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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750562

RESUMO

We report on 318 patients with acute leukemia, receiving donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) in complete hematologic remission (CHR) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). DLI were applied preemptively (preDLI) for minimal residual disease (MRD, n = 23) or mixed chimerism (MC, n = 169), or as prophylaxis in high-risk patients with complete chimerism and molecular remission (proDLI, n = 126). Median interval from alloSCT to DLI1 was 176 days, median follow-up was 7.0 years. Five-year cumulative relapse incidence (CRI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free and overall survival (LFS/OS) of the entire cohort were 29.1%, 12.7%, 58.2%, and 64.3%. Cumulative incidences of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) grade II-IV°/chronic GvHD were 11.9%/31%. Nineteen patients (6%) died from DLI-induced GvHD. Age ≥60 years (p = 0.046), advanced stage at transplantation (p = 0.003), shorter interval from transplantation (p = 0.018), and prior aGvHD ≥II° (p = 0.036) were risk factors for DLI-induced GvHD. GvHD did not influence CRI, but was associated with NRM and lower LFS/OS. Efficacy of preDLI was demonstrated by decreasing MRD/increasing blood counts in 71%, and increasing chimerism in 70%. Five-year OS after preDLI for MRD/MC was 51%/68% among responders, and 37% among non-responders. The study describes response and outcome of DLI in CHR and helps to identify candidates without increased risk of severe GvHD.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: The treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in patients older than 70 is extremely challenging with dismal outcome. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) has seen many advancements in the last decades showing benefits in younger ALL patients, but this treatment modality is decreasingly used with increasing age due to high treatment-related mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 84 ALL patients 70 to 84 years old allografted In 2002 to 2019 from a matched related (23%), unrelated (58%), haploidentical (17%), or cord blood (2%) donor at EBMT participating centers with a median follow-up of 23 months. RESULTS: The 2-year relapse incidence (RI) and non-relapse mortality were 37% and 28%, respectively, and 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 35%, 39% and 23%, respectively. The strongest predictor of outcome was disease status at transplant whereby patients in first complete remission (CR1) had >50% 2-year OS, reflected in multivariate analysis (MVA) with significant improvement in RI, LFS, and GRFS (HR 0.23, 0.49, and 0.54, respectively). Furthermore, karnofsky score ≥90 reflective of good functional status positively influenced non-relapse mortality in both univariate and MVA (HR 0.37), and interestingly, donor CMV positivity appeared to negatively affect RI, LFS and OS in univariate analysis and RI in MVA (HR 2.87). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that alloHCT is an option for elderly ALL patients, particularly those carefully selected and transplanted in CR1 especially if failed or without access to novel non-chemotherapy-based approaches.

3.
JACC CardioOncol ; 3(2): 250-259, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396331

RESUMO

Background: Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) has become a standard of care in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease. However, data on cardiac events associated with PT-Cy are scarce. Objectives: This study sought to assess the incidence and clinical features of cardiac events associated with PT-Cy. Methods: The study compared clinical outcomes between patients who received PT-Cy (n = 136) and patients who did not (n = 195), with a focus on early cardiac events (ECE) occurring within the first 100 days after HSCT. All patients had the same systematic cardiac monitoring. Results: The cumulative incidence of ECE was 19% in the PT-Cy group and 6% in the no-PT-Cy group (p < 0.001). The main ECE occurring after PT-Cy were left ventricular systolic dysfunction (13%), acute pulmonary edema (7%), pericarditis (4%), arrhythmia (3%), and acute coronary syndrome (2%). Cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with ECE. In multivariable analysis, the use of PT-Cy was associated with ECE (hazard ratio: 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.4 to 4.9; p = 0.002]. Older age, sequential conditioning regimen, and Cy exposure before HSCT were also associated with a higher incidence of ECE. Finally, a history of cardiac events before HSCT and ECE had a detrimental impact on overall survival. Conclusions: PT-Cy is associated with a higher incidence of ECE occurring within the first 100 days after HSCT. Patients who have a cardiac event after HSCT have lower overall survival. These results may help to improve the selection of patients who are eligible to undergo HSCT with PT-Cy, especially older adult patients and patients with previous exposure to Cy.

