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1.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479149

RESUMO

Importance: Risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is the major barrier to using natalizumab for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, the association of risk stratification with PML incidence has not been evaluated. Objective: To describe the temporal evolution of PML incidence in France before and after introduction of risk minimization recommendations in 2013. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational study used data in the MS registry OFSEP (Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques) collected between April 15, 2007, and December 31, 2016, by participating MS expert centers and MS-dedicated networks of neurologists in France. Patients with an MS diagnosis according to current criteria, regardless of age, were eligible, and those exposed to at least 1 natalizumab infusion (n = 6318) were included in the at-risk population. A questionnaire was sent to all centers, asking for a description of their practice regarding PML risk stratification. Data were analyzed in July 2018. Exposures: Time from the first natalizumab infusion to the occurrence of PML, natalizumab discontinuation plus 6 months, or the last clinical evaluation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence was the number of PML cases reported relative to the person-years exposed to natalizumab. A Poisson regression model for the 2007 to 2016 period estimated the annual variation in incidence and incidence rate ratio (IRR), adjusted for sex and age at treatment initiation and stratified by period (2007-2013 and 2013-2016). Results: In total, 6318 patients were exposed to natalizumab during the study period, of whom 4682 (74.1%) were female, with a mean (SD [range]) age at MS onset of 28.5 (9.1 [1.1-72.4]) years; 45 confirmed incident cases of PML were diagnosed in 22 414 person-years of exposure. The crude incidence rate for the whole 2007 to 2016 period was 2.00 (95% CI, 1.46-2.69) per 1000 patient-years. Incidence significantly increased by 45.3% (IRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.15-1.83; P = .001) each year before 2013 and decreased by 23.0% (IRR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97; P = .03) each year from 2013 to 2016. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study suggest, for the first time, a decrease in natalizumab-associated PML incidence since 2013 in France that may be associated with a generalized use of John Cunningham virus serologic test results; this finding appears to support the continuation and reinforcement of educational activities and risk-minimization strategies in the management of disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis.

2.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 36: 101406, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the management of multiple sclerosis (MS), defining criteria for identification of suboptimal therapy responses and switching treatment is essential to avoid worsening. Despite the lack of a standardised definition, criteria for first-line treatment are well documented in the literature, based on clinical measures or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (gadolinium enhancing [Gd+] lesions or new/enlarging T2 lesions) assessed during the first 6-18 months after treatment initiation. However, it is unknown whether the same criteria can be used for second-line treatment failure. METHODS: Five regional boards involving 36 French MS experts were convened to discuss published literature regarding criteria for first- and second-line treatment failure, and to identify differences in local therapeutic practices. A national board of 11 experts was subsequently conducted to identify convergences and differences between regions, and to propose second-line criteria for the definition of therapeutic failure. RESULTS: Published information is lacking regarding second-line treatment failure criteria. In light of this, regional differences in current therapeutic practices are justifiable. Due to the risk-benefit ratio of these treatments and limited options for third-line treatments, the authors recommend a different therapeutic approach when assessing second-line treatment failure. The treatment switch for second-line treatment should be informed by confirmed disease progression, after 6 months, or combined clinical and MRI outcomes, but only after at least 1 year of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Experts compared therapeutic attitudes and practices regarding second-line treatment failure between French regions. They identified convergences that were used to propose a national agreement on second-line treatment failure criteria, which should be evaluated in real-life prospective cohorts.

3.
Eur J Neurol ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing patients' disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) requires time-consuming batteries of hospital tests. MSCopilot is a software medical device for the self-assessment of patients with MS (PwMS), combining 4 tests: walking, dexterity, cognition, and low contrast vision. The objective was to validate MSCopilot versus Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC). METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover study, enrolled 141 PwMS and 76 healthy controls (HC). All participants performed MSCopilot and MSCFC tests at day 0. To assess reproducibility, 46 PwMS performed the same tests at day 30±3. The primary endpoint was the validation of MSCopilot versus MSFC for the identification of PwMS against HCs, quantified using area under the curve (AUC). Main secondary endpoint: correlation of MSCopilot z-scores with MSFC z-scores. RESULTS: 116 PwMS and 69 HC were analysed. The primary endpoint was achieved: MSCopilot performance was non-inferior to that of MSFC (AUC 0.92 and 0.89 respectively; P=.3). MSCopilot and MSFC discriminated PwMS and HC with 81% and 76% sensitivity and 82% and 88% specificity respectively. Digital and standard test scores were highly correlated (r = 0.81; P<.001). The test-retest study demonstrated the good reproducibility of MSCopilot. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the reliability of MSCopilot and its usability in clinical practice for the monitoring of MS-related disability.

