidade Social , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Identificação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Span J Psychol ; 13(1): 166-77, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20480686

RESUMO

In recent years, psychological research has emphasized the role of goals in adolescent development and, particularly, in the development of socially adapted lifestyles. Along those lines, the present study, analyzing data collected from a sample of 488 participants, explores: a) The structure of adolescent goals and their importance for young people, b) The relationship between adolescent goals and antisocial behavior and c) The role of gender in this relationship. The results show that adolescent goals are structured according to 6 factors: Social Recognition, Emancipation, Education, Physical-Athletic, Antisocial and Interpersonal-Familial. Educational and emancipative goals appear to be most important for young people. In addition, it has been found that there are significant correlations between certain types of goals and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as significant gender differences. The data reflect the need to incorporate motivational dimensions into explanatory models of adolescent behavioral problems.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Aspirações Psicológicas , Objetivos , Motivação , Logro , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Individualidade , Intenção , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria , Conformidade Social , Identificação Social , Espanha
20.
Span. j. psychol ; 13(1): 166-177, mayo 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-79637

RESUMO

In recent years, psychological research has emphasized the role of goals in adolescent development and, particularly, in the development of socially adapted lifestyles. Along those lines, the present study, analyzing data collected from a sample of 488 participants, explores: a) The structure of adolescent goals and their importance for young people, b) The relationship between adolescent goals and antisocial behavior and c) The role of gender in this relationship. The results show that adolescent goals are structured according to 6 factors: Social Recognition, Emancipation, Education, Physical-Athletic, Antisocial and Interpersonal-Familial. Educational and emancipative goals appear to be most important for young people. In addition, it has been found that there are significant correlations between certain types of goals and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as significant gender differences. The data reflect the need to incorporate motivational dimensions into explanatory models of adolescent behavioral problems (AU)


En los últimos años, la investigación ha enfatizado el papel que las metas desempeñan en el desarrollo adolescente y, particularmente, en el desarrollo de estilos de vida socialmente adaptados. Dentro del estudio de la conducta antisocial, cada vez se reclama una mayor atención a los aspectos motivacionales implicados en su génesis y mantenimiento. En esta línea, el presente estudio, partiendo de los datos recogidos en una muestra de 488 participantes, analizó: a) la estructura de las metas adolescentes y la importancia que los jóvenes conceden a distintos tipos de metas; b) la relación entre metas adolescentes y conducta antisocial; c) el papel del género en la relación metas-conducta antisocial. Los resultados muestran como las metas adolescentes presentan una estructura definida en 6 factores: Reconocimiento Social, Emancipativas, Educativas, Físico-Deportivas, Antisociales e Interpersonales-Familiares. Las metas educativas y las emancipativas aparecen como las más importantes para los jóvenes. Se constata la existencia de relaciones significativas entre determinados tipos de metas y la conducta antisocial adolescente, así como diferencias significativas en función del género. Los datos avalan la importancia de incorporar las dimensiones motivacionales dentro de los modelos explicativos de los problemas de conducta adolescente (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Objetivos , Motivação , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos
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