Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 378
Filtrar
2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691812

RESUMO

Integration of genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies enables identification of candidate genes. However, evaluating whether nearby signals may share causal variants, termed colocalization, is affected by the presence of allelic heterogeneity, different variants at the same locus impacting the same phenotype. We previously identified eQTLs in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 770 participants in the METSIM study and detected 15 eQTL signals that colocalized with GWAS signals for waist-hip ratio (WHRadjBMI) from the GIANT consortium. Here, we reevaluated evidence of colocalization using two approaches, conditional analysis and the Bayesian test COLOC, and show that providing COLOC with approximate conditional summary statistics at multi-signal GWAS loci can reconcile disagreements in colocalization classification between the two tests. Next, we performed conditional analysis on the METSIM subcutaneous adipose tissue data to identify conditionally distinct, or secondary, eQTL signals. We used the two approaches to test for colocalization with WHRadjBMI GWAS signals and evaluated the differences in colocalization classification between the two tests. Through these analyses, we identified four GWAS signals colocalized with secondary eQTL signals for FAM13A, SSR3, GRB14, and FMO1. Thus, at loci with multiple eQTL and/or GWAS signals, analyzing each signal independently enabled additional candidate genes to be identified.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 773-787, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564431

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified thousands of genetic loci associated with cardiometabolic traits including type 2 diabetes (T2D), lipid levels, body fat distribution, and adiposity, although most causal genes remain unknown. We used subcutaneous adipose tissue RNA-seq data from 434 Finnish men from the METSIM study to identify 9,687 primary and 2,785 secondary cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL; <1 Mb from TSS, FDR < 1%). Compared to primary eQTL signals, secondary eQTL signals were located further from transcription start sites, had smaller effect sizes, and were less enriched in adipose tissue regulatory elements compared to primary signals. Among 2,843 cardiometabolic GWAS signals, 262 colocalized by LD and conditional analysis with 318 transcripts as primary and conditionally distinct secondary cis-eQTLs, including some across ancestries. Of cardiometabolic traits examined for adipose tissue eQTL colocalizations, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and circulating lipid traits had the highest percentage of colocalized eQTLs (15% and 14%, respectively). Among alleles associated with increased cardiometabolic GWAS risk, approximately half (53%) were associated with decreased gene expression level. Mediation analyses of colocalized genes and cardiometabolic traits within the 434 individuals provided further evidence that gene expression influences variant-trait associations. These results identify hundreds of candidate genes that may act in adipose tissue to influence cardiometabolic traits.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4788, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636271

RESUMO

Genetic studies of metabolites have identified thousands of variants, many of which are associated with downstream metabolic and obesogenic disorders. However, these studies have relied on univariate analyses, reducing power and limiting context-specific understanding. Here we aim to provide an integrated perspective of the genetic basis of metabolites by leveraging the Finnish Metabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) cohort, a unique genetic resource which contains metabolic measurements, mostly lipids, across distinct time points as well as information on statin usage. We increase effective sample size by an average of two-fold by applying the Covariates for Multi-phenotype Studies (CMS) approach, identifying 588 significant SNP-metabolite associations, including 228 new associations. Our analysis pinpoints a small number of master metabolic regulator genes, balancing the relative proportion of dozens of metabolite levels. We further identify associations to changes in metabolic levels across time as well as genetic interactions with statin at both the master metabolic regulator and genome-wide level.

5.
Mol Metab ; 27S: S139-S146, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), representing >90% of all cases of diabetes, are increasing rapidly worldwide. Identification of individuals at high risk of developing diabetes is of great importance as early interventions might delay or even prevent full-blown disease. T2D is a complex disease caused by multiple genetic loci in interplay with lifestyle and environmental factors. Recently over 400 distinct association signals were published; these explain 18% of the risk of T2D. SCOPE OF REVIEW: In this review there is a major focus on risk factors and genetic and non-genetic biomarkers for the risk of T2D identified especially in large prospective population-based studies, and studies testing causality of the biomarkers for T2D in Mendelian randomization studies. Another focus is on understanding genome-phenome interplay in the classification of individuals with T2D into subgroups. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Several recent large population-based studies and their meta-analyses have identified multiple potential genetic and non-genetic biomarkers for the risk of T2D. Combination of genetic variants and physiologically characterized pathways improves the classification of individuals with T2D into subgroups, and is also paving the way to a precision medicine approach, in T2D.

