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3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate metabolite signature of albuminuria in individuals without diabetes or chronic kidney disease to identify possible mechanisms resulting in increased albuminuria and elevated risk of T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study cohort was a population based METSIM study including 8,861 middle-aged and elderly Finnish men without diabetes or chronic kidney disease at baseline. A total of 5,504 men participated in a 7.5-year follow-up study, and 5,181 of them had metabolomics data measured by Metabolon's ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: We found 32 metabolites significantly (P<5.8x10 -5) and positively associated with urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE). These metabolites were especially downstream metabolites in the amino acid metabolism pathways (threonine, phenylalanine, leucine, arginine). In our 7.5-year follow-up study UAE was significantly associated with a 19% increase (Hazard ratio 1.19, 95% confidence intervals 1.13-1.25) in the risk of type 2 diabetes after the adjustment for confounding factors. Conversion to diabetes was more strongly associated with a decrease in insulin secretion than a decrease in insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic signature of UAE included multiple metabolites especially from the amino acid metabolism pathways known to be associated with low grade inflammation, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species that play an important role in the pathogenesis of UAE. These metabolites were primarily associated with an increase in UAE and secondarily a decrease in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity resulting in an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes.

4.
Nat Metab ; 2(10): 1113-1125, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989316

RESUMO

Obesity is a major public health burden worldwide and is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation driven by the cooperation of the innate immune system and dysregulated metabolism in adipose tissue and other metabolic organs. Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a central regulator of inflammatory cell function that coordinates inflammation, apoptosis and necroptosis in response to inflammatory stimuli. Here we show that genetic polymorphisms near the human RIPK1 locus associate with increased RIPK1 gene expression and obesity. We show that one of these single nucleotide polymorphisms is within a binding site for E4BP4 and increases RIPK1 promoter activity and RIPK1 gene expression in adipose tissue. Therapeutic silencing of RIPK1 in vivo in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity dramatically reduces fat mass, total body weight and improves insulin sensitivity, while simultaneously reducing macrophage and promoting invariant natural killer T cell accumulation in adipose tissue. These findings demonstrate that RIPK1 is genetically associated with obesity, and reducing RIPK1 expression is a potential therapeutic approach to target obesity and related diseases.

5.
Stem Cell Res ; 48: 101968, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911327

RESUMO

A673T mutation in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a rare variant associated with a reduced risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related cognitive decline. The A673T mutation decreases beta-amyloid (Aß) production and aggregation in neuronal cultures in vitro. Here we have identified a Finnish non-diseased male individual carrying a heterozygous A673T mutation, obtained a skin biopsy sample from him, and generated an iPSC line using commercially available integration-free Sendai virus-based kit. The established iPSC line retained the mutation, expressed pluripotency markers, had a normal karyotype, and differentiated into all three germ layers in vitro.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944759

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity is the slope of the plasma glucose-insulin secretion relationship and is a key predictor of deteriorating glucose tolerance and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there are no large-scale studies looking at the genetic determinants of beta cell glucose sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: To understand the genetic determinants of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity using genome-wide meta-analysis and candidate gene studies. DESIGN: We performed a genome-wide meta-analysis for beta-cell glucose sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic subjects from 6 independent cohorts (n=5,706). Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was calculated from mixed-meal and oral glucose tolerance tests, and its associations between known glycaemia related SNPS and GWAS SNPs were estimated using linear regression models. RESULTS: Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was moderately heritable (h 2 ranged between 34 to 55%) using SNP and family-based analyses. GWAS meta-analysis identified multiple correlated SNPs in the CDKAL1 gene and GIPR-QPCTL gene loci that reached genome-wide significance, with SNP rs2238691 in GIPR-QPCTL (P-value=2.64x10 -9) and rs9368219 in the CDKAL1 (P-value=3.15x10 -9) showing the strongest association with beta-cell glucose sensitivity. These loci surpassed genome-wide significance when the GWAS meta-analysis was repeated after exclusion of the diabetic subjects. After correction for multiple testing, glycemia associated SNPs in or near the HHEX and IGF2B2 loci were also associated with beta-cell glucose sensitivity. CONCLUSION: We show that, variation at the GIPR-QPCTL and CDKAL1 loci are key determinants of pancreatic beta cell glucose sensitivity.