5.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(11): 2742-2748, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247199

RESUMO

Since cord blood transplantation (CBT) has been associated with high graft-versus-leukemia effects and a low incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we hypothesized that long-term outcomes might be better in CBT patients than in those given grafts from unrelated donors (UD). Therefore, we performed a landmark study comparing long-term outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients alive and disease-free 2 years after transplantation who received grafts from either CBT or UD. A total of 364 CBT recipients, 2648 UD 10/10 patients and 681 patients given grafts from UD 9/10 were included. Median follow-up was 6.0 years. Five-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) from transplantation was 86% in CBT patients, 84% in UD 10/10 patients (P = 0.36) and 84% in UD 9/10 patients (P = 0.86). On multivariate analysis, donor type had no impact on LFS. Similarly, no impact of donor type was observed on relapse incidence or non-relapse mortality. Factors associated with poorer LFS on multivariate analysis included higher age at transplantation (P < 0.001), male gender (P < 0.001), second complete remission (CR2) versus CR1 (P = 0.05), secondary AML (P = 0.01), antecedent of chronic GVHD (P < 0.001) and poor-risk cytogenetics (P = 0.01). In conclusion, our study shows that long-term outcome for AML patients in CR two years after transplantation is not impacted by donor type.

6.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(10): 2454-2463, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059801

RESUMO

Severe hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This multinational, prospective, observational study (NCT03032016), performed by the EBMT, enrolled patients treated with defibrotide from April 2015 to July 2018. This analysis focused on defibrotide-treated patients with VOD/SOS post-HCT. The primary endpoint was incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs) of interest up to 12 months post-HCT in patients with severe VOD/SOS. Overall, 104 defibrotide-treated patients with VOD/SOS post-HCT were enrolled: 62 had severe VOD/SOS and comprised the primary study population, including 36 with multi-organ dysfunction/failure (MOD/MOF). SAEs of interest occurred in 20 of 62 (32%) severe VOD/SOS patients; the most common by category were infection (24%) and bleeding (13%). In patients with severe VOD/SOS, the Kaplan-Meier-estimated Day 100 survival rate was 73% (95% CI: 60%, 82%) with VOD/SOS resolution by Day 100 in 45 of 62 (73%) patients. MOD/MOF resolved in 19 of 36 (53%) patients with MOD/MOF at VOD/SOS diagnosis. Results from this multicentre registry study build on prior defibrotide studies supporting the utility of defibrotide for the treatment of VOD/SOS post-HCT. These results provide additional real-world evidence of the effectiveness and safety of defibrotide in patients with VOD/SOS post-HCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/etiologia , Humanos , Polidesoxirribonucleotídeos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
7.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(10): 2445-2453, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059800

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia with runt-related transcription factor 1 gene mutation (RUNX1+ AML) is associated with inferior response rates and outcome after conventional chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective, registry-based analysis to elucidate the prognostic value of RUNX1 mutation after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). All consecutive adults undergoing alloSCT for AML in first complete remission (CR1) between 2013 and 2019 with complete information on conventional cytogenetics and RUNX1 mutational status were included. Endpoints of interest were cumulative relapse incidence, non-relapse mortality, overall and leukemia-free survival (OS/LFS), and GvHD-free/relapse-free survival. A total of 674 patients (183 RUNX1+, 491 RUNX1-) were identified, with >85% presenting as de novo AML. Median follow-up was 16.4 (RUNX1+) and 21.9 (RUNX1-) months. Survival rates showed no difference between RUNX1+ and RUNX1- patients either in univariate or multivariate analysis (2-year OS: 67.7 vs. 66.1%, p = 0.7; 2-year LFS: 61.1 vs. 60.8%, p = 0.62). Multivariate analysis identified age, donor type and poor cytogenetics as risk factors for inferior outcome. Among patients with RUNX+ AML, older age, reduced intensity conditioning and minimal residual disease at alloSCT predicted inferior outcome. Our data provide evidence that the negative influence of RUNX1 mutations in patients with AML can be overcome by transplantation in CR1.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Mutação , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
8.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 408.e1-408.e6, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965180