7.
Nature ; 572(7769): 323-328, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367044

RESUMO

Exome-sequencing studies have generally been underpowered to identify deleterious alleles with a large effect on complex traits as such alleles are mostly rare. Because the population of northern and eastern Finland has expanded considerably and in isolation following a series of bottlenecks, individuals of these populations have numerous deleterious alleles at a relatively high frequency. Here, using exome sequencing of nearly 20,000 individuals from these regions, we investigate the role of rare coding variants in clinically relevant quantitative cardiometabolic traits. Exome-wide association studies for 64 quantitative traits identified 26 newly associated deleterious alleles. Of these 26 alleles, 19 are either unique to or more than 20 times more frequent in Finnish individuals than in other Europeans and show geographical clustering comparable to Mendelian disease mutations that are characteristic of the Finnish population. We estimate that sequencing studies of populations without this unique history would require hundreds of thousands to millions of participants to achieve comparable association power.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10240, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308433

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that an intronic variant rs780094 of the GCKR gene (glucokinase regulatory protein) is significantly associated with several metabolites, but the associations of this genetic variant with different lipids is largely unknown. Therefore, we applied metabolomics approach to measure metabolites in a large Finnish population sample (METSIM study) to investigate their associations with rs780094 of GCKR. We measured metabolites by mass spectrometry from 5,181 participants. P < 5.8 × 10-5 was considered as statistically significant given 857 metabolites included in statistical analyses. We found novel negative associations of the T allele of GCKR rs780094 with serine and threonine, and positive associations with two metabolites of tryptophan, indolelactate and N-acetyltryptophan. Additionally, we found novel significant positive associations of this genetic variant with 12 glycerolipids and 19 glycerophospholipids. Significant negative associations were found for three glycerophospholipids (all plasmalogen-cholines), and two sphingolipids. Significant novel associations were also found with gamma-glutamylthreonine, taurocholenate sulfate, and retinol. Our study adds new information about the pleiotropy of the GCKR gene, and shows the associations of the T allele of GCKR rs780094 with lipids.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.

10.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(8): 2521-2533, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186305

RESUMO

Identifying the regulatory mechanisms of genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci affecting adipose tissue has been restricted due to limited characterization of adipose transcriptional regulatory elements. We profiled chromatin accessibility in three frozen human subcutaneous adipose tissue needle biopsies and preadipocytes and adipocytes from the Simpson Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) cell strain using an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC-seq). We identified 68,571 representative accessible chromatin regions (peaks) across adipose tissue samples (FDR < 5%). GWAS loci for eight cardiometabolic traits were enriched in these peaks (P < 0.005), with the strongest enrichment for waist-hip ratio. Of 110 recently described cardiometabolic GWAS loci colocalized with adipose tissue eQTLs, 59 loci had one or more variants overlapping an adipose tissue peak. Annotated variants at the SNX10 waist-hip ratio locus and the ATP2A1-SH2B1 body mass index locus showed allelic differences in regulatory assays. These adipose tissue accessible chromatin regions elucidate genetic variants that may alter adipose tissue function to impact cardiometabolic traits.

11.
Diabetologia ; 62(9): 1601-1615, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203377

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Here, we describe the characteristics of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (DIRECT) epidemiological cohorts at baseline and follow-up examinations (18, 36 and 48 months of follow-up). METHODS: From a sampling frame of 24,682 adults of European ancestry enrolled in population-based cohorts across Europe, participants at varying risk of glycaemic deterioration were identified using a risk prediction algorithm (based on age, BMI, waist circumference, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking status and parental history of type 2 diabetes) and enrolled into a prospective cohort study (n = 2127) (cohort 1, prediabetes risk). We also recruited people from clinical registries with type 2 diabetes diagnosed 6-24 months previously (n = 789) into a second cohort study (cohort 2, diabetes). Follow-up examinations took place at ~18 months (both cohorts) and at ~48 months (cohort 1) or ~36 months (cohort 2) after baseline examinations. The cohorts were studied in parallel using matched protocols across seven clinical centres in northern Europe. RESULTS: Using ADA 2011 glycaemic categories, 33% (n = 693) of cohort 1 (prediabetes risk) had normal glucose regulation and 67% (n = 1419) had impaired glucose regulation. Seventy-six per cent of participants in cohort 1 was male. Cohort 1 participants had the following characteristics (mean ± SD) at baseline: age 62 (6.2) years; BMI 27.9 (4.0) kg/m2; fasting glucose 5.7 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 5.9 (1.6) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 6.0 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h OGTT glucose 6.5 (2.0) mmol/l. In cohort 2 (diabetes), 66% (n = 517) were treated by lifestyle modification and 34% (n = 272) were treated with metformin plus lifestyle modification at enrolment. Fifty-eight per cent of participants in cohort 2 was male. Cohort 2 participants had the following characteristics at baseline: age 62 (8.1) years; BMI 30.5 (5.0) kg/m2; fasting glucose 7.2 (1.4) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 8.6 (2.8) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination, the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 7.9 (2.0) mmol/l; 2 h mixed-meal tolerance test glucose 9.9 (3.4) mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The IMI DIRECT cohorts are intensely characterised, with a wide-variety of metabolically relevant measures assessed prospectively. We anticipate that the cohorts, made available through managed access, will provide a powerful resource for biomarker discovery, multivariate aetiological analyses and reclassification of patients for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(10): e011922, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070104

