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1.
Food Chem ; 304: 125403, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479993

RESUMO

Current information on the links between the chemistry and hedonic liking of edible mushrooms is scarce. In this study, 84 consumers evaluated the appearance, odor, taste, texture and overall liking of samples of Nordic edible wild mushroom species. Subsequently, multivariate models on the effects of non-volatile compounds, odor-contributing volatile compounds, sensory attributes and hedonic likings were created. The non-volatile compounds were measured with quantitative NMR. The five studied mushroom species were different in their sugar and acid contents. Three consumer clusters were found with species*cluster interactions. Correlations with sensory attributes and chemical components were found, and the multivariate models indicated predictor attributes for each consumer cluster. The results indicate that the sensory properties could be correlated to both volatile and non-volatile compounds, there are consumer clusters with differing likings as regards mushrooms, and these clusters are heterogenic groups with no simple factors such as age explaining their liking scores.

2.
Cryobiology ; 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533026

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) hydrogels on two human derivatives during freeze-drying. Native NFC hydrogel is a suitable platform to culture 3D cell spheroids and a hydrogel processed further, called anionic NFC (ANFC) hydrogel, is an excellent platform for controlled release of proteins. Moreover, it has been shown to be compatible with freeze-drying when correct lyoprotectants are implemented. Freeze-drying is a method, where substance is first frozen, and then vacuum dried trough sublimation of water in order to achieve dry matter without the loss of the original three-dimensional structures. The first chosen human derivative was adipose tissue extract (ATE) which is a cell-free growth factor-rich preparation capable of promoting growth of regenerative cells. The release of growth factors from the freeze-dried mixture of ATE and ANFC was compared to that of non-freeze-dried control mixtures. The release profiles remained at the same level after freeze-drying. The second derivative was hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell spheroids which were evaluated before and after freeze-drying. The 3D structure of the HepG2 cell spheroids was preserved and the spheroids retained 18% of their metabolic activity after rehydration. However, the freeze-dried and rehydrated HepG2 cell spheroids did not proliferate and the cell membrane was damaged by fusion and formation of crystals.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488910

RESUMO

A green-to-blue triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion of 24.5% quantum yield was achieved at a remarkably low 600 µM annihilator concentration in a viscous polymer matrix. This was made possible by utilizing a ZnTPP-based photosensitizer with exceptionally long 11 ms phosphorescence lifetime. Higher 3 mM annihilator concentration resulted in lower 24% upconversion quantum yield.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14431, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258120

RESUMO

Halogen bonding between a carbazole-based, pyridine-substituted organic semiconductor and a common halogen-bond donor (pentafluoroiodobenzene) yields efficient halogen-bond-driven fluorescence modulation in solution. Steady-state, time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopy as well as density functional theory studies demonstrate that the fluorescence modulation arises from halogen-bond-induced intramolecular charge transfer. Fluorescence modulation offers a range of possibilities both in solution and in the solid state, for instance providing a potential pathway for the design of tunable luminescent materials for light-emitting devices.

5.
Mol Pharm ; 15(11): 5361-5373, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247922

RESUMO

The tendency for crystallization during storage and administration is the most considerable hurdle for poorly water-soluble drugs formulated in the amorphous form. There is a need to better detect often subtle and complex surface crystallization phenomena and understand their influence on the critical quality attribute of dissolution. In this study, the interplay between surface crystallization of the amorphous form during storage and dissolution testing, and its influence on dissolution behavior, is analyzed for the first time with multimodal nonlinear optical imaging (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and sum frequency generation (SFG)). Complementary analyses are provided with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Amorphous indomethacin tablets were prepared and subjected to two different storage conditions (30 °C/23% RH and 30 °C/75% RH) for various durations and then dissolution testing using a channel flow-through device. Trace levels of surface crystallinity previously imaged with nonlinear optics after 1 or 2 days of storage did not significantly decrease dissolution and supersaturation compared to the freshly prepared amorphous tablets while more extensive crystallization after longer storage times did. Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of the tablet surfaces after 15 min of dissolution revealed complex crystallization behavior that was affected by both storage condition and time, with up to four crystalline polymorphs simultaneously observed. In addition to the well-known α- and γ-forms, the less reported metastable ε- and η-forms were also observed, with the ε-form being widely observed in samples that had retained significant surface amorphousness during storage. This form was also prepared in the pure form and further characterized. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential value of nonlinear optical imaging, together with more established solid-state analysis methods, to understand complex surface crystallization behavior and its influence on drug dissolution during the development of amorphous drugs and dosage forms.

