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1.
J Comp Pathol ; 180: 73-78, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222877

RESUMO

Mycobacteriosis has been rarely described in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Here we present two cases of intestinal mycobacteriosis from north-eastern Germany. The first adult rabbit was euthanized due to severe cardiovascular failure, hypothermia and chronic weight loss. Necropsy revealed cachexia and a focal, fibrinonecrotic lesion in the caecum. Histologically, severe granulomatous inflammation, with numerous multinucleated giant cells and abundant acid-fast bacilli, was detected under the fibrinonecrotic material in the abdominal wall adjacent to the caecal lesion, caecal lymph nodes, spleen, liver and lungs. Microbiological culture detected Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium disporicum and Bacteroides ovatus. A retrospective assessment of 2,013 other pet rabbit necropsies, performed between 1995 and 2019, revealed one additional case of intestinal mycobacteriosis. This animal had been euthanized due to persistent hindlimb lameness and necropsy revealed comminuted fractures of the pelvic bones and multiple large liquefied abscess-like lesions in the caecal and colonic walls. Histology revealed granulomatous inflammation with acid-fast bacilli. Polymerase chain reaction on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue identified the presence of M. avium spp. In contrast to European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from Scotland, these findings indicate that intestinal mycobacteriosis is rare in pet rabbits from north-eastern Germany. Zoonotic potential should be considered due to the close contact between pets and their owners and the chronic course of the disease with an initial lack of clinical signs.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14787, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901059

RESUMO

Functionality of the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system is an important factor promoting either acute or chronic infections by the notorious opportunistic human and veterinary pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Spontaneous alterations of the agr system are known to frequently occur in human healthcare-associated S. aureus lineages. However, data on agr integrity and function are sparse regarding other major clonal lineages. Here we report on the agr system functionality and activity level in mecC-carrying methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) of various animal origins (n = 33) obtained in Europe as well as in closely related human isolates (n = 12). Whole genome analysis assigned all isolates to four clonal complexes (CC) with distinct agr types (CC599 agr I, CC49 agr II, CC130 agr III and CC1943 agr IV). Agr functionality was assessed by a combination of phenotypic assays and proteome analysis. In each CC, isolates with varying agr activity levels were detected, including the presence of completely non-functional variants. Genomic comparison of the agr I-IV encoding regions associated these phenotypic differences with variations in the agrA and agrC genes. The genomic changes were detected independently in divergent lineages, suggesting that agr variation might foster viability and adaptation of emerging MRSA lineages to distinct ecological niches.

3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745334

RESUMO

This report describes an outbreak of Elizabethkingia miricola in northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and three other species of frogs and toads held in captivity in Germany. The authors examine several treatment options and underline the difficulties in treating larger numbers of individuals with antimicrobials applied through bathing. Whole genome sequencing of three bacterial isolates emphasizes their relatedness to other frog isolates and leads us to conclude that E. miricola is an emerging and difficult to treat pathogen with a broad host range across anuran species. Moreover, ambiguities in identification of flavobacteria associated with disease in frogs reported in the literature make it seem possible that E. miricola has been overlooked as an anuran pathogen in the past.

4.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108687, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402352

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have recently emerged as a major therapeutic challenge in small animal medicine because of their antimicrobial multidrug resistance and their role as nosocomial pathogens. This study focused on the prevalence, molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of MRSP isolated from conjunctival swabs of dogs and cats. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 72 dogs and 24 cats suffering from conjunctivitis/blepharitis, keratitis or uveitis and screened for the presence of MRSP. S. pseudintermedius was isolated from 38 (39.6 %) of all samples. Three (7.9 %) S. pseudintermedius isolates were confirmed as MRSP. They harboured the mecA gene and originated from dogs. One MRSP isolate was from a case of uveitis while the other two MRSP isolates originated from cases of conjunctivitis/blepharitis. All MRSP isolates were subjected to broth microdilution and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Resistance and virulence genes, multilocus sequence (MLS), spa, dru and SCCmec types were deduced from WGS data. Two of the three MRSP isolates, IMT360/16 and IMT515/16, shared the same MLS type (ST71), spa type (t02), dru type (dt9a), SCCmec type (II-III), and indistinguishable multidrug resistance pheno- and genotypes, including resistance to ß-lactams (blaZ, mecA), erythromycin and clindamycin (erm(B)), streptomycin (aphA3), gentamicin (aacA-aphD), enrofloxacin (mutations in grlA and gyrA), tetracycline (tet(K)), and trimethoprim (dfrG)/sulfamethoxazole. The third isolate, IMT1670/16, differed in all those characteristics (MLST (ST1403), dru type (dt10h), SCCmec type (IVg), except the spa type (t02). In addition, isolate IMT1670/16 carried a different tetracycline resistance gene (tet(M)) and was susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin.