4.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinico-radiological features and long-term prognosis in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri). METHODS: Twenty-eight CAA-ri patients were recruited retrospectively from 6 neurological centers. We recorded the clinico-radiological and biological data, at baseline and during follow-up. Baseline characteristics associated with relapse risk and prognosis were assessed. RESULTS: Five patients had pathologically confirmed CAA-ri whereas 23 had probable (n = 21) or possible (n = 2) CAA-ri. The mean age was 72 years; main clinical symptoms included confusion (54%), hemiparesis (36%), and aphasia (29%). Cerebral MRI disclosed a brain parenchymal lesion (89%), which was usually multifocal (82%) and bilateral (89%). It was associated with gadolinium enhancement (84%), small ischemic lesions (39%), cortical superficial siderosis (CSS; 50%), and a high number of microbleeds (mean 240 ± 277). An isolated leptomeningeal involvement was observed in 3 patients with pathological confirmation. Despite a favorable initial evolution after treatment, we observed a 42% risk of relapse, mostly within the first year (83%). After a mean follow-up of 2 years, 29% died and 25% had a marked disability. Disseminated CSS was associated with death. CONCLUSION: Despite an apparently favorable initial evolution, CAA-ri is characterized by a poor prognosis. Diagnostic criteria should consider patients with isolated leptomeningeal involvement.

5.
Neurology ; 93(7): e635-e646, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we compared the effectiveness of teriflunomide (TRF) and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on both clinical and MRI outcomes in patients followed prospectively in the Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques. METHODS: A total of 1,770 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) (713 on TRF and 1,057 on DMF) with an available baseline brain MRI were included in intention to treat. The 1- and 2-year postinitiation outcomes were relapses, increase of T2 lesions, increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale score, and reason for treatment discontinuation. Propensity scores (inverse probability weighting) and logistic regressions were estimated. RESULTS: The confounder-adjusted proportions of patients were similar in TRF- compared to DMF-treated patients for relapses and disability progression after 1 and 2 years. However, the adjusted proportion of patients with at least one new T2 lesion after 2 years was lower in DMF compared to TRF (60.8% vs 72.2%, odds ratio [OR] 0.60, p < 0.001). Analyses of reasons for treatment withdrawal showed that lack of effectiveness was reported for 8.5% of DMF-treated patients vs 14.5% of TRF-treated patients (OR 0.54, p < 0.001), while adverse events accounted for 16% of TRF-treated patients and 21% of DMF-treated patients after 2 years (OR 1.39, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: After 2 years of treatment, we found similar effectiveness of DMF and TRF in terms of clinical outcomes, but with better MRI-based outcomes for DMF-treated patients, resulting in a lower rate of treatment discontinuation due to lack of effectiveness. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with RRMS, TRF and DMF have similar clinical effectiveness after 2 years of treatment.

6.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 134, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) are related to several acquired demyelinating syndromes in adults, but the therapeutic approach is currently unclear. We aimed to describe the response to different therapeutic strategies in adult patients with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease. METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted in France and Spain including 125 relapsing MOG-Ab patients aged ≥ 18 years. First, we performed a survival analysis to investigate the relapse risk between treated and non-treated patients, performing a propensity score method based on the inverse probability of treatment weighting. Second, we assessed the annualised relapse rates (ARR), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and visual acuity pre-treatment and on/end-treatment. RESULTS: Median age at onset was 34.1 years (range 18.0-67.1), the female to male ratio was 1.2:1, and 96% were Caucasian. At 5 years, 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77.1-89.8) patients relapsed. At the last follow-up, 66 (52.8%) received maintenance therapy. Patients initiating immunosuppressants (azathioprine, mycophenolate mophetil [MMF], rituximab) were at lower risk of new relapse in comparison to non-treated patients (HR, 0.41; 95CI%, 0.20-0.82; p = 0.011). Mean ARR (standard deviation) was reduced from 1.05(1.20) to 0.43(0.79) with azathioprine (n = 11; p = 0.041), from 1.20(1.11) to 0.23(0.60) with MMF (n = 11; p = 0.033), and from 1.08(0.98) to 0.43(0.89) with rituximab (n = 26; p = 0.012). Other immunosuppressants (methotrexate/mitoxantrone/cyclophosphamide; n = 5), or multiple sclerosis disease-modifying drugs (MS-DMD; n = 9), were not associated with significantly reduced ARR. Higher rates of freedom of EDSS progression were observed with azathioprine, MMF or rituximab. CONCLUSION: In adults with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease, immunosuppressant therapy (azathioprine, MMF and rituximab) is associated with reduced risk of relapse and better disability outcomes. Such an effect was not found in the few patients treated with MS-DMD.