6.
Int J Pharm ; 548(1): 113-119, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920312

RESUMO

Drug release from a new type of matrix material consisting of partially fibrillated microcrystalline cellulose was investigated. A mechanical treatment of novel AaltoCell™ cellulose microcrystals caused partial opening of the nanofibrillary structure of the cellulose particles and entanglement of individual particles led into formation of an elastic network of microcrystalline cellulose. The rheological properties of the stable hydrogel-like materials were characterised by shear rheometry. Model compounds metronidazole and lysozyme were successfully employed in drug release experiments carried out by delignified (bleached) and lignin-containing matrices. The viscosity as well as the lignin-content played a role in the release dynamics of the drugs. Microcrystalline AaltoCell™ was proven as high-performing material for diffusion controlled release of the chosen model compounds and can be seen as a safe and economical alternative for novel matrix materials such as nanocellulose or cellulose derivatives.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Coloides , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Metronidazol/química , Muramidase/química , Reologia , Viscosidade
7.
Pharm Res ; 35(7): 145, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790010

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bioadhesion is an important property of biological membranes, that can be utilized in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In this study, we have fabricated mucoadhesive drug releasing films with bio-based, non-toxic and biodegradable polymers that do not require chemical modifications. METHODS: Nanofibrillar cellulose and anionic type nanofibrillar cellulose were used as film forming materials with known mucoadhesive components mucin, pectin and chitosan as functional bioadhesion enhancers. Different polymer combinations were investigated to study the adhesiveness, solid state characteristics, film morphology, swelling, mechanical properties, drug release with the model compound metronidazole and in vitro cytotoxicity using TR146 cells to model buccal epithelium. RESULTS: SEM revealed lamellar structures within the films, which had a thickness ranging 40-240 µm depending on the film polymer composition. All bioadhesive components were non-toxic and showed high adhesiveness. Rapid drug release was observed, as 60-80% of the total amount of metronidazole was released in 30 min depending on the film formulation. CONCLUSIONS: The liquid molding used was a straightforward and simple method to produce drug releasing highly mucoadhesive films, which could be utilized in treating local oral diseases, such as periodontitis. All materials used were natural biodegradable polymers from renewable sources, which are generally regarded as safe.

8.
Mol Pharm ; 15(5): 1964-1971, 2018 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29584954

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical scientists are increasingly interested in amorphous drug formulations especially because of their higher dissolution rates. Consequently, the thorough characterization and analysis of these formulations are becoming more and more important for the pharmaceutical industry. Here, fluorescence-lifetime-imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to monitor the crystallization of an amorphous pharmaceutical compound, indomethacin. Initially, we identified different solid indomethacin forms, amorphous and γ- and α-crystalline, on the basis of their time-resolved fluorescence. All of the studied indomethacin forms showed biexponential decays with characteristic fluorescence lifetimes and amplitudes. Using this information, the crystallization of amorphous indomethacin upon storage in 60 °C was monitored for 10 days with FLIM. The progress of crystallization was detected as lifetime changes both in the FLIM images and in the fluorescence-decay curves extracted from the images. The fluorescence-lifetime amplitudes were used for quantitative analysis of the crystallization process. We also demonstrated that the fluorescence-lifetime distribution of the sample changed during crystallization, and when the sample was not moved between measuring times, the lifetime distribution could also be used for the analysis of the reaction kinetics. Our results clearly show that FLIM is a sensitive and nondestructive method for monitoring solid-state transformations on the surfaces of fluorescent samples.

9.
Food Chem ; 247: 23-28, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277224

RESUMO

Edible mushrooms are valued because of their umami taste and good nutritional values. Free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides and nucleosides were analyzed from four Nordic forest mushroom species (Lactarius camphoratus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus tubaeformis) using high precision liquid chromatography analysis. To our knowledge, these taste components were studied for the first time from Craterellus tubaeformis and Lactarius camphoratus. The focus was on the umami amino acids and 5'-nucleotides. The free amino acid and 5'-nucleotide/nucleoside contents of studied species differed from each other. In all studied samples, umami amino acids were among five major free amino acids. The highest concentration of umami amino acids was on L. camphoratus whereas B. edulis had the highest content of sweet amino acids and C. cibarius had the highest content of bitter amino acids. The content of umami enhancing 5'-nucleotides were low in all studied species.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Nucleosídeos/análise , Basidiomycota/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Finlândia , Análise de Alimentos , Florestas , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Nucleotídeos/análise , Paladar
10.
Anal Chem ; 89(21): 11460-11467, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28950703

RESUMO

Two nonlinear imaging modalities, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and sum-frequency generation (SFG), were successfully combined for sensitive multimodal imaging of multiple solid-state forms and their changes on drug tablet surfaces. Two imaging approaches were used and compared: (i) hyperspectral CARS combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and SFG imaging and (ii) simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging. Three different solid-state forms of indomethacin-the crystalline gamma and alpha forms, as well as the amorphous form-were clearly distinguished using both approaches. Simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging was faster, but hyperspectral CARS and SFG imaging has the potential to be applied to a wider variety of more complex samples. These methodologies were further used to follow crystallization of indomethacin on tablet surfaces under two storage conditions: 30 °C/23% RH and 30 °C/75% RH. Imaging with (sub)micron resolution showed that the approach allowed detection of very early stage surface crystallization. The surfaces progressively crystallized to predominantly (but not exclusively) the gamma form at lower humidity and the alpha form at higher humidity. Overall, this study suggests that multimodal nonlinear imaging is a highly sensitive, solid-state (and chemically) specific, rapid, and versatile imaging technique for understanding and hence controlling (surface) solid-state forms and their complex changes in pharmaceuticals.

11.
Int J Pharm ; 532(1): 269-280, 2017 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888974

RESUMO

Concentrated 3% and 6.5% anionic nanofibrillar cellulose (ANFC) hydrogels were introduced as matrix reservoirs for controlled delivery applications of small molecules and proteins. A further aim was to study how the freeze-drying and subsequent rehydration of ANFC hydrogel affects the rheological properties and drug release of selected model compounds from the reconstructed hydrogels. It was demonstrated that the 3% and 6.5% ANFC hydrogels can be freeze-dried with suitable excipients into highly porous aerogel structures and redispersed back into the hydrogel form without significant change in the rheological properties. Freeze-drying did not affect the drug release properties from redispersed ANFC hydrogels, indicating that these systems could be stored in the dry form and only redispersed when needed. For large molecules, the diffusion coefficients were significantly smaller when higher ANFC fiber content was used, indicating that the amount of ANFC fibers in the hydrogel can be used to control the release rate. The release of small molecules was controlled with the ANFC fiber content only to a moderate extent. The results indicate that ANFC hydrogel can be used for controlled delivery of several types of molecules and that the hydrogel can be successfully freeze-dried and redispersed.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Hidrogéis/química , Nanofibras/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Dextranos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/análogos & derivados , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/química , Liofilização , Cetoprofeno/química , Metronidazol/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Muramidase/química , Nadolol/química , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Reologia , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
12.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183487, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829830

RESUMO

Hydrogel nanomaterials, especially those that are of non-human and non-animal origins, have great potential in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences due to their versatility and inherent soft-tissue like properties. With the ability to simulate native tissue function, hydrogels are potentially well suited for cellular therapy applications. In this study, we have fabricated nanofibrillar cellulose-alginate (NFCA) suture coatings as biomedical devices to help overcome some of the limitations related to cellular therapy, such as low cell survivability and distribution out of target tissue. The addition of sodium alginate 8% (w/v) increased the NFCA hydrogel viscosity, storage and loss moduli by slightly under one order of magnitude, thus contributing significantly to coating strength. Confocal microscopy showed nearly 100% cell viability throughout the 2-week incubation period within and on the surface of the coating. Additionally, typical morphologies in the dual cell culture of spheroid forming HepG2 and monolayer type SK-HEP-1 were observed. Twelve out of 14 NFCA coated surgical sutures remained intact during the suturing operation with various mice and rat tissue; however, partial peeling off was observed in 2 of the coated sutures. We conclude that NFCA suture coatings could perform as cell-carrier systems for cellular based therapy and post-surgical treatment.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Celulose/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Portadores de Fármacos , Hidrogéis/química , Nanofibras , Suturas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ácido Glucurônico/química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Ratos , Reologia
13.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 100: 238-248, 2017 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28126561

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to construct biopolymer-based oil-in-water emulsion formulations for encapsulation and release of poorly water soluble model compounds naproxen and ibuprofen. Class II hydrophobin protein HFBII from Trichoderma reesei was used as a surfactant to stabilize the oil/water interfaces of the emulsion droplets in the continuous aqueous phase. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was used as a viscosity modifier to further stabilize the emulsions and encapsulate protein coated oil droplets in NFC fiber network. The potential of both native and oxidized NFC were studied for this purpose. Various emulsion formulations were prepared and the abilities of different formulations to control the drug release rate of naproxen and ibuprofen, used as model compounds, were evaluated. The optimal formulation for sustained drug release consisted of 0.01% of drug, 0.1% HFBII, 0.15% oxidized NFC, 10% soybean oil and 90% water phase. By comparison, the use of native NFC in combination with HFBII resulted in an immediate drug release for both of the compounds. The results indicate that these NFC originated biopolymers are suitable for pharmaceutical emulsion formulations. The native and oxidized NFC grades can be used as emulsion stabilizers in sustained and immediate drug release applications. Furthermore, stabilization of the emulsions was achieved with low concentrations of both HFBII and NFC, which may be an advantage when compared to surfactant concentrations of conventional excipients traditionally used in pharmaceutical emulsion formulations.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Ibuprofeno/química , Nanofibras/química , Naproxeno/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Emulsões , Ácidos Oleicos/química , Óleo de Soja/química , Trichoderma , Viscosidade
14.
Pharm Res ; 34(5): 957-970, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27738954

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of compression on the crystallization behavior in amorphous tablets using sum frequency generation (SFG) microscopy imaging and more established analytical methods. METHOD: Tablets containing neat amorphous griseofulvin with/without excipients (silica, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were prepared. They were analyzed upon preparation and storage using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SFG microscopy. RESULTS: Compression-induced crystallization occurred predominantly on the surface of the neat amorphous griseofulvin tablets, with minimal crystallinity being detected in the core of the tablets. The presence of various types of excipients was not able to mitigate the compression-induced surface crystallization of the amorphous griseofulvin tablets. However, the excipients affected the crystallization rate of amorphous griseofulvin in the core of the tablet upon compression and storage. CONCLUSIONS: SFG microscopy can be used in combination with ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and SEM to understand the crystallization behaviour of amorphous tablets upon compression and storage. When selecting excipients for amorphous formulations, it is important to consider the effect of the excipients on the physical stability of the amorphous formulations.


Assuntos
Comprimidos/química , Celulose/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cristalização/métodos , Excipientes/química , Griseofulvina/química , Metilcelulose/análogos & derivados , Metilcelulose/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Pressão , Dióxido de Silício/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
15.
Mol Pharm ; 13(6): 2095-107, 2016 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27097108