6.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108600, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122605

RESUMO

Based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), correct classifications as susceptible, intermediate or resistant are challenging for some antimicrobial agent-bacterial species combinations. In this study, we investigated 19 equine Staphylococcus aureus isolates for their susceptibility to the combination sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT) by using broth microdilution (BMD), agar disk diffusion (DD) and automated test systems. To elucidate the presence of the corresponding genetic resistance properties among the isolates, whole genome sequence analysis was performed and the genomes were screened for trimethoprim (TMP) resistance genes and mutations in the deduced FolP amino acid (aa) sequences, known to confer sulfonamide resistance. To check for hetero-resistance, zone diameters in DD were screened after 18 and 42 h of incubation. All 19 isolates harboured one of the TMP resistance genes dfrG or dfrS1. Three isolates had an aa exchange in their FolP aa sequence (F17L), which has previously been described to result in sulfonamide resistance. These isolates were classified as SXT-resistant by all methods. The remaining 16 isolates were classified as SXT-susceptible or -intermediate (BMD and/or DD) or SXT-resistant (mainly automated test systems). None of the isolates had relevant aa variations in their FolP aa sequences. All 19 isolates showed slight growth within their SXT inhibition zone by DD, pointing towards hetero-resistance. Overall, automated test systems classified isolates lacking genetic resistance determinants more frequently as SXT-resistant than DD and BMD. Therefore, further studies are needed to define a reliable method for SXT susceptibility testing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cavalos/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 87: 102927, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172917

RESUMO

Surgical site infection (SSI) with multiresistant bacteria is an important cause of postoperative morbidity after laparotomy in horses. The objective of this study was to identify bacteria isolates and their antibiotic resistance patterns associated with the development of wound infection in horses after laparotomy. This is a retrospective case series. Medical records of horses that underwent ventral midline exploratory laparotomy in a four-year period at one equine hospital were reviewed. Results of microbiologic culture and susceptibility testing are described. The study group consisted of 183 (100%) horses that recovered from anesthesia after laparotomy. The prevalence of infection was 19% (24/124) after first surgery and 83% (19/23) after relaparotomy. The most common microbial isolates were bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae followed by Staphylococcus ssp., Enterococcus ssp., Streptococcus ssp., and Bacteroides ssp. Bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae showed the lowest resistance to amphenicols, cephalosporins, and quinolones groups of antibiotics. Coagulase-positive Staphylococci were sensitive to amphenicols and only 33% were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The most commonly used perioperative and postoperative antibiotics were gentamicin and amoxicillin. Limitations include poor control over exposure factors, covariates, and potential confounders during the surgery, recovery time, or period of hospitalization; relying on others for accurate outcome assessment and recordkeeping; lack of follow-up information once animals were discharged from the hospital. Despite 5 days of antibiotic prophylaxis, the rate of incisional infection is still high. The most common isolates from SSI belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae and the genus Staphylococcus, which showed high resistance to the antibiotics used before the gastrointestinal surgery.

