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1.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 127, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the relation between ALT, AST, GGT and ALP with diabetes in the Rafsanjan Cohort Study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is a cross-sectional research including 9991 adults participated via sampling. We used data obtained from the Rafsanjan Cohort Study (RCS), as a part of the prospective epidemiological research studies in IrAN (PERSIAN). Elevated serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and ALP were defined according to the reference range of the laboratory in the cohort center. Serum liver enzymes levels within the normal range were categorized into quartiles, and their relationship with diabetes was evaluated by logistic regressions. FINDINGS: In present study, elevated serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT, and ALP were associated with increased odds of diabetes (adjusted ORs: 1.81, 95%CI 1.51-2.17; 1.75, 95%CI 1.32-2.32; 1.77, 95%CI 1.50-2.08; 1.60, 95%CI 1.35-1.90 respectively). Also, in subjects with normal levels of ALT, GGT and ALP, a dose-response increase was shown for diabetes. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of ALT, AST, GGT and ALP are related to a higher odds of diabetes. Also, increased levels of ALT, GGT and ALP even within normal range were independently related with the increased odds of diabetes. These results indicated the potential of elevated liver enzymes as biomarkers for the possible presence of diabetes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564779

RESUMO

The contribution of children to viral spread in schools is still debated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to investigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the school setting. Literature searches on 15 May 2021 yielded a total of 1088 publications, including screening, contact tracing, and seroprevalence studies. MOOSE guidelines were followed, and data were analyzed using random-effects models. From screening studies involving more than 120,000 subjects, we estimated 0.31% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.81) SARS-CoV-2 point prevalence in schools. Contact tracing studies, involving a total of 112,622 contacts of children and adults, showed that onward viral transmission was limited (2.54%, 95% CI 0.76-5.31). Young index cases were found to be 74% significantly less likely than adults to favor viral spread (odds ratio (OR) 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.63) and less susceptible to infection (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.25-1.47). Lastly, from seroprevalence studies, with a total of 17,879 subjects involved, we estimated that children were 43% significantly less likely than adults to test positive for antibodies (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.49-0.68). These findings may not applied to the Omicron phase, we further planned a randomized controlled trial to verify these results.