7.
Nat Metab ; 2(9): 974-988, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943786

RESUMO

Proinflammatory macrophages are key in the development of obesity. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which activate the Fgr tyrosine kinase, also contribute to obesity. Here we show that ablation of Fgr impairs proinflammatory macrophage polarization while preventing high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. Systemic ablation of Fgr increases lipolysis and liver fatty acid oxidation, thereby avoiding steatosis. Knockout of Fgr in bone marrow (BM)-derived cells is sufficient to protect against insulin resistance and liver steatosis following HFD feeding, while the transfer of Fgr-expressing BM-derived cells reverts protection from HFD feeding in Fgr-deficient hosts. Scavenging of mitochondrial peroxides is sufficient to prevent Fgr activation in BM-derived cells and HFD-induced obesity. Moreover, Fgr expression is higher in proinflammatory macrophages and correlates with obesity traits in both mice and humans. Thus, our findings reveal the mitochondrial ROS-Fgr kinase as a key regulatory axis in proinflammatory adipose tissue macrophage activation, diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance and liver steatosis.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1009019, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915782

RESUMO

Loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can include multiple distinct association signals. We sought to identify the molecular basis of multiple association signals for adiponectin, a hormone involved in glucose regulation secreted almost exclusively from adipose tissue, identified in the Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study. With GWAS data for 9,262 men, four loci were significantly associated with adiponectin: ADIPOQ, CDH13, IRS1, and PBRM1. We performed stepwise conditional analyses to identify distinct association signals, a subset of which are also nearly independent (lead variant pairwise r2<0.01). Two loci exhibited allelic heterogeneity, ADIPOQ and CDH13. Of seven association signals at the ADIPOQ locus, two signals colocalized with adipose tissue expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for three transcripts: trait-increasing alleles at one signal were associated with increased ADIPOQ and LINC02043, while trait-increasing alleles at the other signal were associated with decreased ADIPOQ-AS1. In reporter assays, adiponectin-increasing alleles at two signals showed corresponding directions of effect on transcriptional activity. Putative mechanisms for the seven ADIPOQ signals include a missense variant (ADIPOQ G90S), a splice variant, a promoter variant, and four enhancer variants. Of two association signals at the CDH13 locus, the first signal consisted of promoter variants, including the lead adipose tissue eQTL variant for CDH13, while a second signal included a distal intron 1 enhancer variant that showed ~2-fold allelic differences in transcriptional reporter activity. Fine-mapping and experimental validation demonstrated that multiple, distinct association signals at these loci can influence multiple transcripts through multiple molecular mechanisms.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Alelos , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1009018, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925908

RESUMO

Reverse causality has made it difficult to establish the causal directions between obesity and prediabetes and obesity and insulin resistance. To disentangle whether obesity causally drives prediabetes and insulin resistance already in non-diabetic individuals, we utilized the UK Biobank and METSIM cohort to perform a Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses in the non-diabetic individuals. Our results suggest that both prediabetes and systemic insulin resistance are caused by obesity (p = 1.2×10-3 and p = 3.1×10-24). As obesity reflects the amount of body fat, we next studied how adipose tissue affects insulin resistance. We performed both bulk RNA-sequencing and single nucleus RNA sequencing on frozen human subcutaneous adipose biopsies to assess adipose cell-type heterogeneity and mitochondrial (MT) gene expression in insulin resistance. We discovered that the adipose MT gene expression and body fat percent are both independently associated with insulin resistance (p≤0.05 for each) when adjusting for the decomposed adipose cell-type proportions. Next, we showed that these 3 factors, adipose MT gene expression, body fat percent, and adipose cell types, explain a substantial amount (44.39%) of variance in insulin resistance and can be used to predict it (p≤2.64×10-5 in 3 independent human cohorts). In summary, we demonstrated that obesity is a strong determinant of both prediabetes and insulin resistance, and discovered that individuals' adipose cell-type composition, adipose MT gene expression, and body fat percent predict their insulin resistance, emphasizing the critical role of adipose tissue in systemic insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo
10.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(555)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759275

RESUMO

Obesity is heightened during aging, and although the estrogen receptor α (ERα) has been implicated in the prevention of obesity, its molecular actions in adipocytes remain inadequately understood. Here, we show that adipose tissue ESR1/Esr1 expression inversely associated with adiposity and positively associated with genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and markers of metabolic health in 700 Finnish men and 100 strains of inbred mice from the UCLA Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel. To determine the anti-obesity actions of ERα in fat, we selectively deleted Esr1 from white and brown adipocytes in mice. In white adipose tissue, Esr1 controlled oxidative metabolism by restraining the targeted elimination of mitochondria via the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin. mtDNA content was elevated, and adipose tissue mass was reduced in adipose-selective parkin knockout mice. In brown fat centrally involved in body temperature maintenance, Esr1 was requisite for both mitochondrial remodeling by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and uncoupled respiration thermogenesis by uncoupled protein 1 (Ucp1). In both white and brown fat of female mice and adipocytes in culture, mitochondrial dysfunction in the context of Esr1 deletion was paralleled by a reduction in the expression of the mtDNA polymerase γ subunit Polg1 We identified Polg1 as an ERα target gene by showing that ERα binds the Polg1 promoter to control its expression in 3T3L1 adipocytes. These findings support strategies leveraging ERα action on mitochondrial function in adipocytes to combat obesity and metabolic dysfunction.