RESUMO

Few therapeutic options are available for patients with acute myeloid or lymphoblastic leukemia (AML/ALL) relapsing after a second allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT2). In selected patients a third allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT3) has been used, but no detailed analysis is available so far. The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry was screened for patients with acute leukemia (AL) receiving alloSCT3 from an identical or alternative donor to treat AL in either haematological relapse or disease persistence after alloSCT2 between 2001 and 2018. Feasibility, efficacy, outcome, and risk factors of this approach were analyzed retrospectively. Forty-five patients (median age, 37 years, range 12-71) with AML (n=34) or ALL (n=11) were identified. Eleven patients received alloSCT3 in complete remission (CR), 34 had active disease. Fifteen patients were transplanted from the same donor at all three transplants, 30 patients had at least 2 different donors. Between alloSCT2 and alloSCT3, the donor was changed in 25 patients. After alloSCT3, 38 patients engrafted, and 26 achieved CR or CR with incomplete hematological reconstitution (CRi). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) grade II-IV was observed in 19%, chronic GvHD occurred in 13%. After 1-year, cumulative incidences of leukemia relapse and non-relapse mortality were 47% and 42%, respectively. Median progression free and overall survival (PFS/OS) from alloSCT3 were 2.5 and 4 months, respectively, 1-year PFS and OS were 11% and 20%,. Outcome was improved in patients with at least one donor change (1-year PFS/OS: 17%/30%), further factors for better outcome included an unrelated donor for alloSCT3, Karnofsky performance score >80, and more recent year of alloSCT3. Only patients with AML achieved >1 year OS. In conclusion, results after a third alloSCT are poor, limiting this procedure to few, highly selected patients. Recurrent relapses of acute leukemia after alloSCT remain an unmet therapeutic need.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Medula Óssea , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 84, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no information on the impact of donor type in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) using homogeneous graft-versus-host (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of adult patients with ALL in CR1 that had received HCT with PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis from HLA-matched sibling (MSD) (n = 78), matched unrelated (MUD) (n = 94) and haploidentical family (Haplo) (n = 297) donors registered in the EBMT database between 2010 and 2018. The median follow-up period of the entire cohort was 2.2 years. RESULTS: Median age of patients was 38 years (range 18-76). Compared to MSD and MUD, Haplo patients received peripheral blood less frequently. For Haplo, MUD, and MSD, the cumulative incidence of 100-day acute GVHD grade II-IV and III-IV, and 2-year chronic and extensive chronic GVHD were 32%, 41%, and 34% (p = 0.4); 13%, 15%, and 15% (p = 0.8); 35%, 50%, and 42% (p = 0.01); and 11%, 17%, and 21% (p = 0.2), respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality was 20%, 20%, and 28% (p = 0.8); and 21%, 18%, and 21% (p = 0.8) for Haplo, MUD, and MSD, respectively. The leukemia-free survival, overall survival and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival for Haplo, MUD, and MSD was 59%, 62%, and 51% (p = 0.8); 66%, 69%, and 62% (p = 0.8); and 46%, 44%, and 35% (p = 0.9), respectively. On multivariable analysis, transplant outcomes did not differ significantly between donor types. TBI-based conditioning was associated with better LFS. CONCLUSIONS: Donor type did not significantly affect transplant outcome in patient with ALL receiving SCT with PTCy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Haploidêntico/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(9): 2194-2202, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931757