8.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 19(7): 695-706, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195842

RESUMO

Introduction: The number of immunomodulatory options approved for multiple sclerosis has increased over the past years, resulting in a better control of the disease. Depending on disease activity, neurologists can now propose treatments with different levels of efficacy, from injectable and oral treatments with modest efficacy, to highly active immunosuppressants. Nevertheless, this gain in efficacy has come with an increase in the global burden of treatment-related adverse events. Areas covered: The authors have reviewed extensively the existing literature to gain insight into the adverse events associated with disease modifying therapies, so as to help neurologists choose the right treatment for their patients. The authors classified and summarized the adverse events based on frequency, severity and relevance. Expert opinion: As the number and diversity of adverse events is expected to increase, careful surveillance of patients under treatment will be even more important. The characteristics of the MS population, i.e. mainly young women of childbearing age, who will remain treated for decades, and the need for serial administration of distinct treatments with different mechanisms of action highlights the importance of a comprehensive risk-benefit assessment.

9.
J Neuroradiol ; 46(5): 312-318, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228536

RESUMO

The spectrum of Myelin Oligodendrocytes Glycoprotein (MOG) antibody disease constitutes a recently described challenging entity, referring to a relatively new spectrum of autoimmune disorders with antibodies against MOG predominantly involving the optic nerve and spinal cord. The purpose of this article is to describe MRI features of MOG-AD involvement in the optic nerves, spinal cord and the brain of adults.

10.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(9): 1027-1038, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the recently proposed diagnostic criteria for chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS). METHODS: We enrolled 42 patients with hindbrain punctate and/or linear enhancements (<3 mm in diameter) and tested the CLIPPERS criteria. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 50 months (IQR 25-82), 13 out of 42 patients were CLIPPERS-mimics: systemic and central nervous system lymphomas (n=7), primary central nervous system angiitis (n=4) and autoimmune gliopathies (n=2). The sensitivity and specificity of the CLIPPERS criteria were 93% and 69%, respectively. Nodular enhancement ( ≥ 3 mm in diameter), considered as a red flag in CLIPPERS criteria, was present in 4 out of 13 CLIPPERS-mimics but also in 2 out of 29 patients with CLIPPERS, explaining the lack of sensitivity. Four out of 13 CLIPPERS-mimics who initially met the CLIPPERS criteria displayed red flags at the second attack with a median time of 5.5 months (min 3, max 18), explaining the lack of specificity. One of these four patients had antimyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies, and the three remaining patients relapsed despite a daily dose of prednisone/prednisolone ≥ 30 mg and a biopsy targeting atypical enhancing lesions revealed a lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that (1) nodular enhancement should be considered more as an unusual finding than a red flag excluding the diagnosis of CLIPPERS; (2) red flags may occur up to 18 months after disease onset; (3) as opposed to CLIPPERS-mimics, no relapse occurs when the daily dose of prednisone/prednisolone is ≥ 30 mg; and (4) brain biopsy should target an atypical enhancing lesion when non-invasive investigations remain inconclusive.