RESUMO

Light-triggered drug delivery systems enable site-specific and time-controlled drug release. In previous work, we have achieved this with liposomes containing gold nanoparticles in the aqueous core. Gold nanoparticles absorb near-infrared light and release the energy as heat that increases the permeability of the liposomal bilayer, thus releasing the contents of the liposome. In this work, we replaced the gold nanoparticles with the clinically approved imaging agent indocyanine green (ICG). The ICG liposomes were stable at storage conditions (4-22 °C) and at body temperature, and fast near-infrared (IR) light-triggered drug release was achieved with optimized phospholipid composition and a 1:50 ICG-to-lipid molar ratio. Encapsulated small molecular calcein and FITC-dextran (up to 20 kDa) were completely released from the liposomes after light exposure for 15 s. Location of ICG in the PEG layer of the liposomes was simulated with molecular dynamics. ICG has important benefits as a light-triggering agent in liposomes: fast content release, improved stability, improved possibility of liposomal size control, regulatory approval to use in humans, and the possibility of imaging the in vivo location of the liposomes based on the fluorescence of ICG. Near-infrared light used as a triggering mechanism has good tissue penetration and safety. Thus, ICG liposomes are an attractive option for light-controlled and efficient delivery of small and large drug molecules.


Assuntos
Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Verde de Indocianina/química , Lipossomos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Fluorescência , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química
16.
Langmuir ; 32(18): 4554-63, 2016 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27089512

RESUMO

In light-activated liposomal drug delivery systems (DDSs), the light sensitivity can be obtained by a photothermal agent that converts light energy into heat. Excess heat increases the drug permeability of the lipid bilayer, and drug is released as a result. In this work, two near-IR responsive photothermal agents in a model drug delivery system are studied: either gold nanorods (GNRs) encapsulated inside the liposomes or indocyanine green (ICG) embedded into the lipid bilayer. The liposome system is exposed to light, and the heating effect is studied with fluorescent thermometers: laurdan and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Both photothermal agents are shown to convert light into heat in an extent to cause a phase transition in the surrounding lipid bilayer. This phase transition is also proven with laurdan generalized polarization (GP). In addition to the heating results, we show that the model drug (calcein) is released from the liposomal cavity with both photothermal agents when the light power is sufficient to cause a phase transition in the lipid bilayer.


Assuntos
Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Ouro/química , Verde de Indocianina/química , Luz , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Nanotubos/química , Transição de Fase , Temperatura Ambiente , Cápsulas , Lipossomos , Segurança
17.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 103: 13-22, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26955750

RESUMO

The optimal design of oral amorphous formulations benefits from the use of excipients to maintain drug supersaturation and thus ensures adequate absorption during intestinal transit. The use of surfactants for the maintenance of supersaturation in amorphous formulations has not been investigated in detail. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surfactant on the dissolution behavior of neat amorphous drug and binary polymer based solid dispersion. Indomethacin was used as the model drug and the surfactants studied were polysorbate 80 and poloxamer 407. The presence of surfactants (alone or in combination with polymers) in the buffer was detrimental to the dissolution of neat amorphous indomethacin, suggesting that the surfactants promoted the crystallization of neat amorphous indomethacin. In contrast, the presence of surfactants (0.01% w/v) in the buffer resulted in a significant improvement on the dissolution behavior of binary polymer based solid dispersion. Incorporating the surfactant to the formulation to form ternary solid dispersion adversely affected the dissolution behavior. In conclusion, the use of surfactants (as wetting or solubilization agents) in dissolution studies of neat amorphous drugs requires prudent consideration. The design of amorphous formulations with optimal dissolution performance requires the appropriate selection of a combination of excipients and consideration of the method of introducing the excipients.


Assuntos
Tensoativos/farmacologia , Cristalização , Indometacina/química , Solubilidade , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
18.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 408(3): 761-74, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26549117

