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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902288

RESUMO

NMR spectroscopy cannot be used to discriminate enantiomers, and NMR resonances of enantiomeric mixtures are generally not affected by enantiomeric excess (ee). Here we report that a coordination complex (L·2Zn·3C), where L is a salen-like prochiral ligand and C is an exchangeable acetate co-ligand, exhibits symmetrical splitting of one of the 1H-NMR resonances of L with the degree of splitting linearly proportional to ee of the chiral guest co-ligand C, 2-phenoxypropionic acid (PPA). Despite the well-defined chirality in the crystal structure of L·2Zn·3C, concurrent fast chiral inversion and co-ligand exchange in solution renders L·2Zn·3C the primary example of prochiral solvating agent (pro-CSA) based on a coordination complex. Notably, the NMR resonances remain split even in dilute solution due to the lack of chiral guest dissociation in the co-ligand exchange system. This work provides new insights into chiral transfer events in metal-ligand complexes.

2.
Chemistry ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671876

RESUMO

Nitrogen and phosphorus-containing ions such as ammonium, nitrates and phosphates are anthropogenic pollutants while ammonium nitrate may be diverted for nefarious purposes in improvised explosive devices. Crown ether-oxoporphyrinogen conjugates (OxP-crowns) are used to selectively detect nitrates, especially their ion pairs with K+ and NH4 + , based on ion pair complexation of OxP-crowns under phase transfer conditions. The presence of phosphate and carbonate lead to deprotonation of OxP-crowns. OxP-1N18C6 is capable of extracting ion pairs with nitrate from aqueous phase leading to a selective chromogenic response. Deprotonation of the OxP moiety leads to [OxP- ]-1N18C6[K+ ] and is promoted by crown ether selective cation binding coupled with hydration of basic oxoanions, which are constrained to remain in the aqueous phase. This work illustrates the utility of molecular design to exploit partitioning and ion hydration effects establishing the selectivity of the chromogenic response.

3.
ACS Sens ; 5(5): 1405-1410, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390438

RESUMO

Chemiresistive sensors, which are based on semiconducting materials, offer real-time monitoring of environment. However, detection of nonpolar chemical substances is often challenging because of the weakness of the doping effect. Herein, we report a concept of combining a cascade reaction (CR) and a chemiresistive sensor array for sensitive and selective detection of a target analyte (herein, ethylene in air). Ethylene was converted to acetaldehyde through a Pd-catalyzed heterogeneous Wacker reaction at 40 °C, followed by condensation with hydroxylamine hydrochloride to emit HCl vapor. HCl works as a strong dopant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), enabling the main sensor to detect ethylene with excellent sensitivity (10.9% ppm-1) and limit of detection (0.2 ppm) in 5 min. False responses that occur in the main sensor are easily discriminated by reference sensors that partially employ CR. Moreover, though the sensor monitors the variation of normalized electric resistance (ΔR/R0) in the SWCNT network, temporary deactivation of CR yields a sensor system that does not require analyte-free air for a baseline correction (i.e., estimation of R0) and recovery of response. The concept presented here is generally applicable and offers a solution for several issues that are inherently present in chemiresistive sensing systems.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(50): 19570-19574, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736293

RESUMO

Peripherally substituted tetradecaazaheptacene (N14Hp) compounds, exhibiting amphiprotism-coupled emission, have been synthesized. X-ray crystallography reveals a planar acene-like chromophore, and electronic absorption and emission occur in the near-infrared biological transparency window (650-900 nm). The compounds exhibit long-wavelength emission with photoluminescence quantum yields ΦPL up to ∼0.61 at 686 nm, with the monodeprotonated state ΦPL ≈ 0.58 at 712 nm. This unprecedented highly nitrogenous chromophore illustrates the stability and utility of the pyrazinacenes for different applications based on their photophysical properties and chemical structures.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 48(41): 15583-15596, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353382

RESUMO

Interactions of anionic guests with a tritopic peripherally functionalized conjugated calix[4]pyrrole host (1) prepared using a regioselective synthetic method is reported. The regioselectivity of synthesis relies on selective N-alkylation of the calix[4]pyrrole caused by peripheral substitution of one pyrrole group with subsequent N-alkylation at the opposing pyrrole group termed by us 'knock-on' regioselectivity. The resulting host molecule exhibits anion interactions with common chloride and nitrate anions enhanced by an order of magnitude over the parent conjugated calix[4]pyrrole. Combined analysis of 1H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic titration data enabled an evaluation of binding strengths of anions with the host KA in a binding model where the salt dissociation process is also incorporated in the form of its dissociation constant Kd. Anions could be classified as two types based on their interactions with 1: Type A anions (chloride, nitrate, perchlorate, hydrogensulphate) associate as 1 : 1 complexes through hydrogen bonding while interactions involving Type B anions (acetate, fluoride, dihydrogenphosphate) are complicated by host deprotonation and/or countercation association. Hosts based on rim-functionalized calix[4]pyrroles such as 1 represent a promising new family of chromophores for estimation of biologically relevant anions or other species.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1007, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824697