8.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(7)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054701

RESUMO

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strain 13-13613, isolated from a case of canine pyoderma. The draft genome contains 2,533,486 bp in 570 contigs.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2734, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849886

RESUMO

Strategies to reduce economic losses associated with post-weaning diarrhea in pig farming include high-level dietary zinc oxide supplementation. However, excessive usage of zinc oxide in the pig production sector was found to be associated with accumulation of multidrug resistant bacteria in these animals, presenting an environmental burden through contaminated manure. Here we report on zinc tolerance among a random selection of intestinal Escherichia coli comprising of different antibiotic resistance phenotypes and sampling sites isolated during a controlled feeding trial from 16 weaned piglets: In total, 179 isolates from "pigs fed with high zinc concentrations" (high zinc group, [HZG]: n = 99) and a corresponding "control group" ([CG]: n = 80) were investigated with regard to zinc tolerance, antimicrobial- and biocide susceptibilities by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). In addition, in silico whole genome screening (WGSc) for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as well as biocide- and heavy metal tolerance genes was performed using an in-house BLAST-based pipeline. Overall, porcine E. coli isolates showed three different ZnCl2 MICs: 128 µg/ml (HZG, 2%; CG, 6%), 256 µg/ml (HZG, 64%; CG, 91%) and 512 µg/ml ZnCl2 (HZG, 34%, CG, 3%), a unimodal distribution most likely reflecting natural differences in zinc tolerance associated with different genetic lineages. However, a selective impact of the zinc-rich supplemented diet seems to be reasonable, since the linear mixed regression model revealed a statistically significant association between "higher" ZnCl2 MICs and isolates representing the HZG as well as "lower ZnCl2 MICs" with isolates of the CG (p = 0.005). None of the zinc chloride MICs was associated with a particular antibiotic-, heavy metal- or biocide- tolerance/resistance phenotype. Isolates expressing the 512 µg/ml MIC were either positive for ARGs conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, or harbored no ARGs at all. Moreover, WGSc revealed a ubiquitous presence of zinc homeostasis and - detoxification genes, including zitB, zntA, and pit. In conclusion, we provide evidence that zinc-rich supplementation of pig feed selects for more zinc tolerant E. coli, including isolates harboring ARGs and biocide- and heavy metal tolerance genes - a putative selective advantage considering substances and antibiotics currently used in industrial pork production systems.

10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540335

RESUMO

The detection of borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) represents a challenge to both, veterinary and human laboratories. Between 2015 and 2017, 19 equine S. aureus with elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations for oxacillin were detected in routine diagnostics. The aim of this study was to characterize these isolates to identify factors possibly associated with the BORSA phenotype. All S. aureus were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole genome sequencing (WGS). A quantifiable ß-lactamase activity assay was performed for a representative subset of 13 isolates. The WGS data analysis of the 19 BORSA isolates identified two different genomic lineages, sequence type (ST) 1 and ST1660. The core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) revealed a close relatedness of all isolates belonging to either ST1 or ST1660. The WGS analysis identified the resistance genes aadD, dfrG, tet(L), and/or blaZ and aacA-aphD. Phenotypic resistance to penicillins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in the respective isolates. For the penicillin-binding proteins 1-4, amino acid substitutions were predicted using WGS data. Since neither transglycosylase nor transpeptidase domains were affected, these alterations might not explain the BORSA phenotype. Moreover, ß-lactamase activity was found to be associated with an inducible blaZ gene. The lineage-specific differences regarding the expression profiles were noted.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Cavalos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxacilina/farmacologia , Filogenia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
12.
Vet Pathol ; 56(1): 152-156, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131008

RESUMO

Acquired outpouches of the intestinal tract are referred to as pseudodiverticula or false pulsion diverticula. In contrast to true diverticula, in which the wall contains all layers of the intestinal tract, the wall of pseudodiverticula lacks the tunica muscularis. Smooth muscle hypertrophy of the small intestine is commonly considered a cause of pseudodiverticulosis in animals due to increased intraluminal pressure. This study reports pseudodiverticula associated with idiopathic smooth muscle hypertrophy of the small intestine in lagomorphs. Four domestic rabbits had single or multiple (up to 200) pseudodiverticula of various size in the small intestine. In all cases the tunica muscularis was diffusely thickened, significantly exceeding reference thickness of 14 rabbits (mean, 112.3 µm; range, 26.3-389.0 µm). Clinical signs were considered to be caused by severe necrosis and inflammation of the wall of large pseudodiverticula, leading to perforation with subsequent peritonitis and mesenteric and omental abscess formation in 2 cases.