RESUMO

Background Recent studies have revealed sexually dimorphic associations between the carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 locus, intermediates of the metabolic pathway leading from choline to urea, and risk of coronary artery disease ( CAD ) in women. Based on evidence from the literature, the atheroprotective association with carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 could be mediated by the strong genetic effect of this locus on increased circulating glycine levels. Methods and Results We sought to identify additional genetic determinants of circulating glycine levels by carrying out a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data in up to 30 118 subjects of European ancestry. Mendelian randomization and other analytical approaches were used to determine whether glycine-associated variants were associated with CAD and traditional risk factors. Twelve loci were significantly associated with circulating glycine levels, 7 of which were not previously known to be involved in glycine metabolism ( ACADM , PHGDH , COX 18- ADAMTS 3, PSPH , TRIB 1, PTPRD , and ABO ). Glycine-raising alleles at several loci individually exhibited directionally consistent associations with decreased risk of CAD . However, these effects could not be attributed directly to glycine because of associations with other CAD -related traits. By comparison, genetic models that only included the 2 variants directly involved in glycine degradation and for which there were no other pleiotropic associations were not associated with risk of CAD or blood pressure, lipid levels, and obesity-related traits. Conclusions These results provide additional insight into the genetic architecture of glycine metabolism, but do not yield conclusive evidence for a causal relationship between circulating levels of this amino acid and risk of CAD in humans.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(22): 10883-10888, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076557

RESUMO

We integrate comeasured gene expression and DNA methylation (DNAme) in 265 human skeletal muscle biopsies from the FUSION study with >7 million genetic variants and eight physiological traits: height, waist, weight, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting serum insulin, fasting plasma glucose, and type 2 diabetes. We find hundreds of genes and DNAme sites associated with fasting insulin, waist, and body mass index, as well as thousands of DNAme sites associated with gene expression (eQTM). We find that controlling for heterogeneity in tissue/muscle fiber type reduces the number of physiological trait associations, and that long-range eQTMs (>1 Mb) are reduced when controlling for tissue/muscle fiber type or latent factors. We map genetic regulators (quantitative trait loci; QTLs) of expression (eQTLs) and DNAme (mQTLs). Using Mendelian randomization (MR) and mediation techniques, we leverage these genetic maps to predict 213 causal relationships between expression and DNAme, approximately two-thirds of which predict methylation to causally influence expression. We use MR to integrate FUSION mQTLs, FUSION eQTLs, and GTEx eQTLs for 48 tissues with genetic associations for 534 diseases and quantitative traits. We identify hundreds of genes and thousands of DNAme sites that may drive the reported disease/quantitative trait genetic associations. We identify 300 gene expression MR associations that are present in both FUSION and GTEx skeletal muscle and that show stronger evidence of MR association in skeletal muscle than other tissues, which may partially reflect differences in power across tissues. As one example, we find that increased RXRA muscle expression may decrease lean tissue mass.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(4): 1216-1223, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) of different chain lengths have unique metabolic and biological effects, and a small number of recent studies suggest that higher circulating concentrations of the very-long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs) arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0), and lignoceric acid (24:0) are associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Confirmation of these findings in a large and diverse population is needed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident type 2 diabetes in prospective studies. METHODS: Twelve studies that are part of the Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium participated in the analysis. Using Cox or logistic regression within studies and an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis across studies, we examined the associations of VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident diabetes among 51,431 participants. RESULTS: There were 14,276 cases of incident diabetes across participating studies. Higher circulating concentrations of 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 were each associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes. Pooling across cohorts, the RR (95% CI) for incident diabetes comparing the 90th percentile to the 10th percentile was 0.78 (0.70, 0.87) for 20:0, 0.84 (0.77, 0.91) for 22:0, and 0.75 (0.69, 0.83) for 24:0 after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, adiposity, and other health factors. Results were fully attenuated in exploratory models that adjusted for circulating 16:0 and triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this pooled analysis indicate that higher concentrations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 are each associated with a lower risk of diabetes.