3.
Food Funct ; 13(10): 5730-5738, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522943

RESUMO

Evidence suggests a role of serum cholesterol in prostate cancer (PCa) development and of lipid lowering medications in PCa risk reduction. We developed a score for adherence to an established cholesterol-lowering diet and evaluated its association with PCa risk in a multicentric hospital-based case-control study (1294 cases; 1451 matched controls) in Italy (1992-2001). The score was derived from seven dietary indicators which have been reported to lower cholesterol levels: high intake of non-cellulosic polysaccharides (viscous fibres), monounsaturated fatty acids, legumes, seeds/corn oil; low intake of saturated fatty acids, dietary cholesterol, and glycaemic index. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated through the unconditional logistic regression model. Although most of the dietary indicators alone were not significantly associated with reduced PCa risk, men who fulfilled 5 to 7 dietary indicators (187 cases and 281 controls) showed a 43% reduction in PCa risk compared to those with 0 to 2 indicators (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.43-0.77). This association was not modified by socio-demographic characteristics or lifestyle factors. In conclusion, adherence to a cholesterol-lowering diet is a favourable factor against the risk of PCa, providing support to dietary guidelines that promote cholesterol reduction through plant-based diets.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neoplasias da Próstata , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol , Colesterol na Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle
4.
Med Lav ; 113(2): e2022021, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New releases of daily mortality data are available in Italy; the last containing data up to 31 January 2022. This study revises previous estimates of the excess mortality in Italy during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: Excess mortality was estimated as the difference between the number of registered deaths and the expected deaths. Expected deaths in March-December 2020, January-December 2021 and January 2022 were estimated separately by sex, through an over-dispersed Poisson regression model using mortality and population data for the period 2011-2019. The models included terms for calendar year, age group, a smooth function of week of the year and the natural logarithm of the population as offset term. RESULTS: We estimated 99,334 excess deaths (+18.8%) between March and December 2020, 61,808 deaths (+9.5%) in 2021 and 4143 deaths (+6.1%) in January 2022. Over the whole pandemic period, 13,039 excess deaths (+10.2%) were estimated in the age group 25-64 years with most of the excess observed among men [10,025 deaths (+12.6%) among men and 3014 deaths (+6.3%) among women]. CONCLUSIONS: Up to 31 January 2022, over 165 thousand excess deaths were estimated in Italy, of these about 8% occurred among the working age population. Despite high vaccination uptake, excess mortality is still observed in recent months.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Med Lav ; 113(2): e2022018, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy is the main barrier to the effective management of COVID-19. This study aims to evaluate attitudes towards vaccination and containment measures in Italy, and the role of occupational physicians in the management of COVID-19. METHODS: Between 26 and 31 January 2022, we conducted a national online survey including 1000 respondents (631 workers) representative of the Italian population. A series of questions were asked to get information on attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination, containment measures and management of COVID-19. Sampling weights were used to obtain national estimates. RESULTS: The majority of respondents (92.6%) received at least two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (or one dose of Janssen, Ad26.COV2.S), only 4.9% did not get any dose. Most interviewees (79.2%) stated that the decision to be vaccinated was their own choice, while only 4.3% were convinced by the general practitioner or the occupational physician. History of SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported by 23.9% of the participants (30.2% among workers); and 40% of the infected workers were contacted/visited by an occupational physician. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine uptake was remarkably high in Italy. Occupational physicians played a relevant role in the management of COVID-19 in occupational settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Médicos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