RESUMO

In this work, we utilize a short-wavelength, 532-nm picosecond pulsed laser coupled with a time-gated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector to acquire Raman spectra of several drugs of interest. With this approach, we are able to reveal previously unseen Raman features and suppress the fluorescence background of these drugs. Compared to traditional Raman setups, the present time-resolved technique has two major improvements. First, it is possible to overcome the strong fluorescence background that usually interferes with the much weaker Raman spectra. Second, using the high photon energy excitation light source, we are able to generate a stronger Raman signal compared to traditional instruments. In addition, observations in the time domain can be performed, thus enabling new capabilities in the field of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. With this system, we demonstrate for the first time the possibility of recording fluorescence-suppressed Raman spectra of solid, amorphous and crystalline, and non-photoluminescent and photoluminescent drugs such as caffeine, ranitidine hydrochloride, and indomethacin (amorphous and crystalline forms). The raw data acquired by utilizing only the picosecond pulsed laser and a CMOS SPAD detector could be used for identifying the compounds directly without any data processing. Moreover, to validate the accuracy of this time-resolved technique, we present density functional theory (DFT) calculations for a widely used gastric acid inhibitor, ranitidine hydrochloride. The obtained time-resolved Raman peaks were identified based on the calculations and existing literature. Raman spectra using non-time-resolved setups with continuous-wave 785- and 532-nm excitation lasers were used as reference data. Overall, this demonstration of time-resolved Raman and fluorescence measurements with a CMOS SPAD detector shows promise in diverse areas, including fundamental chemical research, the pharmaceutical setting, process analytical technology (PAT), and the life sciences.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Fluorescência , Metais/química , Óxidos/química , Análise Espectral Raman/instrumentação
19.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 4: 28533, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26649679

RESUMO

Current analysis of exosomes focuses primarily on bulk analysis, where exosome-to-exosome variability cannot be assessed. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy to study the chemical composition of single exosomes. We measured spectra of individual exosomes from 8 cell lines. Cell-line-averaged spectra varied considerably, reflecting the variation in total exosomal protein, lipid, genetic, and cytosolic content. Unexpectedly, single exosomes isolated from the same cell type also exhibited high spectral variability. Subsequent spectral analysis revealed clustering of single exosomes into 4 distinct groups that were not cell-line specific. Each group contained exosomes from multiple cell lines, and most cell lines had exosomes in multiple groups. The differences between these groups are related to chemical differences primarily due to differing membrane composition. Through a principal components analysis, we identified that the major sources of spectral variation among the exosomes were in cholesterol content, relative expression of phospholipids to cholesterol, and surface protein expression. For example, exosomes derived from cancerous versus non-cancerous cell lines can be largely separated based on their relative expression of cholesterol and phospholipids. We are the first to indicate that exosome subpopulations are shared among cell types, suggesting distributed exosome functionality. The origins of these differences are likely related to the specific role of extracellular vesicle subpopulations in both normal cell function and carcinogenesis, and they may provide diagnostic potential at the single exosome level.

20.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 80: 74-81, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26296864

RESUMO

Selection of a crystallinity detection tool that is able to predict the critical quality attributes of amorphous formulations is imperative for the development of process control strategies. The main aim of this study was to determine the crystallinity detection tool that best predicts the critical quality attributes (i.e. physical stability and dissolution behaviour) of amorphous material. Glibenclamide (model drug) was milled for various durations using a planetary mill and characterised using Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Physical stability studies upon storage at 60°C/0% RH and dissolution studies (non-sink conditions) were performed on the milled glibenclamide samples. Different milling durations were needed to render glibenclamide fully amorphous according to Raman spectroscopy (60min) and onset of crystallisation using DSC (150min). This could be due to the superiority of DSC (onset of crystallisation) in detecting residual crystallinity in the samples milled for between 60 and 120min, which were not detectable with Raman spectroscopy. The physical stability upon storage and dissolution behaviour of the milled samples improved with increased milling duration and plateaus were reached after milling for certain periods of time (physical stability - 150min; dissolution - 120min). The residual crystallinity which was detectable with DSC (onset of crystallisation), but not with Raman spectroscopy, adversely affected the critical quality attributes of milled glibenclamide samples. In addition, mathematical simulations were performed on the dissolution data to determine the solubility advantages of the milled glibenclamide samples and to describe the crystallisation process that occurred during dissolution in pH7.4 phosphate buffer. In conclusion, the onset of crystallisation obtained from DSC measurements best predicts the critical quality attributes of milled glibenclamide samples and mathematical simulations based on the solvent-mediated crystallisation model were successfully performed on the dissolution data.


Assuntos
Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria/métodos , Glibureto/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cristalização , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Análise Espectral Raman
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