15.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1008009, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951530

RESUMO

Recent and classical work has revealed biologically and medically significant subtypes in complex diseases and traits. However, relevant subtypes are often unknown, unmeasured, or actively debated, making automated statistical approaches to subtype definition valuable. We propose reverse GWAS (RGWAS) to identify and validate subtypes using genetics and multiple traits: while GWAS seeks the genetic basis of a given trait, RGWAS seeks to define trait subtypes with distinct genetic bases. Unlike existing approaches relying on off-the-shelf clustering methods, RGWAS uses a novel decomposition, MFMR, to model covariates, binary traits, and population structure. We use extensive simulations to show that modelling these features can be crucial for power and calibration. We validate RGWAS in practice by recovering a recently discovered stress subtype in major depression. We then show the utility of RGWAS by identifying three novel subtypes of metabolic traits. We biologically validate these metabolic subtypes with SNP-level tests and a novel polygenic test: the former recover known metabolic GxE SNPs; the latter suggests subtypes may explain substantial missing heritability. Crucially, statins, which are widely prescribed and theorized to increase diabetes risk, have opposing effects on blood glucose across metabolic subtypes, suggesting the subtypes have potential translational value.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Algoritmos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Simulação por Computador , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/classificação , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estado Pré-Diabético/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
16.
Diabetes ; 68(6): 1353-1358, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885989

RESUMO

Several amino acids (AAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but no previous studies have investigated the association of AAs with insulin secretion in a longitudinal setting. Our study included 5,181 participants of the cross-sectional METabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study having metabolomics data on 20 AAs. A total of 4,851 had a 7.4-year follow-up visit. Nine AAs (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, aspartate, and glutamate) were significantly (P < 5.8 × 10-5) associated with decreases in insulin secretion (disposition index) and the elevation of fasting or 2-h glucose levels. Five of these AAs (tyrosine, alanine, isoleucine, aspartate, and glutamate) were also found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes after adjustment for confounding factors. Our study is the first population-based large cohort to report that AAs are associated not only with insulin resistance but also with decreased insulin secretion.

17.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(4): 2753-2768, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734465

RESUMO

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the most prevalent form of diabetes in the USA, thus, the identification of biomarkers that could be used to predict the progression from prediabetes to T2DM would be greatly beneficial. Recently, circulating RNA including microRNAs (miRNAs) present in various body fluids have emerged as potential biomarkers for various health conditions, including T2DM. Whereas studies that examine the changes of miRNA spectra between healthy controls and T2DM individuals have been reported, the goal of this study is to conduct a baseline comparison of prediabetic individuals who either progress to T2DM, or remain prediabetic. Using an advanced small RNA sequencing library construction method that improves the detection of miRNA species, we identified 57 miRNAs that showed significant concentration differences between progressors (progress from prediabetes to T2DM) and non-progressors. Among them, 26 have been previously reported to be associated with T2DM in either body fluids or tissue samples. Some of the miRNAs identified were also affected by obesity. Furthermore, we identified miRNA panels that are able to discriminate progressors from non-progressors. These results suggest that upon further validation these miRNAs may be useful to predict the risk of conversion to T2DM from prediabetes.

18.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(2): 436-445, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775854

RESUMO

AIMS: Nationwide large-scale genetic and outcome studies in cohorts with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have not been previously published. METHODS AND RESULTS: We sequenced 59 cardiomyopathy-associated genes in 382 unrelated Finnish patients with HCM and found 24 pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations in six genes in 38.2% of patients. Most mutations were located in sarcomere genes (MYBPC3, MYH7, TPM1, and MYL2). Previously reported mutations by our study group (MYBPC3-Gln1061Ter, MYH7-Arg1053Gln, and TPM1-Asp175Asn) and a fourth major mutation MYH7-Val606Met accounted for 28.0% of cases. Mutations in GLA and PRKAG2 were found in three patients. Furthermore, we found 49 variants of unknown significance in 31 genes in 20.4% of cases. During a 6.7 ± 4.2 year follow-up, annual all-cause mortality in 482 index patients and their relatives with HCM was higher than that in the matched Finnish population (1.70 vs. 0.87%; P < 0.001). Sudden cardiac deaths were rare (n = 8). Systolic heart failure (hazard ratio 17.256, 95% confidence interval 3.266-91.170, P = 0.001) and maximal left ventricular wall thickness (hazard ratio 1.223, 95% confidence interval 1.098-1.363, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of HCM-related mortality and life-threatening cardiac events. The patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation underwent an implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation more often than patients without a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation (12.9 vs. 3.5%, P < 0.001), but there was no difference in all-cause or HCM-related mortality between the two groups. Mortality due to HCM during 10 year follow-up among the 5.2 million population of Finland was studied from death certificates of the National Registry, showing 269 HCM-related deaths, of which 32% were sudden. CONCLUSIONS: We identified pathogenic and likely pathogenic mutations in 38% of Finnish patients with HCM. Four major sarcomere mutations accounted for 28% of HCM cases, whereas HCM-related mutations in non-sarcomeric genes were rare. Mortality in patients with HCM exceeded that of the general population. Finally, among 5.2 million Finns, there were at least 27 HCM-related deaths annually.


