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1.
New Phytol ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034954

RESUMO

The popular dual definition of lichen symbiosis is under question with recent findings of additional microbial partners living within the lichen body. Here we compare the distribution and co-occurrence patterns of lichen photobiont and recently described secondary fungus (Cyphobasidiales yeast) to evaluate their dependency on lichen host fungus (mycobiont). We sequenced the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) strands for mycobiont, photobiont, and yeast from six widespread northern hemisphere epiphytic lichen species collected from 25 sites in Switzerland and Estonia. Interaction network analyses and multivariate analyses were conducted on operational taxonomic units based on ITS sequence data. Our study demonstrates the frequent presence of cystobasidiomycete yeasts in studied lichens and shows that they are much less mycobiont-specific than the photobionts. Individuals of different lichen species growing on the same tree trunk consistently hosted the same or closely related mycobiont-specific Trebouxia lineage over geographic distances while the cystobasidiomycete yeasts were unevenly distributed over the study area - contrasting communities were found between Estonia and Switzerland. These results contradict previous findings of high mycobiont species specificity of Cyphobasidiales yeast at large geographic scales. Our results suggest that the yeast might not be as intimately associated with the symbiosis as is the photobiont.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(8): 4218-4227, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034102

RESUMO

When plants establish outside their native range, their ability to adapt to the new environment is influenced by both demography and dispersal. However, the relative importance of these two factors is poorly understood. To quantify the influence of demography and dispersal on patterns of genetic diversity underlying adaptation, we used data from a globally distributed demographic research network comprising 35 native and 18 nonnative populations of Plantago lanceolata Species-specific simulation experiments showed that dispersal would dilute demographic influences on genetic diversity at local scales. Populations in the native European range had strong spatial genetic structure associated with geographic distance and precipitation seasonality. In contrast, nonnative populations had weaker spatial genetic structure that was not associated with environmental gradients but with higher within-population genetic diversity. Our findings show that dispersal caused by repeated, long-distance, human-mediated introductions has allowed invasive plant populations to overcome environmental constraints on genetic diversity, even without strong demographic changes. The impact of invasive plants may, therefore, increase with repeated introductions, highlighting the need to constrain future introductions of species even if they already exist in an area.

3.
New Phytol ; 225(1): 183-195, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479517

RESUMO

Fast stomatal reactions enable plants to successfully cope with a constantly changing environment yet there is an ongoing debate on the stomatal regulation mechanisms in basal plant groups. We measured stomatal morphological parameters in 29 fern and allied species from temperate to tropical biomes and two outgroup angiosperm species. Stomatal dynamic responses to environmental drivers were measured in 16 ferns and the two angiosperms using a gas-exchange system. Principal components analyses were used to further reveal the structure-function relationships in stomata. We show a > 10-fold variation for stomatal opening delays and 20-fold variation for stomatal closing delays in ferns. Across species, stomatal responses to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were the fastest, while light and [CO2 ] responses were slower. In most cases the outgroup species' reaction speeds to changes in environmental variables were similar to those of ferns. Correlations between stomatal response rate and size were apparent for stomatal opening in light and low [CO2 ] while not evident for closing reactions and changes in VPD. No correlations between stomatal density and response speed were observed. Together, this study demonstrates different mechanisms controlling stomatal reactions in ferns at different environmental stimuli, which should be considered in future studies relating stomatal morphology and function.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7917, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114013

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6443, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015512

RESUMO

Although many studies have shown that species richness decreases from low to high latitudes (the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient), little is known about the relationship between latitude and phylogenetic diversity. Here we examine global latitudinal patterns of phylogenetic diversity using a dataset of 459 woody and 589 herbaceous plant communities. We analysed the relationships between community phylogenetic diversity, latitude, biogeographic realm and vegetation type. Using the most recent global megaphylogeny for seed plants and the standardised effect sizes of the phylogenetic diversity metrics 'mean pairwise distance' (SESmpd) and 'mean nearest taxon distance' (SESmntd), we found that species were more closely-related at low latitudes in woody communities. In herbaceous communities, species were more closely-related at high latitudes than at intermediate latitudes, and the strength of this effect depended on biogeographic realm and vegetation type. Possible causes of this difference are contrasting patterns of speciation and dispersal. Most woody lineages evolved in the tropics, with many gymnosperms but few angiosperms adapting to high latitudes. In contrast, the recent evolution of herbaceous lineages such as grasses in young habitat types may drive coexistence of closely-related species at high latitudes. Our results show that high species richness commonly observed at low latitudes is not associated with high phylogenetic diversity.