RESUMO

Optimal donor choice for a second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains undefined. We compared outcomes using HLA-matched unrelated donors (MUD) versus haploidentical donors in this population. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The MUD allo-HCT group comprised 104 patients (male = 56, 54%), median age 36 years, mostly (76%) with B-cell phenotype in complete remission (CR) (CR2/CR3 + = 76, 73%). The 61 patients (male = 38, 62%) in the haploidentical group were younger, median age 30 years (p = 0.002), had mostly (79%) a B-cell phenotype and the majority were also in CR at time of the second allo-HCT (CR2/CR3 + = 40, 66%). Peripheral blood stem cells was the most common cell source in both, but a significantly higher number in the haploidentical group received bone marrow cells (26% vs. 4%, p < 0.0001). A haploidentical donor second allo-HCT had a 1.5-fold higher 2-year OS (49% vs. 31%), albeit not statistically significant (p = 0.13). A longer time from first allo-HCT to relapse was associated with improved OS, leukemia-free survival, graft-versus-host disease-free-relapse-free survival, and lower cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality. Results suggest no major OS difference when choosing either a MUD or haploidentical donor for ALL patients needing a second allo-HCT.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T , Doadores não Relacionados
12.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 380-388, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965174

RESUMO

Systematic reviews apply rigorous methodologies to address a prespecified, clearly formulated clinical research question. The conclusion that results is often cited to more robustly inform decision making by clinicians, third-party payers, and managed care organizations about the clinical question of interest. Although systematic reviews provide a rigorous standard, they may be infeasible when the task is to create general disease-focused guidelines comprising multiple clinical practice questions versus a single major clinical practice question. Collaborating transplantation and cellular therapy society committees also recognize that the quantity and or quality of reference sources may be insufficient for a meaningful systematic review. As the conduct of systematic reviews has evolved over time in terms of grading systems, reporting requirements, and use of technology, here we provide current guidance on methodologies, resources for reviewers, and approaches to overcome challenges in conducting systematic reviews in transplantation and cellular therapy.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Qualidade de Vida , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Medula Óssea , Transplante Homólogo , Estados Unidos
13.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(7): 1493-1508, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031556

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), represents one of the biggest challenges of 21st century, threatening public health around the globe. Increasing age and presence of co-morbidities are reported risk factors for severe disease and mortality, along with autoimmune diseases (ADs) and immunosuppressive treatments such as haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), which are also associated with adverse outcomes. We review the impact of the pandemic on specific groups of patients with neurological, rheumatological, and gastroenterological indications, along with the challenges delivering HSCT in adult and pediatric populations. Moving forward, we developed consensus-based guidelines and recommendations for best practice and quality of patient care in order to support clinicians, scientists, and their multidisciplinary teams, as well as patients and their carers. These guidelines aim to support national and international organizations related to autoimmune diseases and local clinical teams delivering HSCT. Areas of unmet need and future research questions are also highlighted. The waves of the COVID-19 pandemic are predicted to be followed by an "endemic" phase and therefore an ongoing risk within a "new normality". These recommendations reflect currently available evidence, coupled with expert opinion, and will be revised according to necessary modifications in practice.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , COVID-19 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(5): 88, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980810

RESUMO

Measurable residual disease (MRD) prior to hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete morphological remission (CR1) is an independent predictor of outcome, but few studies address CR2. This analysis by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry assessed HCT outcomes by declared MRD status in a cohort of 1042 adult patients with AML CR2 at HCT. Patients were transplanted 2006-2016 from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched siblings (n = 719) or HLA 10/10 matched unrelated donors (n = 293). Conditioning was myeloablative (n = 610) or reduced-intensity (n = 432) and 566 patients (54%) had in-vivo T cell depletion. At HCT, 749 patients (72%) were MRD negative (MRD NEG) and 293 (28%) were MRD positive (MRD POS). Time from diagnosis to HCT was longer in MRD NEG than MRD POS patients (18 vs. 16 months (P < 0.001). Two-year relapse rates were 24% (95% CI, 21-28) and 40% (95% CI, 34-46) in MRD NEG and MRD POS groups (P < 0.001), respectively. Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 57% (53-61) and 46% (40-52%), respectively (P = 0.001), but there was no difference in terms of overall survival. Prognostic factors for relapse and LFS were MRD NEG status, good risk cytogenetics, and longer time from diagnosis to HCT. In-vivo T cell depletion predicted relapse.