11.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003102, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is the primary metabolic pathway synthesizing fatty acids from carbohydrates, protein, or alcohol. Our aim was to examine associations of in vivo levels of selected fatty acids (16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, 18:1n9) in DNL with incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Seventeen cohorts from 12 countries (7 from Europe, 7 from the United States, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan; baseline years = 1970-1973 to 2006-2010) conducted harmonized individual-level analyses of associations of DNL-related fatty acids with incident T2D. In total, we evaluated 65,225 participants (mean ages = 52.3-75.5 years; % women = 20.4%-62.3% in 12 cohorts recruiting both sexes) and 15,383 incident cases of T2D over the 9-year follow-up on average. Cohort-specific association of each of 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, and 18:1n9 with incident T2D was estimated, adjusted for demographic factors, socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, menopausal status, and adiposity. Cohort-specific associations were meta-analyzed with an inverse-variance-weighted approach. Each of the 4 fatty acids positively related to incident T2D. Relative risks (RRs) per cohort-specific range between midpoints of the top and bottom quintiles of fatty acid concentrations were 1.53 (1.41-1.66; p < 0.001) for 16:0, 1.40 (1.33-1.48; p < 0.001) for 16:1n-7, 1.14 (1.05-1.22; p = 0.001) for 18:0, and 1.16 (1.07-1.25; p < 0.001) for 18:1n9. Heterogeneity was seen across cohorts (I2 = 51.1%-73.1% for each fatty acid) but not explained by lipid fractions and global geographical regions. Further adjusted for triglycerides (and 16:0 when appropriate) to evaluate associations independent of overall DNL, the associations remained significant for 16:0, 16:1n7, and 18:0 but were attenuated for 18:1n9 (RR = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.13). These findings had limitations in potential reverse causation and residual confounding by imprecisely measured or unmeasured factors. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of fatty acids in the DNL were positively associated with T2D incidence. Our findings support further work to investigate a possible role of DNL and individual fatty acids in the development of T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003149, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and causes serious health complications in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Early diagnosis of NAFLD is important, as this can help prevent irreversible damage to the liver and, ultimately, hepatocellular carcinomas. We sought to expand etiological understanding and develop a diagnostic tool for NAFLD using machine learning. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We utilized the baseline data from IMI DIRECT, a multicenter prospective cohort study of 3,029 European-ancestry adults recently diagnosed with T2D (n = 795) or at high risk of developing the disease (n = 2,234). Multi-omics (genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) and clinical (liver enzymes and other serological biomarkers, anthropometry, measures of beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and lifestyle) data comprised the key input variables. The models were trained on MRI-image-derived liver fat content (<5% or ≥5%) available for 1,514 participants. We applied LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) to select features from the different layers of omics data and random forest analysis to develop the models. The prediction models included clinical and omics variables separately or in combination. A model including all omics and clinical variables yielded a cross-validated receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROCAUC) of 0.84 (95% CI 0.82, 0.86; p < 0.001), which compared with a ROCAUC of 0.82 (95% CI 0.81, 0.83; p < 0.001) for a model including 9 clinically accessible variables. The IMI DIRECT prediction models outperformed existing noninvasive NAFLD prediction tools. One limitation is that these analyses were performed in adults of European ancestry residing in northern Europe, and it is unknown how well these findings will translate to people of other ancestries and exposed to environmental risk factors that differ from those of the present cohort. Another key limitation of this study is that the prediction was done on a binary outcome of liver fat quantity (<5% or ≥5%) rather than a continuous one. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we developed several models with different combinations of clinical and omics data and identified biological features that appear to be associated with liver fat accumulation. In general, the clinical variables showed better prediction ability than the complex omics variables. However, the combination of omics and clinical variables yielded the highest accuracy. We have incorporated the developed clinical models into a web interface (see: https://www.predictliverfat.org/) and made it available to the community. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03814915.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Complicações do Diabetes/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(5)2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466134