7.
Phytochemistry ; 147: 80-88, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304384

RESUMO

Diterpenoids constitute an important part of oleoresin in conifer needles, but the environmental and genetic controls on diterpenoid composition are poorly known. We studied the presence of diterpenoids in four pine populations spanning an extensive range of nitrogen (N) availability. In most samples, isoabienol was the main diterpenoid. Additionally, low contents of (Z)-biformene, abietadiene isomers, manoyl oxide isomers, labda-7,13,14-triene and labda-7,14-dien-13-ol were quantified in pine needles. According to the occurrence and content of diterpenoids it was possible to distinguish 'non diterpenoid pines', 'high isoabienol pines', 'manoyl oxide - isoabienol pines' and 'other diterpenoid pines'. 'Non diterpenoid pines', 'high isoabienol pines' and 'other diterpenoid pines' were characteristic to the dry forest, yet the majority of pines (>80%) of the bog Laeva represented 'high isoabienol pines'. 'Manoyl oxide - isoabienol pines' were present only in the wet sites. Additionally, orthogonal partial least-squares analysis showed, that in the bogs foliar nitrogen content per dry mass (NM) correlated to diterpenoids. Significant correlations existed between abietadienes, isoabienol and foliar NM in 'manoyl oxide - isoabienol pines', and chemotypic variation was also associated by population genetic distance estimated by nuclear microsatellite markers. Previously, the presence of low and high Δ-3-carene pines has been demonstrated, but the results of the current study indicate that also diterpenoids form an independent axis of chemotypic differentiation. Further studies are needed to understand whether the enhanced abundance of diterpenoids in wetter sites reflects a phenotypic or genotypic response.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/análise , Naftóis/química , Pinus/química , Diterpenos/química , Conformação Molecular , Fenótipo
8.
J Exp Bot ; 68(7): 1639-1653, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28419340

RESUMO

Mesophyll conductance is thought to be an important photosynthetic limitation in gymnosperms, but they currently constitute the most understudied plant group in regard to the extent to which photosynthesis and intrinsic water use efficiency are limited by mesophyll conductance. A comprehensive analysis of leaf gas exchange, photosynthetic limitations, mesophyll conductance (calculated by three methods previously used for across-species comparisons), and the underlying ultra-anatomical, morphological and chemical traits in 11 gymnosperm species varying in evolutionary history was performed to gain insight into the evolution of structural and physiological controls on photosynthesis at the lower return end of the leaf economics spectrum. Two primitive herbaceous species were included in order to provide greater evolutionary context. Low mesophyll conductance was the main limiting factor of photosynthesis in the majority of species. The strongest sources of limitation were extremely thick mesophyll cell walls, high chloroplast thickness and variation in chloroplast shape and size, and the low exposed surface area of chloroplasts per unit leaf area. In gymnosperms, the negative relationship between net assimilation per mass and leaf mass per area reflected an increased mesophyll cell wall thickness, whereas the easy-to-measure integrative trait of leaf mass per area failed to predict the underlying ultrastructural traits limiting mesophyll conductance.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Cycadopsida/metabolismo , Células do Mesofilo/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Cycadopsida/citologia , Células do Mesofilo/citologia , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Selaginellaceae/citologia , Selaginellaceae/metabolismo
9.
J Exp Bot ; 67(17): 5067-91, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27406782

RESUMO

The present study provides a synthesis of the in vitro and in vivo temperature responses of Rubisco Michaelis-Menten constants for CO2 (Kc) and O2 (Ko), specificity factor (Sc,o) and maximum carboxylase turnover rate (kcatc) for 49 species from all the main photosynthetic kingdoms of life. Novel correction routines were developed for in vitro data to remove the effects of study-to-study differences in Rubisco assays. The compilation revealed differences in the energy of activation (∆Ha) of Rubisco kinetics between higher plants and other photosynthetic groups, although photosynthetic bacteria and algae were under-represented and very few species have been investigated so far. Within plants, the variation in Rubisco temperature responses was related to species' climate and photosynthetic mechanism, with differences in ∆Ha for kcatc among C3 plants from cool and warm environments, and in ∆Ha for kcatc and Kc among C3 and C4 plants. A negative correlation was observed among ∆Ha for Sc/o and species' growth temperature for all data pooled, supporting the convergent adjustment of the temperature sensitivity of Rubisco kinetics to species' thermal history. Simulations of the influence of varying temperature dependences of Rubisco kinetics on Rubisco-limited photosynthesis suggested improved photosynthetic performance of C3 plants from cool habitats at lower temperatures, and C3 plants from warm habitats at higher temperatures, especially at higher CO2 concentration. Thus, variation in Rubisco kinetics for different groups of photosynthetic organisms might need consideration to improve prediction of photosynthesis in future climates. Comparisons between in vitro and in vivo data revealed common trends, but also highlighted a large variability among both types of Rubisco kinetics currently used to simulate photosynthesis, emphasizing the need for more experimental work to fill in the gaps in Rubisco datasets and improve scaling from enzyme kinetics to realized photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/fisiologia , Temperatura
10.
New Phytol ; 209(4): 1576-90, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26508678