15.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 76, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using a mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) and cord blood transplantation (CBT) are valid alternatives for patients without a fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor. Here, we compared the allo-HCT outcomes of CBT versus single-allele-mismatched MMUD allo-HCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in acute myeloid leukemia. METHODS: Patients who underwent a first CBT without PTCy (N = 902) or allo-HCT from a (HLA 9/10) MMUD with PTCy (N = 280) were included in the study. A multivariate regression analysis was performed for the whole population. A matched-pair analysis was carried out by propensity score-based 1:1 matching of patients (177 pairs) with known cytogenetic risk. RESULTS: The incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at 6 months was 36% versus 32% (p = 0.07) and 15% versus 11% (p = 0.16) for CBT and MMUD cohorts, respectively. CBT was associated with a higher incidence of graft failure (11% vs. 4%, p < 0.01) and higher 2-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) (30% vs. 16%, p < 0.01) compared to MMUD. In the multivariate analysis, CBT was associated with a higher risk of, NRM (HR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.46-2.99, p < 0.0001), and relapse (HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1-1.83, p = 0.05), which resulted in worse leukemia-free survival (LFS) (HR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.34-2.12, p < 0.0001), overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.33-2.17, p < 0.0001), and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.21-1.83, p < 0.0001) compared to MMUD. The risk of grade II-IV acute GVHD (p = 0.052) and chronic GVHD (p = 0.69) did not differ significantly between the cohorts. These results were confirmed in a matched-pair analysis. CONCLUSIONS: CBT was associated with lower LFS, OS, and GRFS due to higher NRM, compared to MMUD allo-HCT with PTCy. In the absence of a fully matched donor, 9/10 MMUD with PTCy may be preferred over CBT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/métodos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores não Relacionados , Adulto Jovem
16.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(2): 171.e1-171.e8, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830029

RESUMO

The optimal myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for patients undergoing haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) is unknown. We studied the outcomes of total body irradiation (TBI)-based versus chemotherapy (CT)-based MAC regimens in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The study included 427 patients who underwent first haplo-HCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy), following TBI-based (n = 188; 44%) or CT-based (n = 239; 56%) MAC. The median patient age was 32 years. Fludarabine-TBI (72%) and thiotepa-busulfan-fludarabine (65%) were the most frequently used TBI- and CT-based regimens, respectively. In the TBI and CT cohorts, 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 45% versus 37% (P = .05), overall survival (OS) was 51% versus 47% (P = .18), relapse incidence (RI) was 34% versus 32% (P = .44), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 21% versus 31% (P < .01). In the multivariate analysis, TBI was associated with lower NRM (hazard ratio [HR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 0.86; P = .01), better LFS (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.98; P =.04), and increased risk for grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.34; P = .02) compared with CT-based MAC. The type of conditioning regimen did not impact RI, chronic GVHD, OS, or GVHD-free, relapse-free survival after adjusting for transplantation-related variables. TBI-based MAC was associated with lower NRM and better LFS compared with CT-based MAC in patients with ALL after haplo-HCT/PTCy.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adulto , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Irradiação Corporal Total
17.
Br J Haematol ; 193(3): 592-601, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838047