Assuntos
Divertículo/veterinária , Hipertrofia/veterinária , Músculo Liso/patologia , Coelhos , Animais , Divertículo/patologia , Feminino , Hipertrofia/patologia , Masculino
13.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2516, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405574

RESUMO

Continuing introduction of multi-drug resistant, zoonotic pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in horse clinics challenges the biosafety of employees and animal patients. This study was aimed to determine the occurrence of mobile genetic elements facilitating survival in the early stages of invasive infection in different host species, including humans and horses, in MRSA carried by equine patients admitted to a large horse clinic. A total of 341 equine patients were investigated for carriage of MRSA by hygiene screening directly at hospital admission. MRSA were further investigated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, whole-genome sequencing and genomic composition, including virulence factors involved in immune evasion and host adaption. From a total of 340 validated specimens from equine nostrils, 3.5% yielded positive results for MRSA. All MRSA were found to be closely related belonging to sequence type (ST) 398_t011 with up to four additional antimicrobial resistances. All MRSA harbored a specific Staphylococcal Pathogenicity Island (SaPIbov5) involved in facilitating survival in ruminant and equine plasma. Moreover, a ß-hemolysin (hlb) converting ΦSa3 phage encoding the human-specific Immune Evasion Cluster (IEC) was present in 72% of the isolates. An equid-specific leukotoxin encoded by a further temperate phage (Saeq1) was only rarely detected (22%). Despite the absence of ß-hemolysin production for all IEC-positive ST398, a prominent hemolysis zone was demonstrable on sheep blood agar. Thus, IEC might remain undetected among the ST398 lineage, since the presence of IEC is commonly associated with reduction of hemolysis in S. aureus belonging to other genetic backgrounds. Here we describe MRSA-ST398 harboring different mobile genetic elements encoding variants of immune evasion factors and toxins previously shown to contribute to S. aureus invasive diseases in specific host species or ecologic niches. We suggest these combinations contribute to the adaptation of MRSA belonging to ST398 with respect to epidemic spread across different habitats and hosts, and may therefore confer a host "generalist" phenotype.

14.
Vet Microbiol ; 222: 1-6, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080662

RESUMO

Severe infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been increasingly recognized in virtually all fields of veterinary medicine. Our objective was to study the occurrence, phylogenetic relationships and antimicrobial resistance properties of MRSA isolated from ocular surfaces of horses prior to invasive procedures. Within a 49-week sampling period, ocular swabs obtained from 46 eyes of 44 horses, including eyes with clinical signs of conjunctivitis/blepharitis, keratitis or uveitis were screened for the presence of S. aureus. As a result, seven samples were positive for S. aureus (15.2%), with six of them being classified as MRSA (13%). In addition, all isolates were resistant or showed reduced susceptibility to tetracyclines, the aminoglycosides gentamicin and kanamycin, fluoroquinolones, and the combination sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Since a very close relationship between the MRSA isolates was assumed after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis employing the restriction endonuclease ApaI, whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to shed more light on the phylogenetic relationships and the molecular composition of all MRSA isolates. Analysis of WGS data revealed closely related MRSA belonging to sequence type 398, spa type t011 and dru type dt10q, harboring an SCCmec IV element and the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island SaPIbov5. Moreover, all MRSA were positive for a beta-hemolysin converting phage carrying genes of the immune evasion cluster (IEC). Since cases of eye infections due to MRSA were often associated with fatal outcomes, more research is needed with respect to the origin of MRSA isolated from ocular surfaces to implement sufficient barrier and infection control measures.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Olho/microbiologia , Cavalos/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Infecção Hospitalar , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Olho/patologia , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/microbiologia , Oftalmopatias/mortalidade , Ilhas Genômicas/genética , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(7): 1984-1988, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590400

