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1.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 37: 101478, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704546

RESUMO

Disease course in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is heterogeneous. The impact of dietary and nutritional factors on MS prognosis is of interest to both patients and clinicians; differences in diet are hypothesized to contribute to disease evolution over time. However, studying diet, especially in people with MS, introduces methodologic complexity that should be recognized. In this review, we focus on methodological aspects relevant to the conduct of dietary interventions in people with MS, given our experience in leading such studies and the challenges we encountered in the realization of this work. We summarize key aspects of study design and important considerations, regardless of the specifics of the actual study (e.g. the particular diet of interest, target MS population, etc.). We discuss strategies for the design of the intervention as well as the selection of appropriate study endpoints. Finally, we provide an overview of strategies to improve the rigor of conducting dietary studies in people with MS.

2.
Neurology ; 93(21): e1921-e1931, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We report analyses of a pooled database by the Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium to evaluate 4 proposed components of a multidimensional test battery. METHODS: Standardized data on 12,776 participants, comprising demographics, multiple sclerosis disease characteristics, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, performance measures, and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary (SF-36 PCS), were pooled from control and treatment arms of 14 clinical trials. Analyses of Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW), 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT), Low Contrast Letter Acuity (LCLA), and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) included measurement properties; construct, convergent, and known group validity; and longitudinal performance of the measures individually and when combined into a multidimensional test battery relative to the EDSS and SF-36 to determine sensitivity and clinical meaningfulness. RESULTS: The performance measures had excellent test-retest reliability and showed expected differences between subgroups based on disease duration and EDSS level. Progression rates in detecting time to 3-month confirmed worsening were lower for T25FW and 9HPT compared to EDSS, while progression rates for LCLA and SDMT were similar to EDSS. When the 4 measures were analyzed as a multidimensional measure rather than as individual measures, progression on any one performance measure was more sensitive than the EDSS. Worsening on the performance measures analyzed individually or as a multidimensional test battery was associated with clinically meaningful SF-36 PCS score worsening, supporting clinical meaningfulness of designated performance test score worsening. CONCLUSION: These results support the use of the 4 proposed performance measures, individually or combined into a multidimensional test battery as study outcome measures.

3.
Mult Scler ; 25(14): 1848-1869, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proliferation of computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs) for screening and monitoring cognitive impairment is increasing exponentially. Previous reviews of computerized tests for multiple sclerosis (MS) were primarily qualitative and did not rigorously compare CNADs on psychometric properties. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review the literature on the use of CNADs in MS and identify test batteries and single tests with good evidence for reliability and validity. METHOD: A search of four major online databases was conducted for publications related to computerized testing and MS. Test-retest reliability and validity coefficients and effect sizes were recorded for each CNAD test, along with administration characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 11 batteries and 33 individual tests from 120 peer-reviewed articles meeting the inclusion criteria. CNADs with the strongest psychometric support include the CogState Brief Battery, Cognitive Drug Research Battery, NeuroTrax, CNS-Vital Signs, and computer-based administrations of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. CONCLUSION: We identified several CNADs that are valid to screen for MS-related cognitive impairment, or to supplement full, conventional neuropsychological assessment. The necessity of testing with a technician, and in a controlled clinic/laboratory environment, remains uncertain.