RESUMO

There is great interest in understanding the impact of rare variants in human diseases using large sequence datasets. In deep sequence datasets of >10,000 samples, ~10% of the variant sites are observed to be multi-allelic. Many of the multi-allelic variants have been shown to be functional and disease-relevant. Proper analysis of multi-allelic variants is critical to the success of a sequencing study, but existing methods do not properly handle multi-allelic variants and can produce highly misleading association results. We discuss practical issues and methods to encode multi-allelic sites, conduct single-variant and gene-level association analyses, and perform meta-analysis for multi-allelic variants. We evaluated these methods through extensive simulations and the study of a large meta-analysis of ~18,000 samples on the cigarettes-per-day phenotype. We showed that our joint modeling approach provided an unbiased estimate of genetic effects, greatly improved the power of single-variant association tests among methods that can properly estimate allele effects, and enhanced gene-level tests over existing approaches. Software packages implementing these methods are available online.

14.
Diabetes Care ; 43(6): 1319-1325, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have highlighted the significance of the microbiome in human health and disease. Changes in the metabolites produced by microbiota have been implicated in several diseases. Our objective was to identify microbiome metabolites that are associated with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Our study included 5,181 participants from the cross-sectional Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study that included Finnish men (age 57 ± 7 years, BMI 26.5 ± 3.5 kg/m2) having metabolomics data available. Metabolomics analysis was performed based on fasting plasma samples. On the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test, Matsuda ISI and disposition index values were calculated as markers of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. A total of 4,851 participants had a 7.4-year follow-up visit, and 522 participants developed type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Creatine, 1-palmitoleoylglycerol (16:1), urate, 2-hydroxybutyrate/2-hydroxyisobutyrate, xanthine, xanthurenate, kynurenate, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate, 1-oleoylglycerol (18:1), 1-myristoylglycerol (14:0), dimethylglycine, and 2-hydroxyhippurate (salicylurate) were significantly associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. These metabolites were associated with decreased insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity or both. Among the metabolites that were associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, 1-linoleoylglycerophosphocholine (18:2) significantly reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Several novel and previously reported microbial metabolites related to the gut microbiota were associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes, and they were also associated with decreased insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Microbial metabolites are important biomarkers for the risk of type 2 diabetes.

15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170320

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Major advances have been made in the genetics and classification of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). OBJECTIVE: To examine the genetics and clinical characteristics of patients with persistent and transient CHI. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study with the register data and targeted sequencing of 104 genes affecting glucose metabolism. PATIENTS: Genetic and phenotypic data were collected from 153 patients with persistent (n = 95) and transient (n = 58) CHI diagnosed between 1972 and 2015. Of these, 86 patients with persistent and 58 with transient CHI participated in the analysis of the selected 104 genes affecting glucose metabolism, including 10 CHI-associated genes, and 9 patients with persistent CHI were included because of their previously confirmed genetic diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Targeted next-generation sequencing results and genotype-phenotype associations. RESULTS: Five novel and 21 previously reported pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in ABCC8, KCNJ11, GLUD1, GCK, HNF4A, and SLC16A1 genes were found in 68% (n = 65) and 0% of the patients with persistent and transient CHI, respectively. KATP channel mutations explained 82% of the mutation positive cases. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic variants found in this nationwide CHI cohort are in agreement with previous studies, mutations in the KATP channel genes being the major causes of the disease. Pathogenic CHI-associated variants were not identified in patients who were both diazoxide responsive and able to discontinue medication within the first 4 months. Therefore, our results support the notion that genetic testing should be focused on patients with inadequate response or prolonged need for medication.

16.
J Comput Biol ; 27(4): 599-612, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077750

RESUMO

Large-scale cohorts with combined genetic and phenotypic data, coupled with methodological advances, have produced increasingly accurate genetic predictors of complex human phenotypes called polygenic risk scores (PRSs). In addition to the potential translational impacts of identifying at-risk individuals, PRS are being utilized for a growing list of scientific applications, including causal inference, identifying pleiotropy and genetic correlation, and powerful gene-based and mixed-model association tests. Existing PRS approaches rely on external large-scale genetic cohorts that have also measured the phenotype of interest. They further require matching on ancestry and genotyping platform or imputation quality. In this work, we present a novel reference-free method to produce a PRS that does not rely on an external cohort. We show that naive implementations of reference-free PRS either result in substantial overfitting or prohibitive increases in computational time. We show that our algorithm avoids both of these issues and can produce informative in-sample PRSs over a single cohort without overfitting. We then demonstrate several novel applications of reference-free PRSs, including detection of pleiotropy across 246 metabolic traits and efficient mixed-model association testing.