Assuntos
Miosinas Cardíacas/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Previsões , Mutação , Sistema de Registros , Sarcômeros/metabolismo , Miosinas Cardíacas/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/mortalidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Sarcômeros/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(1): 165-175, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624587

RESUMO

Background: The health benefits of substituting dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for saturated fatty acids are well known. However, limited information exists on how the response to dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) is modified by polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the FADS1 rs174550 genotype modifies the effect of dietary LA intake on the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids, fasting glucose, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Methods: Associations were investigated between genotype, plasma PUFAs, fasting glucose, and hsCRP concentrations in the cross-sectional, population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men cohort (n = 1337). In addition, 62 healthy men from the cohort who were homozygotes for the TT or CC genotype of the FADS1 rs174550 were recruited to a 4-wk intervention (FADSDIET) with an LA-enriched diet. The fatty acid composition of plasma PUFAs and concentrations of plasma fasting glucose, serum hsCRP, and plasma lipid mediators (eicosanoids and related analogs) were measured at the beginning and end of the 4-wk intervention period. Results: In the FADSDIET trial, the plasma LA proportion increased in both genotype groups in response to an LA-enriched diet. Responses in concentrations of serum hsCRP and plasma fasting glucose and the proportion of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) in plasma phospholipids and cholesteryl esters differed between genotype groups (interaction of diet × genotype, P < 0.05). In TT homozygous subjects, plasma eicosanoid concentrations correlated with the arachidonic acid proportion in plasma and with hsCRP (r = 0.4-0.7, P < 0.05), whereas in the CC genotype there were no correlations. Conclusions: Our findings show that the FADS1 genotype modifies metabolic responses to dietary LA. The emerging concept that personalized dietary counseling should be modified by the FADS1 genotype needs to be tested in larger randomized trials. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02543216.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Genótipo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Ácido Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Jejum , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Finlândia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Ácido Linoleico/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
J Electrocardiol ; 51(6): 983-989, 2018 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The sensitivity and specificity of the conventional 12-lead ECG to identify carriers of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) - causing mutations without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been limited. We assessed the ability of novel electrocardiographic parameters to improve the detection of HCM mutation carriers. METHODS: We studied 140 carriers (G+) of the TPM1-Asp175Asn or MYBPC3-Gln1061X pathogenic variants for HCM: The G+/LVH+ group (n = 98) consisted of mutation carriers with LVH and the G+/LVH- group (n = 42) without LVH. The control group consisted of 30 subjects. The standard 12-lead ECG was comprehensively analyzed and two novel ECG variables were introduced: RV1RV3 and septal remodeling. A subset of 65 individuals underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and 2D strain echocardiography. RESULTS: Conventional major ECG criteria were sensitive (90%) and specific (97%) in identifying G+/LVH+ subjects. RV1RV3 and septal remodeling were more prevalent in the G+/LVH- subjects compared to the control group (33% vs 3%, p = 0.005 and 45% vs 3%, p < 0.001, respectively). The combination of RV1RV3 and Q waves and repolarization abnormalities (QR) differentiated between the G+/LVH- subjects and the control group with a sensitivity of 52% and specificity of 97%. The combination of septal remodeling and QR differentiated between G+/LVH- subjects and the control group with a sensitivity of 64% and specificity of 97%. CONCLUSIONS: The novel ECG-parameters RV1RV3 and septal remodeling were effective in identifying G+/LVH- subjects and could be useful in the diagnostics of new suspected HCM patients and in the screening and follow-up of HCM families.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA