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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125438, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494498

RESUMO

Fifteen vitisin A-type pyranoanthocyanins (vAPs) were determined in bilberry wines fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The fermentation involving S. pombe enhanced the production of vAPs compared to the fermentation with pure S. cerevisiae. The formation of vAPs correlated significantly with the decrease in the content of monomeric anthocyanins and pyruvic acid during 12 months of aging. vAPs were more stable than their corresponding monomeric anthocyanins. Methylation in the B-ring and glycosylation with galactose and arabinose further improved the stability of vAPs. Aging for 12 months led to depletion of pyruvic acid and reduction of over 50% of monomeric anthocyanins. The content of vAPs increased by 26-54% during the first six months of aging, followed by a 2.2-10.2% reduction over the following six months. More residual pyruvic acid in S. pombe wines after fermentation consequently enhanced the generation of vAPs during aging.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730342

RESUMO

Blackcurrants of three Finnish commercial cultivars 'Mortti', 'Ola', and 'Melalahti' cultivated in southern and northern Finland were compared on the basis of the content and composition of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seventeen B-type PA oligomers (degree of polymerization 2-5 and 7) were detected by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Total PAs, dimers, trimers, and tetramers were quantified. Among the three cultivars, 'Ola' had the highest contents of both total PAs and PA oligomers. 'Melalahti' was separated from both 'Mortti' and 'Ola' by PA profiles in the partial least-squares discriminant analysis model. All three cultivars revealed distinct responses to latitude and weather conditions. The content of total PAs showed a positive correlation to latitude in 'Ola' and 'Melalahti'. Among the meteorological variables, high temperature and radiation correlated negatively with total PAs, while only specific variables showed a correlation with PA oligomers.

3.
Food Chem ; 293: 151-160, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151596

RESUMO

Blackcurrant juices were prepared without enzyme (NEB-juice) and with conventional enzyme-aided berry pressing (EB-juice). Juices were pasteurized and stored at ambient temperature (in light and dark conditions) and at +4 °C for a 1-year period of time. Volatile composition and odor attributes were followed by HS-SPME-GC-MS and a sensory panel, respectively. Volatiles were decreased in the EB-juice, showing 100-fold lower contents of the main terpenoids, e.g., α-pinene, δ-3-carene, limonene, terpinolene, bornyl acetate and ß-caryophyllene; whereas esters, such as methyl butanoate and ethyl butanoate, showed 2- and 4-fold lower contents for the EB-juice. Pasteurization produced minor changes in both juices. Volatiles decreased during storage at room temperature while at +4 °C esters and eucalyptol were kept at 100%. The descriptive sensory analysis reported a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of the berry-like odor after 12-month storage at RT. Storage at +4 °C for 12 months did not affect the odor quality.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ribes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Pasteurização , Ribes/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Temperatura Ambiente , Terpenos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(19): 5621-5633, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013088

RESUMO

Berries representing 21 cultivars of blackcurrant were analyzed using liquid chromatographic, gas chromatographic, and mass spectrometric methods coupled with multivariate models. This study pinpointed compositional variation among cultivars of different origins cultivated in the same location during two seasons. The chemical profiles of blackcurrants varied significantly among cultivars and growing years. The key differences among cultivars of Scottish, Lithuanian, and Finnish origins were in the contents of phenolic acids (23 vs 16 vs 19 mg/100 g on average, respectively), mainly as 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4- O-coumaroylglucose, ( E)-coumaroyloxymethylene-glucopyranosyloxy-( Z)-butenenitrile, and 1- O-feruloylglucose. The Scottish cultivars were grouped on the basis of the 3- O-glycosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, as were the Lithuanian cultivars. Among the Finnish samples, the content of myricetin 3- O-glycosides, 4- O-caffeoylglucose, 1- O-coumaroylglucose, and 4- O-coumaroylglucose were significantly different between the two green-fruited cultivars and the black-fruited cultivars. The samples from the studied years differed in the content of phenolic acid derivatives, quercetin glycosides, monosaccharides, and citric acid.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Ribes/química , Antocianinas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Europa (Continente) , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicosídeos/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Ribes/classificação , Estações do Ano
5.
Food Microbiol ; 80: 25-39, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704594

RESUMO

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) juice was fermented with Torulaspora delbrueckii (TD291 and TD70526) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SP3796 and SP70572) in pure fermentation as well as in sequential and simultaneous inoculations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1116 (SC1116). Altogether, 56 volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified with HS-SPME-GC/MS in bilberry products. Yeast fermentation prominently enhanced the aroma complexity of bilberry with a sharp increase in alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and acetals. Compared to S. cerevisiae, T. delbrueckii produced less ethanol but more fusel alcohols that potentially enhance "alcohol" and "nail polish" odors in TD70526 and less "fruity" esters in TD291. SP70572 resulted in high productions of undesirable compounds of acetoin and acetaldehyde but a low content of higher alcohols and esters, SP3796 produced a high content of fatty acid ethyl esters and acetoin. In comparison with monoculture of non-Saccharomyces yeast, sequential and simultaneous cultures of S. pombe and S. cerevisiae significantly decreased the content of acetoin while increased the relative level of esters; sequential cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae remarkably increased the concentration of acetaldehyde; simultaneous inoculations of S. cerevisiae with TD70526 and TD291 significantly decreased the content of fusel alcohols and increased the content of esters, respectively. The findings suggested that non-Saccharomyces yeasts possess the potential to affect and modulate the aromatic profile of fermented bilberry products. Sequential and simultaneous inoculations with S. pombe strains and S. cerevisiae as well as simultaneous fermentation using T. delbrueckii strains and S. cerevisiae are optimal strategies to positively influence the aroma profile of bilberry wines.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo , Torulaspora/metabolismo , Vaccinium myrtillus/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Fermentação , Cinética , Vinho/microbiologia
6.
Food Chem ; 272: 1-11, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309518

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides, SB) leaves contain wide-ranging bioactive compounds. Processing of the leaves into beverages/food presents great potential for supporting human health. The research aimed to investigate the impact of different processing methods on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of tea-type infusions prepared from SB leaves. Leaves of two SB cultivars, 'Terhi' and 'Tytti', were processed with different methods commonly used for tea processing. Phenolic compounds in the infusions were analyzed with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array Detection and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside-7-O-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-hexoside-7-O-rhamnoside were the three major flavonol glycosides, stachyurin and casuarinin were the most abundant ellagitannins. The infusions of 'Tytti' contained more total phenolics than those of 'Terhi' (p < 0.05). High temperature processing resulted in higher content of total phenolics and ellagitannins in the infusions compared with low temperatures (p < 0.05). Thermal processing decreased the antioxidant activities of the infusions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Hippophae/química , Fenóis/análise , Chá/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Liofilização , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Hippophae/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Fenóis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
Food Chem ; 266: 262-274, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381185

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of fermentation with pure cultures of Torulaspora delbrueckii (TD291 and TD70526) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SP3796 and SP70572), as well as in sequential and mixed inoculations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on the chemical composition of bilberry wine. In comparison to the bilberry wines produced by pure and sequential fermentations, mixed cultures produced bilberry wines with more ethanol, higher pH values, higher percentages of red and yellow shade, but less glycerol and acetaldehyde. Higher values of color intensity and bluish parameter were found in products of pure fermentations with non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Compared to S. cerevisiae, T. delbrueckii contributed to the reduction of ethanol and acetic acid while increasing the content of succinic acid, lactic acid and higher alcohols; S. pombe consumed malic acid almost completely and produced more glycerol, acetaldehyde and/or pyruvic acid. Fermentation with SP70572 had the highest amounts of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives.

8.
Foods ; 7(9)2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231463

RESUMO

The color of food is important for flavor perception and food selection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the visual color perception of liquid samples among Finnish adult consumers by their background variables. Participants (n = 205) ranked six different colored solutions just by looking according to four attributes: from most to least pleasant, healthy, sweet and sour. The color sample rated most frequently as the most pleasant was red (37%), the most healthy white (57%), the most sweet red and orange (34% both) and the most sour yellow (54%). Ratings of certain colors differed between gender, age, body mass index (BMI) and education groups. Females regarded the red color as the sweetest more often than males (p = 0.013) while overweight subjects rated the orange as the sweetest more often than normal weight subjects (p = 0.029). Personal characteristics may be associated with some differences in color associations.

9.
Food Res Int ; 109: 526-536, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803480

RESUMO

Edible mushrooms are a global food with a history of consumption spanning several millennia. However, studies utilizing modern sensory methods on mushrooms are still scarce. In this study, the sensory properties of Nordic edible mushrooms were analyzed by two methods. In the sensory profile, sous vide processed wild mushroom species Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus tubaeformis, Boletus edulis, and Lactarius camphoratus were studied with cultivated Agaricus bisporus as a control species. The sensory profile consisted of 18 descriptors, and the 5 mushrooms differed from each other in all of them. Only B. edulis and A. bisporus were linked to typical mushroom-like odor. In projective mapping, consumers evaluated blanched wild C. cibarius, C. tubaeformis and Suillus variegatus as well as cultivated Lentinula edodes and both blanched and fresh A. bisporus based on odor and on flavor. The consumers intuitively grouped the samples into three groups: wild, fresh cultivated and processed cultivated mushrooms. Wild mushrooms had a high odor intensity and various odor descriptions but a low flavor intensity. Cultivated mushrooms had opposite descriptions. Both tests showed differences in the sensory descriptors between the cultivated and wild mushrooms with the former linked to typical 'mushroom', indicating the importance and need for descriptive profiles for different mushroom types.

10.
Food Chem ; 246: 351-359, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29291860

RESUMO

The sensory-chemical profiles of Finnish honeys (labeled as buckwheat, cloudberry-bog, lingonberry, sweet clover, willowherb and multifloral honeys) were investigated using a multi-analytical approach. The sensory test (untrained panel, n = 62) was based on scaling and check-all-that-apply (CATA) methods accompanied with questions on preference and usage of honey. The results were correlated with corresponding profiles of odor-active compounds, determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). Botanical origins and chemical compositions including sugars were evaluated using NMR spectroscopy. A total of 73 odor-active compounds were listed based on GC-O. Sweet and mild honeys with familiar sensory properties were preferred by the panelists (PCA, R2X(1) = 0.7) while buckwheat and cloudberry-bog honeys with strong odor, flavor and color were regarded as unfamiliar and unpleasant. The data will give the honey industry novel information on honey properties in relation to the botanical origin, and consumer preference.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Adolescente , Adulto , Fagopyrum , Feminino , Finlândia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Melilotus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Olfatometria , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(45): 9871-9879, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29035528

RESUMO

Sensory profile, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, sugars, and organic acids were investigated in purees of six sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) cultivars. The sensory profiles of the purees were dominated by intense sourness followed by astringency and bitterness due to the high content of malic acid. Malic acid and isorhamnetin glycosides, especially isorhamnetin-3-O-sophoroside-7-O-rhamnoside, had close association with the astringent attributes in the different purees, whereas some of the known astringent compounds such as proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers or quercetin glycosides, had less impact. Moreover, the ratios between contents of acids and phenolic compounds were more important predictors of bitterness than the individual variables alone. Astringency and bitterness are important sensory factors for the consumer acceptance of sea buckthorn products. The current study provides new knowledge on the correlations between sensory properties and composition and supports industrial utilization of the sea buckthorn berries.


Assuntos
Flavonóis/análise , Frutas/química , Hippophae/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Paladar
12.
Food Chem ; 233: 263-272, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530574

RESUMO

The contribution of ethyl ß-d-glucopyranoside (EG) to sensory profile of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) was studied. The content of natural existing EG varied between 0.6 and 19.8g/L in the sea buckthorn studied. The taste threshold of pure EG was estimated in water solution as 1.1±1.3g/L, and the suprathreshold aqueous EG solution (5.0g/L) was perceived mainly as bitter. In aqueous sugar-acid mixtures, acids were the major contributors to sourness and astringency, whereas the added EG or sugars showed little impact on the overall sensory profile. EG addition increased the bitterness of sea buckthorn juice. The sensory profiles of the juices were dominated by intense sourness correlating with the malic acid content. The bitterness of the juices correlated with the EG content as well as the ratios EG/acids and EG/sugars. EG content shall be considered when selecting raw materials for industrial processing.


Assuntos
Hippophae , Carboidratos , Frutas , Paladar
13.
Food Chem ; 233: 29-37, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530577

RESUMO

Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Malus , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Oenococcus , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fermento Seco
14.
Food Chem ; 216: 87-96, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27596396

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) of varieties 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' and one of wild origin were cultivated in southern and northern Finland, harvested during 2007-2013. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) were analyzed with HILIC UPLC-ESI-MS. The southern and northern samples were separated in the partial least squares discriminant analysis model (four factors, R(2) 0.75, Q(2) 0.70). The total PAs were more abundant in berries from the north (610-970mg/100gDW) than in those from the south (340-450mg/100gDW) (p<0.05). In northern Finland, the length of the growth season as well as the temperature sum and radiation sum of the growth season until harvest were negatively correlated with the total PAs in all the samples but positively with PA oligomers in 'Tytti' and 'Terhi'. In southern Finland no respective correlations were seen. 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' had different trends in the content of total PA and oligomers in overripe stages.


Assuntos
Altitude , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Finlândia , Frutas/química , Hippophae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Estações do Ano
15.
Appetite ; 109: 190-200, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27884762

RESUMO

The primary dimension of odor is pleasantness, which is associated with a multitude of factors. We investigated how the pleasantness, familiarity, and identification of spice odors were associated with each other and with the use of the respective spice, overall use of herbs, and level of food neophobia. A total of 126 adults (93 women, 33 men; age 25-61 years, mean 39 years) rated the odors from 12 spices (oregano, anise, rosemary, mint, caraway, sage, thyme, cinnamon, fennel, marjoram, garlic, and clove) for pleasantness and familiarity, and completed a multiple-choice odor identification. Data on the use of specific spices, overall use of herbs, and Food Neophobia Scale score were collected using an online questionnaire. Familiar odors were mostly rated as pleasant (except garlic), whereas unfamiliar odors were rated as neutral (r = 0.63). We observed consistent and often significant trends that suggested the odor pleasantness and familiarity were positively associated with the correct odor identification, consumption of the respective spice, overall use of herbs, and food neophilia. Our results suggest that knowledge acquisition through repetitive exposure to spice odor with active attention may gradually increase the odor pleasantness within the framework set by the chemical characteristics of the aroma compound.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Odorantes/análise , Prazer , Recognição (Psicologia) , Especiarias/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Priming de Repetição , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Food Chem ; 221: 422-430, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27979223

RESUMO

Juice was pressed from black currants without enzyme treatment (NEB=Non-Enzymatic Berry) followed by re-pressing of the residue with enzymes (EPR=Enzymatic Press Residue) and the results were compared to the conventional enzyme-aided berry pressing (EB=Enzymatic Berry). EPR-juice had 9- and 5-fold higher contents of phenolic compounds compared with the NEB- and EB-juices, respectively. Effect of the low content and stability of phenolics was noticed as loss of the visual color in the NEB-juice during storage. The decrease in monomeric anthocyanins and the increase in phenolic acids were most severe in the NEB-juice, whereas the most significant decline in hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives occurred in the enzyme-treated juices. Storage in light induced less change in the phenolic composition in EPR-juice than in the two other juices. The study gave new knowledge on changes in individual metabolites, in sensory properties and in the shelf life of berry juices.


Assuntos
Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Ribes/química , Antocianinas/análise , Frutas/química
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(22): 4584-98, 2016 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27147482

RESUMO

The stability of phenolic compounds was followed in black currant juice at ambient temperatures (in light and in dark conditions) and at +4 °C for a year. Analyses were based on high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (or tandem mass spectrometry) and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry methods supported by nuclear magnetic resonance after selective high-performance liquid chromatography isolation. Altogether, 43 metabolites were identified, of which 2-(Z)-p-coumaroyloxymethylene-4-ß-d-glucopyranosyloxy-2-(Z)-butenenitrile, 2-(E)-caffeoyloxymethylene-4-ß-d-glucopyranosyloxy-2-(Z)-butenenitrile, 1-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl-ß-d-glucopyranose, (Z)-p-coumaric acid 4-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside, and (Z)-p-coumaric acid were novel findings in black currant juice. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives degraded 20-40% at room temperature during one year of storage, releasing free hydroxycinnamic acids. O-Glucosides of hydroxycinnamic acid compounds were the most stable, followed by O-acylquinic acids, acyloxymethyleneglucosyloxybutenenitriles, and O-acylglucoses. Light induced the isomerization of (E)-coumaric acid compounds into corresponding Z-isomers. Flavonol glycosides stayed fairly stable. Flavonol aglycones were derived mainly from malonylglucosides. Over 90% of anthocyanins were lost at room temperature in a year, practically independent of light. Storage at low temperatures, preferably excluding light, is necessary to retain the original composition of phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Flavonóis/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ribes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
18.
Food Chem ; 200: 189-98, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26830578

RESUMO

Flavonol glycosides of wild sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) berries from China and cultivated berries (H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) from Finland and Canada were identified and quantified. Twenty-six flavonol glycosides were found with isorhamnetin and quercetin as the major aglycones. The contents of flavonol glycosides ranged 23-250 mg/100 g fresh berries and were significantly higher in the berries of ssp. sinensis than in those of ssp. mongolica. Among the cultivars of ssp. mongolica, the berries of 'Oranzhevaya' had the lowest (23 mg/100 g) content, and those of 'Prevoshodnaya' the highest content of flavonol glycosides (80 mg/100 g). Within the ssp. mongolica, the samples from Kittilä (Northern Finland) had higher levels of most flavonol glycosides than those from Turku (Southern Finland) and Québec. Among the ssp. sinensis berries of different growth sites, increasing trends were detected in the contents of most of the compounds as the altitude increased and as the latitude decreased. The wild berries (ssp. sinensis) from Sichuan had remarkably high contents and unique profiles of flavonol glycosides.


Assuntos
Flavonóis/química , Frutas/química , Glicosídeos/química , Hippophae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(6): 1274-82, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26798947

RESUMO

Wild sea buckthorn berries from Finland (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) and China (ssp. sinensis) as well as berries of two varieties of ssp. rhamnoides cultivated in Finland and five of ssp. mongolica cultivated in Canada were compared on the basis of the content and composition of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Among all of the samples, only B-type PAs were found. The contents of dimeric, trimeric, tetrameric, and total PAs were in the range of 1.4-8.9, 1.3-9.5, 1.0-7.1, and 390-1940 mg/100 g of dry weight, respectively. The three subspecies were separated by three validated factors (R(2), 0.724; Q(2), 0.677) in the partial least squares discriminant analysis model. Significant differences in total PAs were found between the ssp. rhamnoides and mongolica samples (p < 0.05). In ssp. rhamnoides, samples grown in northern Finland were characterized by a high amount of total PAs, typically 2-3 times higher than that in the level found in southern Finland. In ssp. sinensis, altitude did not have a systematic effect on the PA composition, suggesting the significance of the interaction between genetic background and growth location.


Assuntos
Hippophae/genética , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Canadá , China , Finlândia , Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Patrimônio Genético , Hippophae/química , Hippophae/classificação , Hippophae/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise
20.
Food Nutr Res ; 59: 28795, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26652259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. DESIGN: Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3-6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44) and control (n=24) kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries) was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. RESULTS: In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p≤0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman), while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. CONCLUSIONS: Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children.

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