6.
Med Lav ; 113(2): e2022017, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the analysis of mortality of a cohort of dyestuff workers, in Northern Italy, heavily exposed to carcinogenic aromatic amines. METHODS: We updated to 2018 overall and cause-specific mortality in a cohort of 590 male workers heavily exposed to carcinogenic aromatic amines in a dyestuff factory from 1922 to 1972. Workers were censored at age 85. Expected cases for the period 1946-2018 were computed using Piedmont mortality rates and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed. RESULTS: Between 1946 and 2018, 470 deaths were reported. The overall SMR was 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-1.74) and SMR from all cancers was 2.05 (95% CI = 1.77-2.37); Compared to a previous report, there were 4 additional  deaths from bladder cancer,  for a total of 60 deaths compared  with 4.0 expected  (SMR 14.86, 95% CI 11.34-19.12).The SMR for bladder cancer increased with younger age at first exposure  and longer duration of exposure, while it  decreased with time since last exposure, albeit it was still 3.5, 30 or more years since last exposure. An increased risk was observed among workers exposed to fuchsine or ortho-toluidine (SMR=16.3; 95% CI = 6.0-35.5). CONCLUSIONS: This 73 year follow up confirms the results from previous analyses, with an increased overall mortality and, an increased mortality from all cancers and especially for bladder cancer. The excess risk of bladder cancer persisted several decades after stopping exposure.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aminas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente
7.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458225

RESUMO

Fish is among the foods exerting favourable effects on colorectal cancer (CRC), but the possible role of canned fish has been insufficiently investigated. We aimed to investigate the relationship between canned fish consumption and CRC risk. We analysed data from two case-control studies conducted between 1992 and 2010 in several Italian areas, comprising a total of 2419 incident cases and 4723 hospital controls. Canned fish consumption was analysed according to the weekly frequency of consumption as <1 serving per week (s/w) (reference category), 1 < 2 s/w, and ≥2 s/w. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression models, adjusting for several recognised confounding factors. Overall, canned fish consumption was lower among cases than among controls (23.8% vs. 28.6%). An inverse association was found between canned fish consumption and CRC risk with a significant trend in risk (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71-0.92 for intermediate consumption and OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.51-0.85 for the highest one), which was consistent across strata of several covariates. This study is the first to offer a basis of support for canned fish consumption as a component of a healthy diet, and it has relevant public health implications given the high ranking of CRC in incidence and mortality worldwide.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Peixes , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
8.
Oral Dis ; 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the pooled case-control data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium to compare cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption risk factors for head and neck cancer between less developed and more developed countries. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The location of each study was categorized as either a less developed or more developed country. We compared the risk of overall head and neck cancer and cancer of specific anatomic subsites associated with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Additionally, age and sex distribution between categories was compared. RESULTS: The odds ratios for head and neck cancer sites associated with smoking duration differed between less developed and more developed countries. Smoking greater than 20 years conferred a higher risk for oral cavity and laryngeal cancer in more developed countries, whereas the risk was greater for oropharynx and hypopharynx cancer in less developed countries. Alcohol consumed for more than 20 years conferred a higher risk for oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx cancer in less developed countries. The proportion of cases that were young (<45 years) or female differed by country type for some HNC subsites. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the degree of industrialization and economic development affects the relationship between smoking and alcohol with head and neck cancer.

9.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(5): 779-791, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304655

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies show that consuming foods preserved by salting increases the risk of gastric cancer, while results on the association between total salt or added salt and gastric cancer are less consistent and vary with the exposure considered. This study aimed to quantify the association between dietary salt exposure and gastric cancer, using an individual participant data meta-analysis of studies participating in the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project. METHODS: Data from 25 studies (10,283 cases and 24,643 controls) from the StoP Project with information on salt taste preference (tasteless, normal, salty), use of table salt (never, sometimes, always), total sodium intake (tertiles of grams/day), and high-salt and salt-preserved foods intake (tertiles of grams/day) were used. A two-stage approach based on random-effects models was used to pool study-specific adjusted (sex, age, and gastric cancer risk factors) odds ratios (aORs), and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Gastric cancer risk was higher for salty taste preference (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.25-2.03), always using table salt (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.16-1.54), and for the highest tertile of high-salt and salt-preserved foods intake (aOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.51) vs. the lowest tertile. No significant association was observed for the highest vs. the lowest tertile of total sodium intake (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 0.82-1.43). The results obtained were consistent across anatomic sites, strata of Helicobacter pylori infection, and sociodemographic, lifestyle and study characteristics. CONCLUSION: Salty taste preference, always using table salt, and a greater high-salt and salt-preserved foods intake increased the risk of gastric cancer, though the association was less robust with total sodium intake.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Neoplasias Gástricas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia
10.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 78: 102129, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cysts represent a common condition among women. Epidemiologic studies are inconsistent in determining if women with cysts are more likely to develop endometrial cancer (EC) regardless of overweight/obesity. We investigated the combined role of cysts and body mass index (BMI) on EC risk. METHODS: We pooled data from three case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland on 920 women with EC and 1700 controls. The prevalence of cysts was 5% among both cases and controls, with 63% of cases being overweight/obese. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. We conducted stratified analyses according to BMI, and estimated the interaction between cysts and BMI; we carried out additional analyses according to age at diagnosis of cysts. RESULTS: Overall, history of cysts was not associated to EC (OR=1.27, 95% CI=0.82-1.97, P = 0.29). Normal weight women reporting cysts had an increased risk of EC (OR=2.49, 95% CI=1.31-4.74), while no such effect was found among overweight/obese women (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.36-1.18; P for interaction=0.004). The association was limited to women below 65 years of age and was stronger in those who reported cysts at age 48 or older. CONCLUSIONS: Cysts appeared to be a risk factor for EC in lean women but not in overweight/obese ones; these results are consistent with an effect of cysts and obesity on EC along common pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Cistos Ovarianos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Cistos Ovarianos/complicações , Cistos Ovarianos/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Fatores de Risco
11.
Helicobacter ; 27(3): e12883, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is the most important risk factor for non-cardia gastric cancer (NCGC); however, the magnitude of the association varies across epidemiological studies. This study aimed to quantify the association between H. pylori infection and NCGC, using different criteria to define infection status. METHODS: A pooled analysis of individual-level H. pylori serology data from eight international studies (1325 NCGC and 3121 controls) from the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Consortium was performed. Cases and controls with a negative H. pylori infection status were reclassified as positive considering the presence of anti-Cag A antibodies, gastric atrophy, or advanced stage at diagnosis, as available and applicable. A two-stage approach was used to pool study-specific adjusted odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A meta-analysis of published prospective studies assessing H. pylori seropositivity in NCGCs was conducted. RESULTS: The OR for the association between serology-defined H. pylori and NCGC was 1.45 (95% CI: 0.87-2.42), which increased to 4.79 (95% CI: 2.39-9.60) following the reclassification of negative H. pylori infection. The results were consistent across strata of sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and lifestyle factors, though significant differences were observed according to geographic region-a stronger association in Asian studies. The pooled risk estimates from the literature were 3.01 (95% CI: 2.22-4.07) for ELISA or EIA and 9.22 (95% CI: 3.12-27.21) for immunoblot or multiplex serology. CONCLUSION: The NCGC risk estimate from StoP based on the reclassification of H. pylori seronegative individuals is consistent with the risk estimates obtained from the literature. Our classification algorithm may be useful for future studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Neoplasias Gástricas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia
12.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(4): 264-272, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased in many countries and settings; however, mortality rates have remained stable at lower rates. This epidemiological pattern has been largely attributed to an overdiagnosis effect. Timely evidence for the global epidemiological status is necessary to identify the magnitude of this problem and the areas mostly affected by it. We therefore aimed to provide an up-to-date assessment on the global distribution of thyroid cancer incidence and mortality rates in 2020. METHODS: We extracted age-standardised incidence and mortality rates per 100 000 person-years of thyroid cancer as defined by the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology 10th Revision (code C73), for 185 countries or territories by sex and 18 age groups (ie, 0-4, 5-9, …, 80-84, and ≥85 years) from the GLOBOCAN database. Both incidence and mortality estimates were presented by country and aggregated across the 20 UN-defined world regions and according to the UN's four-tier Human Development Index (ie, low, medium, high, and very high) in 2020. FINDINGS: Globally, in 2020, the age-standardised incidence rates of thyroid cancer were 10·1 per 100 000 women and 3·1 per 100 000 men, and age-standardised mortality rates were 0·5 per 100 000 women and 0·3 per 100 000 men. In both sexes, incidence rates were five times higher in high and very high Human Development Index countries than in low and medium Human Development Index countries, whereas mortality rates were relatively similar across different settings. Incidence rates in women differed by more than 15 times across world regions, with the highest incidence rates being in the Federated States of Micronesia and French Polynesia (18·5 per 100 000 women), North America (18·4 per 100 000), and east Asia (17·8 per 100 000, with South Korea reaching 45 per 100 000). Mortality rates were less than one per 100 000 in most countries and in both sexes. South Korea had the highest incidence-to-mortality rate ratio in both sexes, followed by Cyprus and Canada. INTERPRETATION: The current thyroid cancer epidemiological landscape is strongly suggestive of a large effect of overdiagnosis in many countries and settings worldwide, confirming the relevance of thyroid cancer overdiagnosis as a global public health problem. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , América do Norte , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
14.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-19, 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317868