4.
Neurology ; 92(10): e1029-e1040, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To generate a national multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence estimate for the United States by applying a validated algorithm to multiple administrative health claims (AHC) datasets. METHODS: A validated algorithm was applied to private, military, and public AHC datasets to identify adult cases of MS between 2008 and 2010. In each dataset, we determined the 3-year cumulative prevalence overall and stratified by age, sex, and census region. We applied insurance-specific and stratum-specific estimates to the 2010 US Census data and pooled the findings to calculate the 2010 prevalence of MS in the United States cumulated over 3 years. We also estimated the 2010 prevalence cumulated over 10 years using 2 models and extrapolated our estimate to 2017. RESULTS: The estimated 2010 prevalence of MS in the US adult population cumulated over 10 years was 309.2 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 308.1-310.1), representing 727,344 cases. During the same time period, the MS prevalence was 450.1 per 100,000 (95% CI 448.1-451.6) for women and 159.7 (95% CI 158.7-160.6) for men (female:male ratio 2.8). The estimated 2010 prevalence of MS was highest in the 55- to 64-year age group. A US north-south decreasing prevalence gradient was identified. The estimated MS prevalence is also presented for 2017. CONCLUSION: The estimated US national MS prevalence for 2010 is the highest reported to date and provides evidence that the north-south gradient persists. Our rigorous algorithm-based approach to estimating prevalence is efficient and has the potential to be used for other chronic neurologic conditions.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Diagnóstico por Computador , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Neurology ; 92(10): e1016-e1028, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid algorithm for identifying multiple sclerosis (MS) cases in administrative health claims (AHC) datasets. METHODS: We used 4 AHC datasets from the Veterans Administration (VA), Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), Manitoba (Canada), and Saskatchewan (Canada). In the VA, KPSC, and Manitoba, we tested the performance of candidate algorithms based on inpatient, outpatient, and disease-modifying therapy (DMT) claims compared to medical records review using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and interrater reliability (Youden J statistic) both overall and stratified by sex and age. In Saskatchewan, we tested the algorithms in a cohort randomly selected from the general population. RESULTS: The preferred algorithm required ≥3 MS-related claims from any combination of inpatient, outpatient, or DMT claims within a 1-year time period; a 2-year time period provided little gain in performance. Algorithms including DMT claims performed better than those that did not. Sensitivity (86.6%-96.0%), specificity (66.7%-99.0%), positive predictive value (95.4%-99.0%), and interrater reliability (Youden J = 0.60-0.92) were generally stable across datasets and across strata. Some variation in performance in the stratified analyses was observed but largely reflected changes in the composition of the strata. In Saskatchewan, the preferred algorithm had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 99%, positive predictive value of 99%, and negative predictive value of 96%. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of each algorithm was remarkably consistent across datasets. The preferred algorithm required ≥3 MS-related claims from any combination of inpatient, outpatient, or DMT use within 1 year. We recommend this algorithm as the standard AHC case definition for MS.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Diagnóstico por Computador , Registros Médicos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458518808204, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The need for more robust outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical trials has been a main priority of the field for decades. Dissatisfaction with existing measures has led to several consensus meetings and initiatives over the past few decades in hopes of defining and gaining acceptance of measures that are valid, reliable, sensitive to change and progression, and most importantly, relevant to those living with MS. The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) was formed for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the results of the MSOAC plan to obtain qualification for a cognitive performance measure that meets these requirements. METHODS: Using data from 14 MS disease-modifying registration trials, we completed a comprehensive examination of the psychometric qualities of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) with the goal of compiling evidence to support the utilization of one of these measures in future clinical trials. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Consistent with the published literature, the SDMT proved superior to the PASAT. The SDMT should be considered the measure of choice for MS trials in assessing cognitive processing speed.

7.
Mult Scler ; 24(13): 1665-1680, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303036

RESUMO

PURPOSE:: To promote understanding of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS), recommend optimal screening, monitoring, and treatment strategies, and address barriers to optimal management. METHODS:: The National MS Society ("Society") convened experts in cognitive dysfunction (clinicians, researchers, and lay people with MS) to review the published literature, reach consensus on optimal strategies for screening, monitoring, and treating cognitive changes, and propose strategies to address barriers to optimal care. RECOMMENDATIONS:: Based on current evidence, the Society makes the following recommendations, endorsed by the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers and the International Multiple Sclerosis Cognition Society: Increased professional and patient awareness/education about the prevalence, impact, and appropriate management of cognitive symptoms. For adults and children (8+ years of age) with clinical or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of neurologic damage consistent with MS: As a minimum, early baseline screening with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) or similarly validated test, when the patient is clinically stable; Annual re-assessment with the same instrument, or more often as needed to (1) detect acute disease activity; (2) assess for treatment effects (e.g. starting/changing a disease-modifying therapy) or for relapse recovery; (3) evaluate progression of cognitive impairment; and/or (4) screen for new-onset cognitive problems. For adults (18+ years): more comprehensive assessment for anyone who tests positive on initial cognitive screening or demonstrates significant cognitive decline, especially if there are concerns about comorbidities or the individual is applying for disability due to cognitive impairment. For children (<18 years): neuropsychological evaluation for any unexplained change in school functioning (academic or behavioral). Remedial interventions/accommodations for adults and children to improve functioning at home, work, or school.

8.
Trials ; 19(1): 309, 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and contributes to diminishing quality of life. Although currently available interventions have had limited success in relieving MS-related fatigue, clinically significant reductions in perceived fatigue severity have been reported in a multimodal intervention pilot study that included a Paleolithic diet in addition to stress reduction, exercise, and electrical muscle stimulation. An optimal dietary approach to reducing MS-related fatigue has not been identified. To establish the specific effects of diet on MS symptoms, this study focuses on diet only instead of the previously tested multimodal intervention by comparing the effectiveness of two dietary patterns for the treatment of MS-related fatigue. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a modified Paleolithic and low saturated fat diet on perceived fatigue (primary outcome), cognitive and motor symptoms, and quality of life in persons with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS/DESIGN: This 36-week randomized clinical trial consists of three 12-week periods during which assessments of perceived fatigue, quality of life, motor and cognitive function, physical activity and sleep, diet quality, and social support for eating will be collected. The three 12-week periods will consist of the following: 1. OBSERVATION: Participants continue eating their usual diet. 2. INTERVENTION: Participants will be randomized to a modified Paleolithic or low saturated fat diet for the intervention period. Participants will receive support from a registered dietitian (RD) through in-person coaching, telephone calls, and emails. 3. FOLLOW-UP: Participants will continue the study diet for an additional 12 weeks with minimal RD support to assess the ability of the participants to sustain the study diet on their own. DISCUSSION: Because fatigue is one of the most common and disabling symptoms of MS, effective management and reduction of MS-related fatigue has the potential to increase quality of life in this population. The results of this study will add to the evidence base for providing dietary recommendations to treat MS-related fatigue and other symptoms associated with this disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02914964 . Registered on 24 August 2016.

9.
Int J MS Care ; 20(1): 35-43, 2018 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507541

RESUMO

Background: Anecdotal reports suggest shortages among neurologists who provide multiple sclerosis (MS) patient care. However, little information is available regarding the current and future supply of and demand for this neurologist workforce. Methods: We used information from neurologist and neurology resident surveys, professional organizations, and previously reported studies to develop a model assessing the projected supply and demand (ie, expected physician visits) of neurologists providing MS patient care. Model projections extended through 2035. Results: The capacity for MS patient visits among the overall neurologist workforce is projected to increase by approximately 1% by 2025 and by 12% by 2035. However, the number of individuals with MS may increase at a greater rate, potentially resulting in decreased access to timely and high-quality care for this patient population. Shortages in the MS neurologist workforce may be particularly acute in small cities and rural areas. Based on model sensitivity analyses, potential strategies to substantially increase the capacity for MS physicians include increasing the number of patients with MS seen per neurologist, offering incentives to decrease neurologist retirement rates, and increasing the number of MS fellowship program positions. Conclusions: The neurologist workforce may be adequate for providing MS care currently, but shortages are projected over the next 2 decades. To help ensure access to needed care and support optimal outcomes among individuals with MS, policies and strategies to enhance the MS neurologist workforce must be explored now.

10.
Mult Scler ; 24(11): 1469-1484, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28799444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) was formed by the National MS Society to develop improved measures of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related disability. OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the current literature and available data on functional performance outcome measures (PerfOs) and (2) to determine suitability of using PerfOs to quantify MS disability in MS clinical trials. METHODS: (1) Identify disability dimensions common in MS; (2) conduct a comprehensive literature review of measures for those dimensions; (3) develop an MS Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) data standard; (4) create a database of standardized, pooled clinical trial data; (5) analyze the pooled data to assess psychometric properties of candidate measures; and (6) work with regulatory agencies to use the measures as primary or secondary outcomes in MS clinical trials. CONCLUSION: Considerable data exist supporting measures of the functional domains ambulation, manual dexterity, vision, and cognition. A CDISC standard for MS ( http://www.cdisc.org/therapeutic#MS ) was published, allowing pooling of clinical trial data. MSOAC member organizations contributed clinical data from 16 trials, including 14,370 subjects. Data from placebo-arm subjects are available to qualified researchers. This integrated, standardized dataset is being analyzed to support qualification of disability endpoints by regulatory agencies.

11.
Mult Scler ; 24(3): 262-267, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28080254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have identified "wellness" and associated behaviors as a high priority based on "social media listening" undertaken by the National MS Society (i.e. the Society). OBJECTIVE: The Society recently convened a group that consisted of researchers with experience in MS and wellness-related research, Society staff members, and an individual with MS for developing recommendations regarding a wellness research agenda. METHOD: The members of the group engaged in focal reviews and discussions involving the state of science within three approaches for promoting wellness in MS, namely diet, exercise, and emotional wellness. RESULTS: That process informed a group-mediated activity for developing and prioritizing research goals for wellness in MS. This served as a background for articulating the mission and objectives of the Society's Wellness Research Working Group. CONCLUSION: The primary mission of the Wellness Research Working Group is the provision of scientific evidence supporting the application of lifestyle, behavioral, and psychosocial approaches for promoting optimal health of mind, body, and spirit (i.e. wellness) in people with MS as well as managing the disease and its consequences.

12.
Mult Scler ; 23(5): 711-720, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28206826

RESUMO

Impaired manual dexterity is a frequently reported disability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is increasingly prevalent with worsening disease. While various tests and patient-reported outcome measures are available, the Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT) is considered as a gold standard measure of manual dexterity and most frequently used in MS research and clinical practice. The MS Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS. Among the MSOAC goals are acceptance and qualification by regulators of performance outcomes that are highly reliable and valid, practical, cost-effective, and meaningful to persons with MS. A critical step for these neuroperformance metrics is elucidation of clinically relevant benchmarks, well-defined degrees of disability, and gradients of change that are deemed clinically meaningful. This article addresses the NHPT, the proposed MSOAC measure for upper extremity function. We find that the NHPT is reliable within and between test sessions, discriminates between healthy subjects and MS patients with different levels of upper limb impairment, and shows high convergent validity with other manual dexterity as well as more comprehensive upper limb measures. Ecological validity is established by its relation to perceived upper limb use in daily life and perceived difficulty in performing activities of daily living. The NHPT is responsive to deterioration in longitudinal studies, and research suggests that a 20% change in test score is commonly used to define clinically meaningful worsening, a definition that needs further validation in all stages of the disease.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
13.
Mult Scler ; 23(5): 721-733, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28206827

RESUMO

Cognitive and motor performance measures are commonly employed in multiple sclerosis (MS) research, particularly when the purpose is to determine the efficacy of treatment. The increasing focus of new therapies on slowing progression or reversing neurological disability makes the utilization of sensitive, reproducible, and valid measures essential. Processing speed is a basic elemental cognitive function that likely influences downstream processes such as memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS. Among the MSOAC goals is acceptance and qualification by regulators of performance outcomes that are highly reliable and valid, practical, cost-effective, and meaningful to persons with MS. A critical step for these neuroperformance metrics is elucidation of clinically relevant benchmarks, well-defined degrees of disability, and gradients of change that are deemed clinically meaningful. This topical review provides an overview of research on one particular cognitive measure, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), recognized as being particularly sensitive to slowed processing of information that is commonly seen in MS. The research in MS clearly supports the reliability and validity of this test and recently has supported a responder definition of SDMT change approximating 4 points or 10% in magnitude.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Mult Scler ; 23(5): 704-710, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28206828