RESUMO

Ferns and fern allies have low photosynthetic rates compared with seed plants. Their photosynthesis is thought to be limited principally by physical CO2 diffusion from the atmosphere to chloroplasts. The aim of this study was to understand the reasons for low photosynthesis in species of ferns and fern allies (Lycopodiopsida and Polypodiopsida). We performed a comprehensive assessment of the foliar gas-exchange and mesophyll structural traits involved in photosynthetic function for 35 species of ferns and fern allies. Additionally, the leaf economics spectrum (the interrelationships between photosynthetic capacity and leaf/frond traits such as leaf dry mass per unit area or nitrogen content) was tested. Low mesophyll conductance to CO2 was the main cause for low photosynthesis in ferns and fern allies, which, in turn, was associated with thick cell walls and reduced chloroplast distribution towards intercellular mesophyll air spaces. Generally, the leaf economics spectrum in ferns follows a trend similar to that in seed plants. Nevertheless, ferns and allies had less nitrogen per unit DW than seed plants (i.e. the same slope but a different intercept) and lower photosynthesis rates per leaf mass area and per unit of nitrogen.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Gleiquênias/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Difusão , Meio Ambiente , Células do Mesofilo/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Glob Chang Biol ; 21(7): 2726-2738, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25641681

RESUMO

Although the distribution ranges and abundance of many plant species have declined dramatically in recent decades, detailed analysis of these changes and their cause have only become possible following the publication of second- and third-generation national distribution atlases. Decline can now be compared both between species and in different parts of species' ranges. We extracted data from distribution atlases to compare range persistence of 736 plant species common to both the UK and Estonia between survey periods encompassing almost the same years (1969 and 1999 in the UK and 1970 and 2004 in Estonia). We determined which traits were most closely associated with variation in species persistence, whether these were the same in each country, and the extent to which they explained differences in persistence between the countries. Mean range size declined less in Estonia than in the UK (24.3% vs. 30.3%). One-third of species in Estonia (239) maintained >90% of their distribution range compared with one-fifth (141) in the UK. In Estonia, 99 species lost >50% of their range compared with 127 species in the UK. Persistence was very positively related to original range in both countries. Major differences in species persistence between the studied countries were primarily determined by biogeographic (affiliation to floristic element) and ecoevolutionary (plant strategy) factors. In contrast, within-country persistence was most strongly determined by tolerance of anthropogenic activities. Decline of species in the families Orchidaceae and Potamogetonaceae was significantly greater in the UK than in Estonia. Almost all of the 736 common and native European plant species in our study are currently declining in their range due to pressure from anthropogenic activities. Those species with low tolerance of human activity, with biotic pollination vectors and in the families referred to above are the most vulnerable, especially where human population density is high.

12.
Science ; 350(6265): 1177, 2015 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26785470

RESUMO

Fraser et al. (Reports, 17 July 2015, p. 302) report that a hump-backed model describes the worldwide relationship between productivity and plant species richness in grassland communities. We reanalyze their data from a larger-scale perspective, using local species pool. This influences richness far more strongly than productivity, and, when this is taken into account, the hump-backed richness-productivity relationship disappears.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Pradaria , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
13.
Glob Ecol Biogeogr ; 24(5): 571-580, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367836

RESUMO

Aims: According to traditional ecophysiological theories stress tolerance of plants is predominately determined by universal physiochemical constraints. Plant acclimation to environmental stress therefore compromises plant performance under a different stress, hindering successful toleration of several abiotic stress factors simultaneously. Yet, recent studies have shown that these trade-offs are less exclusive than postulated so far, leaving more wiggle room for gaining polytolerance through adaptations We tested whether the polytolerance to shade and drought depends on cold and waterlogging tolerances - hypothesizing that polytolerance patterns in different species groups (angiosperms vs. gymnosperms; deciduous vs. evergreen; species originating from North America, Europe and East Asia) depend on the length of the vegetation period and species's dormancy through limiting the duration of favourable growing season. Location: Northern hemisphere. Methods: Our study analyzed four main abiotic stress factors - shade, drought, cold and waterlogging stress - for 806 Northern hemisphere woody species using cross-calibrated tolerance rankings. The importance of trade-offs among species ecological potentials was evaluated using the species-specific estimates of polytolerance to chosen factors. Results: We found that both cold and waterlogging tolerance are negatively related to species' capabilities of simultaneously tolerating low light and water conditions. While this pattern was different in angiosperms and gymnosperms, species region of origin and leaf type had no effect on this relationship. Main conclusions: Our results demonstrate that adaptation to different abiotic stress factors in woody plants is highly complex. Vegetation period length and dormancy are the key factors explaining why woody plants are less capable of tolerating both shade and drought in habitats where vegetation period is relatively short and water table high. While dormancy enables angiosperms to more successfully face additional stress factors besides shade and drought, gymnosperms have lower polytolerance, but are better tolerators of shade and drought when other environmental factors are favorable.