11.
Brain ; 142(6): 1573-1586, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009047

RESUMO

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare neurogenetic disorder with diverse neuropsychiatric expression. Mutations in four genes cause autosomal dominant PFBC: SLC20A2, XPR1, PDGFB and PDGFRB. Recently, biallelic mutations in the MYORG gene have been reported to cause PFBC with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We screened MYORG in 29 unrelated probands negatively screened for the autosomal dominant PFBC genes and identified 11 families with a biallelic rare or novel predicted damaging variant. We studied the clinical and radiological features of 16 patients of these 11 families and compared them to that of 102 autosomal dominant PFBC patients carrying a mutation in one of the four known autosomal dominant PFBC genes. We found that MYORG patients exhibited a high clinical penetrance with a median age of onset of 52 years (range: 21-62) with motor impairment at the forefront. In particular, dysarthria was the presenting sign in 11/16 patients. In contrast to patients with autosomal dominant PFBC, 12/15 (80%) symptomatic patients eventually presented at least four of the following five symptoms: dysarthria, cerebellar syndrome, gait disorder of any origin, akinetic-hypertonic syndrome and pyramidal signs. In addition to the most severe clinical pattern, MYORG patients exhibited the most severe pattern of calcifications as compared to the patients from the four autosomal dominant PFBC gene categories. Strikingly, 12/15 presented with brainstem calcifications in addition to extensive calcifications in other brain areas (lenticular nuclei, thalamus, cerebellar hemispheres, vermis, ±cortex). Among them, eight patients exhibited pontine calcifications, which were observed in none of the autosomal dominant PFBC patients and hence appeared to be highly specific. Finally, all patients exhibited cerebellar atrophy with diverse degrees of severity on CT scans. We confirmed the existence of cerebellar atrophy by performing MRI voxel-based morphometry analyses of MYORG patients with autosomal dominant PFBC mutation carriers as a comparison group. Of note, in three families, the father carried small pallido-dentate calcifications while carrying the mutation at the heterozygous state, suggesting a putative phenotypic expression in some heterozygous carriers. In conclusion, we confirm that MYORG is a novel major PFBC causative gene and that the phenotype associated with such mutations may be recognized based on pedigree, clinical and radiological features.

12.
J Neurol ; 266(7): 1743-1755, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of atypical inflammatory demyelinating lesions can be difficult. Brain biopsy is often required to exclude neoplasms. Moreover, the relationship between these lesions and multiple sclerosis and NMOSD is not clear. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to describe radiological and pathological characteristics of patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating lesions. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with brain biopsy performed for diagnostic uncertainty revealing a demyelinating lesion. A complete clinical, biological, radiological and pathological analysis was performed. RESULTS: Twenty patients (15 with a single lesion) were included. MRI disclosed a wide range of lesions including infiltrative lesions (40%), ring-like lesion (15%) Baló-like lesion (15%) and acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (20%). In spite of a marked heterogeneity, some findings were common: a peripheral B1000 hyperintense rim (70%), a slight oedema with mild mass effect (75%) and an open-rim peripheral enhancement (75%). Histopathology revealed that all cases featured macrophages distributed throughout, extensive demyelination, axonal preservation and absence of haemorrhagic changes. In the majority of cases, macrophages were the predominant inflammatory infiltrate and astrocytes were reactive and dystrophic. Aquaporin-4 staining was systematically preserved. After a mean follow-up of 5 years (1-12), 16/20 patients had a diagnosis of monophasic acute atypical inflammatory demyelinating lesion. One patient was diagnosed with MS and 3 with AQP4 negative NMOSD. DISCUSSION: Although imaging findings in patients with atypical inflammatory demyelinating lesions are heterogeneous, some common features such as peripheral DWI hyperintense rim with open-rim enhancement and absence of oedema argue in favour of a demyelinating lesion and should preclude a brain biopsy. In this context, AQP4 staining is systematically preserved and argues against an AQP4-positive NMOSD. Moreover, long-term follow-up is characterized by low recurrence rate.

14.
Brain ; 142(3): 633-646, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715195

RESUMO

Spinal cord lesions detected on MRI hold important diagnostic and prognostic value for multiple sclerosis. Previous attempts to correlate lesion burden with clinical status have had limited success, however, suggesting that lesion location may be a contributor. Our aim was to explore the spatial distribution of multiple sclerosis lesions in the cervical spinal cord, with respect to clinical status. We included 642 suspected or confirmed multiple sclerosis patients (31 clinically isolated syndrome, and 416 relapsing-remitting, 84 secondary progressive, and 73 primary progressive multiple sclerosis) from 13 clinical sites. Cervical spine lesions were manually delineated on T2- and T2*-weighted axial and sagittal MRI scans acquired at 3 or 7 T. With an automatic publicly-available analysis pipeline we produced voxelwise lesion frequency maps to identify predilection sites in various patient groups characterized by clinical subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale score and disease duration. We also measured absolute and normalized lesion volumes in several regions of interest using an atlas-based approach, and evaluated differences within and between groups. The lateral funiculi were more frequently affected by lesions in progressive subtypes than in relapsing in voxelwise analysis (P < 0.001), which was further confirmed by absolute and normalized lesion volumes (P < 0.01). The central cord area was more often affected by lesions in primary progressive than relapse-remitting patients (P < 0.001). Between white and grey matter, the absolute lesion volume in the white matter was greater than in the grey matter in all phenotypes (P < 0.001); however when normalizing by each region, normalized lesion volumes were comparable between white and grey matter in primary progressive patients. Lesions appearing in the lateral funiculi and central cord area were significantly correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score (P < 0.001). High lesion frequencies were observed in patients with a more aggressive disease course, rather than long disease duration. Lesions located in the lateral funiculi and central cord area of the cervical spine may influence clinical status in multiple sclerosis. This work shows the added value of cervical spine lesions, and provides an avenue for evaluating the distribution of spinal cord lesions in various patient groups.

