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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15224, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938969

RESUMO

The aerosol properties of Mount Etna's passive degassing plume and its short-term processes and radiative impact were studied in detail during the EPL-RADIO campaigns (summer 2016-2017), using a synergistic combination of observations and radiative transfer modelling. Summit observations show extremely high particulate matter concentrations. Using portable photometers, the first mapping of small-scale (within [Formula: see text] from the degassing craters) spatial variability of the average size and coarse-to-fine burden proportion of volcanic aerosols is obtained. A substantial variability of the plume properties is found at these spatial scales, revealing that processes (e.g. new particle formation and/or coarse aerosols sedimentation) are at play, which are not represented with current regional scale modelling and satellite observations. Statistically significant progressively smaller particles and decreasing coarse-to-fine particles burden proportion are found along plume dispersion. Vertical structures of typical passive degassing plumes are also obtained using observations from a fixed LiDAR station constrained with quasi-simultaneous photometric observations. These observations are used as input to radiative transfer calculations, to obtain the shortwave top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiative effect of the plume. For a plume with an ultraviolet aerosol optical depth of 0.12-0.14, daily average radiative forcings of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], at TOA and surface, are found at a fixed location [Formula: see text] downwind the degassing craters. This is the first available estimation in the literature of the local radiative impact of a passive degassing volcanic plume.

2.
Science ; 317(5835): 227-30, 2007 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17626881

RESUMO

Strombolian-type eruptive activity, common at many volcanoes, consists of regular explosions driven by the bursting of gas slugs that rise faster than surrounding magma. Explosion quakes associated with this activity are usually localized at shallow depth; however, where and how slugs actually form remain poorly constrained. We used spectroscopic measurements performed during both quiescent degassing and explosions on Stromboli volcano (Italy) to demonstrate that gas slugs originate from as deep as the volcano-crust interface (approximately 3 kilometers), where both structural discontinuities and differential bubble-rise speed can promote slug coalescence. The observed decoupling between deep slug genesis and shallow (approximately 250-meter) explosion quakes may be a common feature of strombolian activity, determined by the geometry of plumbing systems.

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