RESUMO

Background: Drivers of antibiotic (AB) resistance (ABR) include outpatient treatment, hospital care and animal husbandry. During the first phase of the One Health project RAI (Responsible Antibiotic Use via Information and Communication) surveys were conducted in these sectors. Objectives: To compare perceptions and attitudes towards ABR among general practitioners (GPs), hospital physicians, veterinarians, pig farmers and the general public. Methods: Cross-sectional questions on AB use and ABR were integrated in group-specific surveys of GPs, hospital physicians, veterinarians, pig farmers and the German general population. Results: A total of 1789 participants (340 GPs, 170 hospital physicians, 215 pig farmers, 60 veterinarians and 1004 members of the public) responded. Each group tended to identify drivers of ABR as being from outside its own area of activity. Guidelines were shown to be an important information source for AB therapy for all prescriber groups, but the frequency of routine use differed (39% of GPs, 65% of hospital physicians and 53% of veterinarians). Regarding further information sources, hospital physicians preferred smartphone apps and e-learning, GPs preferred non-sponsored training and veterinarians preferred multidisciplinary networks and e-learning. Farmers were predominantly satisfied with existing solutions. Farmers had three times better basic knowledge of ABR and knew twice as many people with MDR organism problems than the general public. They also received information on ABR more often from their veterinarians than patients did from their doctors. Conclusions: This study reveals considerable differences in perceptions and attitudes to ABR among the groups investigated. The results can help to tailor future interventions. Furthermore, they promote mutual understanding and thus support the One Health approach.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos , Saúde Pública , Médicos Veterinários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos
16.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0193411, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in humans range from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening intestinal disease. Findings on C. difficile in various animal species and an overlap in ribotypes (RTs) suggest potential zoonotic transmission. However, the impact of animals for human CDI remains unclear. METHODS: In a large-scale survey we collected 1,447 fecal samples to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in small companion animals (dogs and cats) and their owners and to assess potential epidemiological links within the community. The Germany-wide survey was conducted from July 2012-August 2013. PCR ribotyping, Multilocus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) and PCR detection of toxin genes were used to characterize isolated C. difficile strains. A database was defined and logistic regression used to identify putative factors associated with fecal shedding of C. difficile. RESULTS: In total, 1,418 samples met the inclusion criteria. The isolation rates for small companion animals and their owners within the community were similarly low with 3.0% (25/840) and 2.9% (17/578), respectively. PCR ribotyping revealed eight and twelve different RTs in animals and humans, respectively, whereas three RTs were isolated in both, humans and animals. RT 014/0, a well-known human hospital-associated lineage, was predominantly detected in animal samples. Moreover, the potentially highly pathogenic RTs 027 and 078 were isolated from dogs. Even though, C. difficile did not occur simultaneously in animals and humans sharing the same household. The results of the epidemiological analysis of factors associated with fecal shedding of C. difficile support the hypothesis of a zoonotic potential. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular characterization and epidemiological analysis revealed that the zoonotic risk for C. difficile associated with dogs and cats within the community is low but cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Clostridium/transmissão , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Zoonoses , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , /genética , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ribotipagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(5): 1217-1221, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29394397

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate Aeromonas spp. isolates for the presence of the novel resistance gene mcr-3 or variants thereof and to characterize the positive isolates by whole genome sequence analysis. Methods: A total of 479 unrelated Aeromonas isolates were investigated by PCR for the genes mcr-1, mcr-2 and mcr-3. Positive isolates were investigated for their colistin MICs. Species assignment was based on sequence analysis of 16s rRNA and gyrB and rpoB genes. The mcr-carrying contigs obtained by WGS were analysed for the genetic environments of the mcr genes. Results: Four (0.84%) Aeromonas isolates were positive in the mcr-3-specific PCR assay, whereas none of the isolates harboured mcr-1 or mcr-2. Each of the four mcr-3 genes encoded a novel variant, which showed amino acid identities of 95.0%-98.0% to the original Mcr-3 protein. These variants were designated Mcr-3.6 [Aeromonas allosaccharophila from golden orfe (Leuciscus idus)], Mcr-3.7 [Aeromonas media from turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)], Mcr-3.8 [Aeromonas jandaei from koi carp (Cyprinus carpio)] and Mcr-3.9 [Aeromonas hydrophila from koi carp]. The isolate harbouring the mcr-3.9 gene carried an additional mcr-3.8 gene and showed a distinctly higher colistin MIC of ≥128 mg/L than all other isolates. The genetic environments of the mcr-3 variant genes in all four isolates differed, but in part resembled the flanking regions of mcr-3.3 from Aeromonas veronii of chicken meat. Conclusions: This study identified four novel Mcr-3 variants. The isolates carrying the respective genes dated back to 2005 suggesting that this gene has existed for more than 12 years.