RESUMO

Optimal donor choice for a second allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) in relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remains unknown. We compared overall survival (OS) using registry data from the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) involving 455 adults who received a second allo-HCT from a human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated (MUD) (n = 320) or a haploidentical (n = 135) donor. Eligibility criteria required adults aged ≥18 years who received a second allo-HCT for treating AML relapse between 2005 and 2019. The primary end-point was OS. There was no statistically significant difference in the median (interquartile range) age between the groups, MUD 46 (35-58) versus haploidentical 44 (33-53) years (P = 0·07). The median OS was not different between the MUD and the haploidentical groups (10 vs. 11 months, P = 0·57). Similarly, the 2-year OS was 31% for the MUD and 29% for the haploidentical donor groups. The OS was worse if the procedure was performed with active AML [hazard ratio (HR) 1·42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·07-1·89; P = 0·02]. Conversely, a longer time from first allo-HCT to relapse (>13·2 months) was associated with better OS (HR 0·50, 95% CI 0·37-0·69; P < 0·0001). The results of the present analysis limit the ability to recommend one donor type over another when considering a second allo-HCT for relapsed AML. Our findings highlight that best OS is achieved when receiving the second allo-HCT in complete remission.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Depleção Linfocítica , Linfócitos T , Doadores não Relacionados , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 53, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-T-cell depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HaploSCT) is being increasingly used in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with improving patient outcomes. We have recently reported that outcomes of adult patients (pts) with ALL in complete remission (CR) receiving HaploSCT are comparable to unrelated donor transplants. We now compared HaploSCT and matched sibling donor (MSD) transplants in pts with ALL. AIM: To assess transplantation outcomes of HaploSCT and MSD transplants in pts with ALL in CR. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed adult patients (≥ 18 years) with ALL who underwent their first allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in first or second CR between 2012 and 2018, either from a T cell replete Haplo or MSD donor, and whose data were reported to the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Multivariate analysis (MVA) adjusting for differences between the groups was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Propensity score matching was also performed to reduce confounding effects. RESULTS: The analysis comprised 2304 patients: HaploSCT-413; MSD-1891. Median follow-up was 25 months. Median age was 37 (range 18-75) and 38 (18-76) years in HaploSCT and MSD, respectively. HaploSCT patients were transplanted more recently than those transplanted from MSD (2016 vs 2015, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of HaploSCT was in CR2 (33.4% vs 16.7%, p < 0.0001), respectively, and fewer received myeloablative conditioning (68% vs 83.2%, p < 0.0001). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity was lower in HaploSCT patients (22% vs 28%, p = 0.01) and donors (27.1% vs 33%, p < 0.02), and a higher proportion of the HaploSCTs were performed using a bone marrow (BM) graft (46.2% vs 18.6%, p < 0.0001). The 2 groups did not differ with regard to gender, Karnofsky performance status score, ALL phenotype, Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) positivity and pre-alloSCT measurable residual disease (MRD). Graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was mainly post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) based (92.7%) in the HaploSCT setting, while it was mostly pharmacologic in the setting of MSD (18.7% received ATG). Cumulative incidence of engraftment at day 60 was higher in MSD transplants compared to HaploSCT (98.7% vs 96.3%, p = 0.001), respectively. Day 180 incidence of acute (a) GVHD II-IV and III-IV was higher in HaploSCT vs. MSD: 36.3% vs 28.9% (p = 0.002 and 15.2% vs 10.5% (p = 0.005), respectively. Conversely, the 2-year chronic (c) GVHD and extensive cGVHD were 32% vs 38.8% (p = 0.009) and 11.9% vs 19.5% (p = 0.001) in HaploSCT vs MSD, respectively. Main causes of death were leukemia (31.8% vs 45%), infection (33.1% vs 19.7%) and GVHD (16.6% vs 19.7%) for HaploSCT and MSD, respectively. Two-year relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 26% vs 31.6%, 22.9% vs 13%, 51% vs 55.4%, 58.8% vs 67.4% and 40.6% vs 39% for HaploSCT and MSD, respectively. In the MVA, RI was significantly lower in HaploSCT in comparison with MSD, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.66 (95% CI 0.52-0.83, p = 0.004), while NRM was significantly higher, HR = 1.9 (95% CI 1.43-2.53, p < 0.0001). aGVHD grade II-IV and grade III-IV were higher in HaploSCT than in MSD HR = 1.53 (95% CI 1.23-1.9, p = 0.0002) and HR = 1.54 (95% CI 1.1-2.15, p = 0.011), respectively. Extensive cGVHD was lower in HaploSCT compared with MSD, HR = 0.61 (95% CI 0.43-0.88, p = 0.007), while total cGVHD did not differ significantly, HR = 0.94 (95% CI 0.74-1.18, p = 0.58). LFS, OS and GRFS did not differ significantly between the 2 transplant groups, HR = 0.96 (95% CI 0.81-1.14, p = 0.66); HR = 1.18 (95% CI 0.96-1.43, p = 0.11) and HR = 0.93 (95% CI 0.79-1.09, p = 0.37), respectively. These results were confirmed in a matched-pair analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes of adult patients with ALL in CR receiving alloSCT from haploidentical donors are not significantly different from those receiving transplants from MSD in terms of LFS, OS and GRFS.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Haploidêntico/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente) , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Irmãos , Análise de Sobrevida , Doadores de Tecidos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/mortalidade , Transplante Haploidêntico/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cancer ; 127(14): 2507-2514, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide prophylaxis is gaining traction in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). METHODS: The Acute Leukemia Working Party/European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry was used to evaluate the outcomes of adult patients with ALL who underwent haplo-HCT during 2011 through 2015 and compared them with the outcomes of those who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018. RESULTS: The analysis consisted of 195 patients, including 79 who underwent transplantation during 2011 through 2015 and 116 who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018. Overall, the 2-year leukemia-free survival and relapse incidence rates were 56.5% and 21%, respectively. The 100-day incidence of grade 2 through 4 acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was 34.5%. The rates of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS) were 22.5% and 64.7%, respectively. Patients who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018 experienced improved rates of leukemia-free survival (64.9% vs 47.3%; P = .019) and OS (75.5% vs 53.5%; P = .006). Patients who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018 developed more grade 2 through 4 acute GVHD (42% vs 26.4%; P = .047). The incidence of relapse, GVHD-free/relapse-free survival, grade 3 and 4 acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and extensive chronic GVHD did not differ significantly between groups. In multivariate analysis, more recently transplanted patients had a significantly reduced risk of NRM (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.89; P = .022) and improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26-0.86; P = .014). A comparable analysis of patients who had acute myeloid leukemia during the same timeframes did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of adult patients with ALL who receive posttransplant cyclophosphamide has improved over time, with an impressive 2-year OS of 75% and, most recently, an NRM rate of only 17%.