15.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(2): e543, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800725

RESUMO

Objective: To describe clinical and radiologic features of cranial nerve (CN) involvement in patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) and to assess the potential underlying mechanism of CN involvement using a nonhuman primate (NHP) model. Methods: Epidemiologic, clinical, and radiologic features from a national cohort of 273 MOG-IgG-positive patients were retrospectively reviewed for CN involvement between January 2014 and January 2018. MOG-IgG binding was evaluated in CNS, CN, and peripheral nerve tissues from NHP. Results: We identified 3 MOG-IgG-positive patients with radiologic and/or clinical CN involvement. Two patients displayed either trigeminal or vestibulocochlear nerve lesions at the root level, and the remaining patient had an oculomotor nerve involvement at the root exit and at the cisternal level. Additional CNS involvement was found in all 3 patients. None of the 3 patients' sera recognized MOG expression in CN of NHP. Conclusion: Craneal nerve involvement can coexist in patients with MOG antibody disease, although the underlying pathophysiology remains elusive.

16.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 28: 309-312, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data are available regarding patients with very late-onset inflammatory demyelinating events. (VLO-IDE). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, biological, and radiological characteristics and aetiological diagnosis of very late first inflammatory demyelinating events of the central nervous system. METHODS: We conducted a national descriptive retrospective multicentre study on a case series of patients aged >70 years at the time of VLO-IDE. Patients were recruited from a national call on behalf of the 'Société Francophone de la Sclérose en Plaques' (French Multiple Sclerosis Society). RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were referred (F:M sex ratio 2.1:1). The most frequent clinical impairment was a spinal cord deficit (23/25), usually severe (disability score, median EDSS 4.5 [2-9.5]). Spinal cord lesions were usually extensive, spanning at least three segments (11/25), and large brain lesions were also observed (lesions >20 mm in 6/25). The final aetiological diagnoses comprised multiple sclerosis (9/25), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (7/25), neurosystemic lupus erythematosus (2/25), transverse myelitis without aetiological diagnosis (6/25) and optic neuritis (1/25). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights a particular phenotype of first clinical inflammatory demyelinating events in predominantly female patients aged >70 years who have severe motor impairment with common longitudinal extensive myelitis and large and common very active radiological inflammatory lesions. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders seem overrepresented.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/diagnóstico , Doenças Desmielinizantes/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
J Neurol ; 266(4): 806-815, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab) titres at onset of the disease were different according to the clinical phenotype at presentation, and to investigate whether the titres were associated with risk of further relapses or predicted clinical outcome in adult patients. Finally, we assessed an alternative method to the classical measurement of MOG-Ab levels by serial dilutions. METHODS: This is a retrospective study including 79 MOG-Ab-positive adult patients, whose samples were obtained at first episode. MOG-Ab were tested by cell-based assay. HEK293 cells were transfected (tHEK293) with human-MOG plasmid. Non-tHEK293 cells were used as negative controls. Assessment of antibody titres was performed by serial dilution, and delta mean fluorescence intensity ratio signal (MOG-ratio ΔMFI) by flow cytometry. MOG-ratio ΔMFI was calculated as follows: (MFI tHEK293cells- MFI non-tHEK293cells)/MFI non-tHEK293cells. MOG-ratio ΔMFI was calculated from the first serum dilution at 1:320. The association between MOG-Ab titres and risk of relapse was analyzed by Cox regression. The association between MOG-Ab titres and visual or motor disability at last follow-up was performed by binary logistic regression. Poor visual outcome was defined when patients displayed some degree of visual disability (visual acuity [VA] < 20/20) and poor motor outcome when patients displayed some degree of motor disability (Disability Status Scale [DSS] > 1). We also investigated correlations between MOG-Ab titres and MOG-ratio ΔMFI. RESULTS: MOG-Ab titres were higher in Caucasians than in those with other ethnicities, and in patients with a more severe VA (VA ≤ 20/100) or motor disability (DSS ≥ 3.0) at onset (p = 0.006, 0.034, and 0.058, respectively). MOG-Ab titres were not associated with risk of relapses or with the final clinical outcome. MOG-ratio ΔMFI correlated with MOG-Ab titres in the whole cohort (ρ = 0.90; p < 0.001), and when stratified by initial clinical phenotype. CONCLUSION: High MOG-Ab titres at onset are associated with a more severe presentation, but do not predict the future disease course. MOG-ratio ΔMFI is an alternative and straightforward method to determine MOG-Ab levels.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Desmielinizantes/imunologia , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Mielite/imunologia , Neurite Óptica/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bioensaio , Doenças Desmielinizantes/sangue , Doenças Desmielinizantes/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mielite/sangue , Mielite/terapia , Neurite Óptica/sangue , Neurite Óptica/terapia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Bull Cancer ; 106(1S): S92-S101, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527815