Assuntos
Aeromonas/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Aeromonas/classificação , Aeromonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aeromonas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência , Perus , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191873, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381714

RESUMO

Pathogens frequently associated with multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from horses admitted to horse clinics, pose a risk for animal patients and personnel in horse clinics. To estimate current rates of colonization, a total of 341 equine patients were screened for carriage of zoonotic indicator pathogens at hospital admission. Horses showing clinical signs associated with colic (n = 233) or open wounds (n = 108) were selected for microbiological examination of nostril swabs, faecal samples and wound swabs taken from the open wound group. The results showed alarming carriage rates of Gram-negative MDR pathogens in equine patients: 10.7% (34 of 318) of validated faecal specimens were positive for ESBL-E (94%: ESBL-producing Escherichia coli), with recorded rates of 10.5% for the colic and 11% for the open wound group. 92.7% of the ESBL-producing E. coli were phenotypically resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. A. baumannii was rarely detected (0.9%), and all faecal samples investigated were negative for Salmonella, both directly and after two enrichment steps. Screening results for the equine nostril swabs showed detection rates for ESBL-E of 3.4% among colic patients and 0.9% in the open wound group, with an average rate of 2.6% (9/340) for both indications. For all 41 ESBL-producing E. coli isolated, a broad heterogeneity was revealed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and whole genome sequencing (WGS) -analysis. However, a predominance of sequence type complex (STC)10 and STC1250 was observed, including several novel STs. The most common genes associated with ESBL-production were identified as blaCTX-M-1 (31/41; 75.6%) and blaSHV-12 (24.4%). The results of this study reveal a disturbingly large fraction of multi-drug resistant and ESBL-producing E. coli among equine patients, posing a clear threat to established hygiene management systems and work-place safety of veterinary staff in horse clinics.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Cavalos/microbiologia , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos
19.
Gut Pathog ; 10: 52, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598701

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is by far one of the most important health threats of our time. Only a global concerted effort of several disciplines based on the One-Health concept will help in slowing down this process and potentially mitigate the ruin of healthcare we have come to enjoy. In this review, we attempt to summarize the most basic and important topics that serve as good information tools to create Awareness. The Availability of antibiotics or the lack thereof is another significant factor that must be given thought, and finally because antibiotic resistance is a problem that will not go away, it is important to have Alternatives. Together, we have the 3As, essential concepts, in dealing with this growing and complex problem.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14581, 2017 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29109465

RESUMO

Habituation of wild great apes for tourism and research has had a significant positive effect on the conservation of these species. However, risks associated with such activities have been identified, specifically the transmission of human respiratory viruses to wild great apes, causing high morbidity and, occasionally, mortality. Here, we investigate the source of bacterial-viral co-infections in wild and captive chimpanzee communities in the course of several respiratory disease outbreaks. Molecular analyses showed that human respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV) and human metapneumoviruses (HMPV) were involved in the etiology of the disease. In addition our analysis provide evidence for coinfection with Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae. Characterisation of isolates from wild chimpanzees point towards a human origin of these bacteria. Transmission of these bacteria is of concern because - in contrast to HRSV and HMPV - S. pneumoniae can become part of the nasopharyngeal flora, contributing to the severity of respiratory disease progression. Furthermore these bacteria have the potential to spread to other individuals in the community and ultimately into the population. Targeted vaccination programs could be used to vaccinate habituated great apes but also human populations around great ape habitats, bringing health benefits to both humans and wild great apes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/microbiologia , Pan troglodytes/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/patologia , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/transmissão , Camarões , Costa do Marfim , Feminino , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/patologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/transmissão , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade
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