RESUMO

The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with multiple sclerosis (MS). One of the MSOAC goals is acceptance and qualification by regulators of performance outcomes that are highly reliable and valid, practical, cost-effective, and meaningful in MS. This article addresses the history, application, and psychometric properties of one such MSOAC metric of ambulation or walking namely, the timed 25-foot walk (T25FW). The T25FW has strong reliability over both brief and long periods of time in MS across a large range of disability levels. The outcome of walking speed from the T25FW has obvious real-world relevance and has correlated strongly with other measures of walking and lower extremity function. The T25FW is responsive for capturing intervention effects in pharmacological and rehabilitation trials and has an established value for capturing clinically meaningful change in ambulation. Directions for future research involve validating clinically meaningful improvements on the T25FW as well as determining whether 20% change is clinically meaningful across the disability spectrum. Researchers might further consider synchronizing accelerometers and motion sensors with the T25FW for capturing walking speed in everyday life and the patient's real environment.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/reabilitação , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Mult Scler ; 23(5): 734-747, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28206829

RESUMO

Low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) has emerged as the leading outcome measure to assess visual disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. As visual dysfunction is one of the most common manifestations of MS, sensitive visual outcome measures are important in examining the effect of treatment. Low-contrast acuity captures visual loss not seen in high-contrast visual acuity (HCVA) measurements. These issues are addressed by the MS Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC), including representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS. MSOAC goals are acceptance and qualification by regulators of performance outcomes that are highly reliable and valid, practical, cost-effective, and meaningful to persons with MS. A critical step is elucidation of clinically relevant benchmarks, well-defined degrees of disability, and gradients of change that are clinically meaningful. This review shows that MS and disease-free controls have similar median HCVA, while MS patients have significantly lower LCLA. Deficits in LCLA and vision-specific quality of life are found many years after an episode of acute optic neuritis, even when HCVA has recovered. Studies reveal correlations between LCLA and the Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer (GCL + IPL) thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visual evoked potential (VEP), electroretinogram (ERG), pupillary function, and King-Devick testing. This review also concludes that a 7-point change in LCLA is clinically meaningful. The overall goal of this review is to describe and characterize the LCLA metric for research and clinical use among persons with MS.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Exame Neurológico , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Qualidade de Vida
16.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 16(3): 381-97, 2002 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12607150

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), yet patients seen in MS clinics and neurologic practices are not routinely assessed neuropsychologically. In part, poor utilization of NP services may be attributed to a lack of consensus among neuropsychologists regarding the optimal approach for evaluating MS patients. An expert panel composed of neuropsychologists and psychologists from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia was convened by the Consortium of MS Centers (CMSC) in April, 2001. Our objectives were to: (a) propose a minimal neuropsychological (NP) examination for clinical monitoring of MS patients and research, and (b) identify strategies for improving NP assessment of MS patients in the future. The panel reviewed pertinent literature on MS-related cognitive dysfunction, considered psychometric factors relevant to NP assessment, defined the purpose and optimal characteristics of a minimal NP examination in MS, and rated the psychometric and practical properties of 36 candidate NP measures based on available literature. A 90-minute NP battery, the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS), emerged from this discussion. The MACFIMS is composed of seven neuropsychological tests, covering five cognitive domains commonly impaired in MS (processing speed/working memory, learning and memory, executive function, visual-spatial processing, and word retrieval). It is supplemented by a measure of estimated premorbid cognitive ability. Recommendations for assessing other factors that may potentially confound interpretation of NP data (e.g., visual/sensory/motor impairment, fatigue, and depression) are offered, as well as strategies for improving NP assessment of MS patients in the future.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Consenso , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico
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