17.
Diabetologia ; 63(4): 744-756, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002573

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It is well established that physical activity, abdominal ectopic fat and glycaemic regulation are related but the underlying structure of these relationships is unclear. The previously proposed twin-cycle hypothesis (TC) provides a mechanistic basis for impairment in glycaemic control through the interactions of substrate availability, substrate metabolism and abdominal ectopic fat accumulation. Here, we hypothesise that the effect of physical activity in glucose regulation is mediated by the twin-cycle. We aimed to examine this notion in the Innovative Medicines Initiative Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (IMI DIRECT) Consortium cohorts comprised of participants with normal or impaired glucose regulation (cohort 1: N ≤ 920) or with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (cohort 2: N ≤ 435). METHODS: We defined a structural equation model that describes the TC and fitted this within the IMI DIRECT dataset. A second model, twin-cycle plus physical activity (TC-PA), to assess the extent to which the effects of physical activity in glycaemic regulation are mediated by components in the twin-cycle, was also fitted. Beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control were modelled from frequently sampled 75 g OGTTs (fsOGTTs) and mixed-meal tolerance tests (MMTTs) in participants without and with diabetes, respectively. Abdominal fat distribution was assessed using MRI, and physical activity through wrist-worn triaxial accelerometry. Results are presented as standardised beta coefficients, SE and p values, respectively. RESULTS: The TC and TC-PA models showed better fit than null models (TC: χ2 = 242, p = 0.004 and χ2 = 63, p = 0.001 in cohort 1 and 2, respectively; TC-PA: χ2 = 180, p = 0.041 and χ2 = 60, p = 0.008 in cohort 1 and 2, respectively). The association of physical activity with glycaemic control was primarily mediated by variables in the liver fat cycle. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These analyses partially support the mechanisms proposed in the twin-cycle model and highlight mechanistic pathways through which insulin sensitivity and liver fat mediate the association between physical activity and glycaemic control.

18.
Heart ; 106(8): 609-615, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the Ala143Thr variant of the α-galactosidase A gene (A143T/GLA), with conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity, is associated with Fabry cardiomyopathy. METHODS: The index patient, a woman in her 60s with cardiomyopathy, was screened for variants in 59 cardiomyopathy-related genes. A143T/GLA, the only rare variant found, was screened in 10 relatives. GLA activity and lyso-Gb3 levels were measured and echocardiography was performed in 8 of 9 subjects carrying A143T/GLA. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) were performed in four adult A143T/GLA carriers. Endomyocardial biopsy was obtained from two adult A143T/GLA carrying sons of the index patient. RESULTS: The index patient and her elder son had a pacemaker implantation because of sick sinus syndrome and atrioventricular block. GLA activities were decreased to 25%-40% of normal in both sons and one granddaughter. Lyso-Gb3 levels were elevated in both sons. In CMR, the index patient and her two sons had left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and/or dilatation. The elder son had late gadolinium enhancement, high CMR-derived T1 time and positive FDG signal in PET/CT in the basal inferolateral LV wall. The younger son had low T1 time and the mother had positive FDG signal in PET/CT in the basal inferolateral LV wall. Endomyocardial biopsy of both sons showed myocardial accumulation compatible with glycolipids in light and electron microscopy, staining with anti-Gb3 antibody available for the younger son. Five female relatives with A143T/GLA had no cardiomyopathy in cardiac imaging. CONCLUSIONS: A143T/GLA is likely a late-onset Fabry cardiomyopathy causing variant with incomplete penetrance.

19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(24): 4161-4172, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691812

RESUMO

Integration of genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies enables identification of candidate genes. However, evaluating whether nearby signals may share causal variants, termed colocalization, is affected by the presence of allelic heterogeneity, different variants at the same locus impacting the same phenotype. We previously identified eQTL in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 770 participants in the Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study and detected 15 eQTL signals that colocalized with GWAS signals for waist-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits consortium. Here, we reevaluated evidence of colocalization using two approaches, conditional analysis and the Bayesian test COLOC, and show that providing COLOC with approximate conditional summary statistics at multi-signal GWAS loci can reconcile disagreements in colocalization classification between the two tests. Next, we performed conditional analysis on the METSIM subcutaneous adipose tissue data to identify conditionally distinct or secondary eQTL signals. We used the two approaches to test for colocalization with WHRadjBMI GWAS signals and evaluated the differences in colocalization classification between the two tests. Through these analyses, we identified four GWAS signals colocalized with secondary eQTL signals for FAM13A, SSR3, GRB14 and FMO1. Thus, at loci with multiple eQTL and/or GWAS signals, analyzing each signal independently enabled additional candidate genes to be identified.

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