RESUMO

Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), a subgroup of the nine essential amino acids, have been associated to pancreatic cancer risk. The aim of this study is to estimate the relation between BCAA intake from diet and pancreatic cancer risk.We analysed data from a multicentric Italian case-control study, including 326 pancreatic cancer cases and 652 controls, matched to cases by study centre, sex and age. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the participants' usual diet before cancer diagnosis (or hospital admission for controls) and to compute dietary intakes of various nutrients, including BCAAs. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were computed through logistic regression models conditioned on the matching variables and adjusted for major confounding factors, including total energy intake.We found a positive association between the BCAA intake and pancreatic cancer risk (OR for the third quartile=1.88, 95% CI=1.08-3.26; OR for the fourth quartile =2.17, 95% CI=1.17-4.06), with a significant trend in risk. The association persisted after excluding subjects with diabetes and family history of pancreatic cancer, and across strata of selected covariates.These data support and quantify the association between dietary BCAAs and pancreatic cancer, previously suggested by studies on circulating BCAAs.

15.
Eur J Cancer ; 165: 1-12, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last three decades, cancer mortality has shown favourable patterns in Europe. Patterns and trends however have been less favourable for most eastern countries. METHODS: We computed cancer mortality rates in western (WE) and eastern European (EE) countries using the official mortality database of the World Health Organisation, using joinpoint regression models to identify significant changes in trends over time. RESULTS: Cancer mortality declined by 1-1.4% annually in WE since 1990, to reach an age-standardised rate (world standard) of 125.4/100,000 men and 81.3/100,000 women in 2016. In contrast, EE rates only started to decline around the 2000s in men and remained stable in women, to reach 171.9/100,000 men and 98.2/100,000 women. Lung cancer rates were 30.8/100,000 men and 14/100,000 women in WE versus 47.1/100,000 men and 15.2/100,000 women in EE. In relative terms, the mortality excess in EE increased from 32 to 37% in men and from 15 to 21% in women, compared with WE. The largest percent excesses were for cancers of the upper respiratory tract, stomach, intestines and lung in men and uterus in women. Prostate cancer rates increased in EE to reach 12.7/100,000 in 2016, whereas they decreased to 10.2/100,000 in WE. Compared with rates in 1990, over the period 1991-2016, about 3.9 million cancer deaths were avoided in WE, but no notable improvements was seen in EE. If cancer mortality rates in EE had been those observed in WE, over 55,000 deaths would have been avoided in 2016. CONCLUSION: Differences in lifestyle patterns, mainly smoking and alcohol, besides different roll-out of improvements in cancer diagnosis and management are the key determinants of the persisting difference in cancer mortality between western and eastern Europe. There is no evidence for the gap to close.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Fumar , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Cancer Med ; 11(8): 1850-1859, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the excess in lung cancer risk among lower socioeconomic status individuals has been widely described, the magnitude of this association across lung cancer subtypes, as well as histotype-related long-term incidence trends, are inconclusively reported. AIMS: We explored the variation in the incidence of the three main lung cancer histotypes (i.e. squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) by socioeconomic status (SES, i.e. upper and lower white collar, upper and lower blue collar, and farming/forestry/fishing) in the adult population of four Nordic countries (i.e. Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark). MATERIALS & METHODS: We have used data from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA), computing age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 person-years truncated at ages 50-69 years, by sex, histotype, country and SES, for the period 1971-2005. We estimated relative risks and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals through Poisson regression models, including terms for SES, age, sex and country, as indicated. RESULTS: A clear socioeconomic gradient, with a progressive increase in lung cancer risk as SES level decreases, was observed in all subtypes and in both sexes. Favourable lung cancer incidence trends were seen among men for squamous cell and small cell carcinomas, although for adenocarcinomas rates were increasing everywhere except for Finland. Among women, upward temporal trends were seen in all SES groups and for all subtypes, although rates increased to a greater extent for low, compared to high, SES, especially in Denmark and Norway. Farmers showed comparatively lower risks compared to other SES categories. DISCUSSION: This prospective cohort study shows that substantial socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of the most important lung cancer histotypes exist in the Nordic Countries, and that these inequalities are on the rise, especially among women. CONCLUSION: Smoking habits are likely to largely explain the observed social gradient for lung cancer histotypes in both sexes.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Classe Social
17.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of allium vegetables on gastric cancer (GC) risk remains unclear. METHODS: We evaluated whether higher intakes of allium vegetables reduce GC risk using individual participant data from 17 studies participating in the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project", including 6097 GC cases and 13,017 controls. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a two-stage modelling approach. RESULTS: Total allium vegetables intake was inversely associated with GC risk. The pooled OR for the highest versus the lowest study-specific tertile of consumption was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.56-0.90), with substantial heterogeneity across studies (I2 > 50%). Pooled ORs for high versus low consumption were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.55-0.86) for onions and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.75-0.93) for garlic. The inverse association with allium vegetables was evident in Asian (OR 0.50, 95% CI, 0.29-0.86) but not European (OR 0.96, 95% CI, 0.81-1.13) and American (OR 0.66, 95% CI, 0.39-1.11) studies. Results were consistent across all other strata. CONCLUSIONS: In a worldwide consortium of epidemiological studies, we found an inverse association between allium vegetables and GC, with a stronger association seen in Asian studies. The heterogeneity of results across geographic regions and possible residual confounding suggest caution in results interpretation.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of PCI for NSTE-ACS with CKD is unclear. The aim of our study was to assess whether early percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (within 24 hours from admission) is associated with improved in-hospital (mortality or acute kidney injury) and long-term events (composite of mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke and bleeding events) in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We retrospectively studied NSTE-ACS patients who underwent PCI in large tertiary centers. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 mL/min/1.73m2. A propensity score for the likelihood of an early invasive strategy was calculated. Relative risks (RR) and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for in-hospital and follow-up events. RESULTS: We included 821 patients, mean age was 69±12 years; 492 (60%) received an early PCI, and 273 (33%) had an eGFR <60. Median follow up was 391 days. At univariate analysis, early treatment was associated with significantly lower in-hospital and follow-up events. However, after adjustment for major prognostic factors, there was no significant association with both in-hospital (RR 1.06; 95% CI 0.83-1.36) and followup events (RR 1.07; 95% CI 0.83-1.37). When the association was assessed in strata of CKD, lack of statistically significant association was confirmed, even if a trend emerged in patients with preserved renal function both on primary outcome (RR 0.47, 95% 0.18-1.22) and time to secondary outcome (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.36-1.08). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion in a cohort of NSTE-ACS patients, an early invasive strategy does not independently affect prognosis.