14.
Oecologia ; 173(2): 545-55, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23468237

RESUMO

Recent meta-analyses and simulation studies have suggested that the relationship between soil resource heterogeneity and plant diversity (heterogeneity-diversity relationship; HDR) may be negative when heterogeneity occurs at small spatial scales. To explore different mechanisms that can explain a negative HDR, we conducted a mesocosm experiment combining a gradient of soil nutrient availability (low, medium, high) and scale of heterogeneity (homogeneous, large-scale heterogeneous, small-scale heterogeneous). The two heterogeneous treatments were created using chessboard combinations of low and high fertility patches, and had the same overall fertility as the homogeneous medium treatment. Soil patches were designed to be relatively larger (156 cm(2)) and smaller (39 cm(2)) than plant root extent. We found plant diversity was significantly lower in the small-scale heterogeneous treatment compared to the homogeneous treatment of the same fertility. Additionally, low fertility patches in the small-scale heterogeneous treatment had lower diversity than patches of the same size in the low fertility treatment. Shoot and root biomass were larger in the small-scale heterogeneous treatment than in the homogeneous treatment of the same fertility. Further, we found that soil resource heterogeneity may reduce diversity indirectly by increasing shoot biomass, thereby enhancing asymmetric competition for light resources. When soil resource heterogeneity occurs at small spatial scales it can lower plant diversity by increasing asymmetric competition belowground, since plants with large root systems can forage among patches and exploit soil resources. Additionally, small-scale soil heterogeneity may lower diversity indirectly, through increasing light competition, when nutrient uptake by competitive species increases shoot biomass production.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Solo/química , Ecossistema , Estônia
15.
Oecologia ; 171(1): 217-26, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22752212

RESUMO

Although recent studies have revealed that the relationship between diversity and environmental heterogeneity is not always positive, as classical niche theory predicts, scientists have had difficulty interpreting these results from an ecological perspective. We propose a new concept-microfragmentation-to explain how small-scale heterogeneity can have neutral or even negative effect on species diversity. We define microfragmentation as a community level process of splitting habitat into a more heterogeneous environment that can have non-positive effects on the diversity through habitat loss and subsequent isolation. We provide support for the microfragmentation concept with results from spatially explicit heterogeneity-diversity model simulations, in which varying sets of species (with different ratios of specialist and generalist species) were modeled at different levels of configurational heterogeneity (meaning that only the habitat structure was changed, not its composition). Our results indicate that environmental heterogeneity can affect community diversity in the same way as fragmentation at the landscape level. Although generalist species might not be seriously affected by microfragmentation, the persistence of specialist species can be seriously disturbed by small-scale patchiness. The microfragmentation concept provides new insight into community level diversity dynamics and can influence conservation and management strategies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional
17.
Ecology ; 88(5): 1091-7, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17536394

RESUMO

The relationship between net primary productivity and biological diversity has been a central topic in ecology for several decades. The unimodal ("hump-back") relationship has been the most widely accepted for plants with the decrease in diversity at high productivity usually attributed to competitive exclusion. However, the relatively small species pool size under high productivity conditions may account for this pattern as well. Small species pool sizes for highly productive habitats are characteristic of temperate regions, where productive habitats for speciation and species migration have historically been rare. In contrast, productive habitats in the tropics have been relatively common during evolutionary history, resulting in large species pools. We hypothesize that evolutionary history contributes to the observed productivity-diversity relationship of plants, and that the productivity-diversity relationship differs between temperate and tropical regions. We investigated the productivity-diversity relationship patterns from 163 case studies throughout the world. Latitude described approximately 80% of the variation in the shape of the relationships. The unimodal relationship was found to dominate in the temperate zone, whereas the positive relationship was significantly more common in the tropics. We detected no influence due to methods of productivity measurement, but unimodal or positive productivity-diversity relationships were more likely within larger ranges of productivity. The length of the productivity gradient did not affect the latitudinal influence. In summary, the shape of the productivity-diversity relationship differs between temperate and tropical regions and the different evolutionary history of the local species pools is a probable cause for the difference.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Reprodução/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Biomassa , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Dinâmica Populacional , Especificidade da Espécie
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