RESUMO

The Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) organized the 8th allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation clinical practices harmonization workshop series in September 2017 in Lille, France. In this article we give the indications of autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis as well as recommendations regarding post-transplant follow-up of patients under the hospice of the SFGM-TC and the Francophone Society of Multiple Sclerosis.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/normas , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Fatores Etários , Autoenxertos , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Contraindicações de Procedimentos , França , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Sociedades Médicas , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/normas , Transplante Homólogo
19.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 28: 109-116, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent 2017 modification have increased the sensitivity of McDonald criteria for MS. Nevertheless, some MS patients with atypical MRI findings have been identified, leading to prolonged delay to diagnosis and high costs to look for alternative diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of MS patients with atypical MRI presentation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with atypical MS were identified through a nationwide retrospective study. We established a five groups classification: tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL)-onset MS, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like MS, cavitary MS and leukodystrophy-like MS. All the patients meeting our radiological criteria for atypical MS were included. RESULTS: A total of 57 patients met the inclusion criteria. 7 cases were classified in the TDL-onset group, 10 in the ADEM-like group, 26 in the cavitary group and 14 in the leukodystrophy-like group. Overall risk of conversion to MS after an isolated TDL was around 30% at five years. Patients in the TDL-onset and ADEM-like groups globally presented an acute onset and a relapsing-remitting evolution. Conversely, patients in the cavitary and leukodystrophy- groups largely evolved with a progressive and severe course. CONCLUSION: A significant number of MS patients can have a striking atypical presentation and may be misdiagnosed. This preliminary analysis helps to refine the spectrum of atypical MS patients.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados Preliminares , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neuroimage ; 184: 901-915, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300751

RESUMO

The spinal cord is frequently affected by atrophy and/or lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Segmentation of the spinal cord and lesions from MRI data provides measures of damage, which are key criteria for the diagnosis, prognosis, and longitudinal monitoring in MS. Automating this operation eliminates inter-rater variability and increases the efficiency of large-throughput analysis pipelines. Robust and reliable segmentation across multi-site spinal cord data is challenging because of the large variability related to acquisition parameters and image artifacts. In particular, a precise delineation of lesions is hindered by a broad heterogeneity of lesion contrast, size, location, and shape. The goal of this study was to develop a fully-automatic framework - robust to variability in both image parameters and clinical condition - for segmentation of the spinal cord and intramedullary MS lesions from conventional MRI data of MS and non-MS cases. Scans of 1042 subjects (459 healthy controls, 471 MS patients, and 112 with other spinal pathologies) were included in this multi-site study (n = 30). Data spanned three contrasts (T1-, T2-, and T2∗-weighted) for a total of 1943 vol and featured large heterogeneity in terms of resolution, orientation, coverage, and clinical conditions. The proposed cord and lesion automatic segmentation approach is based on a sequence of two Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). To deal with the very small proportion of spinal cord and/or lesion voxels compared to the rest of the volume, a first CNN with 2D dilated convolutions detects the spinal cord centerline, followed by a second CNN with 3D convolutions that segments the spinal cord and/or lesions. CNNs were trained independently with the Dice loss. When compared against manual segmentation, our CNN-based approach showed a median Dice of 95% vs. 88% for PropSeg (p ≤ 0.05), a state-of-the-art spinal cord segmentation method. Regarding lesion segmentation on MS data, our framework provided a Dice of 60%, a relative volume difference of -15%, and a lesion-wise detection sensitivity and precision of 83% and 77%, respectively. In this study, we introduce a robust method to segment the spinal cord and intramedullary MS lesions on a variety of MRI contrasts. The proposed framework is open-source and readily available in the Spinal Cord Toolbox.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Medula Espinal/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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