19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(2): 435-443, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35225454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer continues to be  the leading cause of cancer-related deathworldwide. Have been reported high mortality rates from lung cancer in Latin America, but the disparities within the regions of Peru and under-reporting death certification reported prevent the inclusion of Peru in analysis of the mortality trends for lung cancer. We evaluated lung cancer mortality trends and smoking prevalence in Peru and its geographical areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained the data from the registry of the Peruvian Ministry of Health between 2008 and 2017. Mortality rates per 100,000 person-years were computed using the world's SEGI population and trends were analyzed using the Joinpoint regression Program Version 4.7.0. Smoking prevalence was estimated from the Demographic and Family Health Survey. RESULTS: In Peru, mortality rates were roughly 1.3 times higher in males than in females. The coast region had significant downward trends among males, whereas the highlands region had significant upward trends among females. According to provinces, Apurimac showed an annually significant rise in both sexes (+10.6% in males, and +11.6% in females). In general, smoking prevalence was higher in males compared to females, principally among young adults.   Conclusions: Peru showed downward mortality trends in the last decade with variability across regions. Males had a higher smoking prevalence, principally among young adults. Public health interventions for smoking reduction should be implemented to reduce lung cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros
20.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(5): 319-326, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027464

RESUMO

Although evidence suggests that a positive family history of bladder cancer in first-degree relatives is an important risk factor for bladder cancer occurrence, results remain unclear. The influence of family history of nonbladder cancers and more distant relatives on bladder cancer risk is inconsistent. This research, therefore, aims to increase the understanding of the association between family history and bladder cancer risk based on worldwide case-control studies. In total 4,327 cases and 8,948 non-cases were included. Pooled ORs, with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), were obtained using multilevel logistic regression models, adjusted by age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, and smoking pack-years. The results show bladder cancer risk increased by having a first- or second-degree relative affected with bladder cancer (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.55-4.77 and OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.22-2.40, respectively), and nonurologic cancers (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.19-2.18). Moreover, bladder cancer risk increased by number of cancers affected first-degree relatives (for 1 and >1 first-degree relatives: OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-2.04; OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.84-3.86, respectively). Our findings highlight an increased bladder cancer risk for a positive bladder cancer family history in first- and second-degree relatives, and indicate a possible greater effect for an increment of numbers of affected relatives. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: This study found a positive association between family history and bladder cancer in first- and second-degree relatives, with an added effect attributed to smoking. Given the detriments of bladder cancer, at-risk individuals should receive family history screening and tobacco cessation and avoidance counseling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
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