20.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(8): 1842-1849, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674790

RESUMO

The use of haplo-HCT with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is a new standard in the treatment of hematological diseases. A paucity of data exists on risk factors for engraftment failure in haplo-HCT with PT-Cy. We analyzed 1939 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received a first haplo-HCT from 2010 to 2019. Status at haplo-HCT was first complete remission (CR1) in 72.5% of patients, secondary AML was reported in 9.9%. Median follow-up was 24.4 months and median age at haplo-HCT was 51 years. Stem cell source was bone marrow (BM) in 42% and peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) in 58%, and 64% of patients received a myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen. Cumulative incidence of primary graft failure (GF) was 6%; GF was reported in 110 patients and 54 died before day +30 with no sign of cell recovery. Overall, 33 patients underwent a second HCT in a median time of 45 days and 13 were alive at last follow-up, the 2-year overall survival (OS) after second HCT being 32.4%. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with the risk of nonengraftment were: secondary AML (HR 1.30, p = 0.003), use of RIC (HR 1.22, p < 0.001), and use of BM (HR 1.21, p < 0.001). At 2 years, leukemia-free survival (LFS) and OS for the entire population was 55.2% (95% CI: 52.6-57.6) and 60.9% (95% CI: 58.4-63.3), respectively. Incidence of GF after haplo-HCT with PT-Cy is lower than reported T-cell-depleted haplo-HCT. Optimization of conditioning regimen and graft source should be considered for reducing the risk of GF in haplo-HCT recipients using PT-Cy.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Ciclofosfamida , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Neutrófilos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
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