RESUMO

Molecules that can exist in multiple states with the possibility of toggling between those states based on different stimuli have potential for use in molecular switching or sensing applications. Multimodal chemical or photochemical oxidative switching of an antioxidant-substituted resorcinarene macrocycle is reported. Intramolecular charge-transfer states, involving hemiquinhydrones are probed and these interactions are used to construct an oxidation-state-coupled molecular switching manifold that reports its switch-state conformation via striking variation in its electronic absorption spectra. The coupling of two different oxidation states with two different charge-transfer states within one macrocyclic scaffold delivers up to five different optical outputs. This molecular switching manifold exploits intramolecular coupling of multiple redox active substituents within a single molecule.

7.
ChemistryOpen ; 7(5): 323-335, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744284

RESUMO

Herein, we modulate the chromic response of a highly colored tetrapyrrole macrocycle, namely, tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-oxocyclohexadien-2,5-yl)porphyrinogen (OxP) by structural modification. N-Benzylation at the macrocyclic nitrogen atoms leads to stepwise elimination of the two calix[4]pyrrole-type binding sites of OxP and serial variation of the chromic properties of the products, double N-benzylated Bz2OxP and tetra N-benzylated Bz4OxP. The halochromic (response to acidity) and solvatochromic (response to solvent polarity) properties were studied by using UV/Vis spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy in nonpolar organic solvents. Titration experiments were used to generate binding isotherms to elucidate their binding properties with difluoroacetic acid. Differences in the halochromic properties of the compounds allowed construction of a colorimetric scale of acidity in nonpolar solvents, as the compounds in the series OxP, Bz2OxP, and Bz4OxP are increasingly difficult to protonate but maintain their propensity to change color upon protonation. The concurrent effects of binding-site blocking and modulation of acidity sensitivity are important new aspects for the development of colorimetric indicators.

8.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(19): 5114-5120, 2018 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688722

RESUMO

The use of chiral auxiliaries, which derivatize enantiomers to diastereomers, is an established technique for NMR spectroscopic analysis of chirality and enantiomeric excess ( ee). Here we report that some small prochiral molecules exhibit ee-dependent splitting of 1H NMR signals at room temperature based on acid/base interactions with chiral analytes, especially when either a chiral or prochiral acid contains a phenoxy group at the α-position of the carboxylic acid. As a representative case, the benzylamine (BA)/2-phenoxylpropionic acid (PPA) complex was comprehensively investigated by using various methods. Notably, X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that there are multipoint interactions in the BA/PPA complex, implying that "fixing" of molecular conformation is critical for efficient intermolecular transfer of magnetic anisotropy. Our results suggest that a wide range of prochiral molecules are available for NMR determination of ee when intermolecular interactions between prochiral molecules and chiral analytes are adequately designed.

9.
ACS Omega ; 3(9): 11865-11873, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459272

RESUMO

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is an important polymer with stimuli-responsive properties, making it suitable for various uses. Phase behavior of the temperature-sensitive PNIPAM polymer in the presence of four low-molecular weight additives tert-butylamine (t-BuAM), tert-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH), tert-butyl methyl ether (t-BuME), and tert-butyl methyl ketone (t-BuMK) was studied in water (D2O) using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase separation was thermodynamically modeled as a two-state process which resulted in a simple curve which can be used for fitting of NMR data and obtaining all important thermodynamic parameters using simple formulas presented in this paper. The model is based on a modified van't Hoff equation. Phase separation temperatures T p and thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy and entropy change) connected with the phase separation of PNIPAM were obtained using this method. It was determined that T p is dependent on additives in the following order: T p(t-BuAM) > T p(t-BuOH) > T p(t-BuME) > T p(t-BuMK). Also, either increasing the additive concentration or increasing pK a of the additive leads to depression of T p. Time-resolved 1H NMR spin-spin relaxation experiments (T 2) performed above the phase separation temperature of PNIPAM revealed high colloidal stability of the phase-separated polymer induced by the additives (relative to the neat PNIPAM/D2O system). Small quantities of selected suitable additives can be used to optimize the properties of PNIPAM preparations including their phase separation temperatures, colloidal stabilities, and morphologies, thus improving the prospects for the application.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(43): 38062-38067, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29022690

RESUMO

As-synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a mixture of metallic and semiconducting tubes, and separation is essential to improve the performances of SWCNT-based electric devices. Our chemical sensor monitors the conductivity of an SWCNT network, wherein each tube is wrapped by an insulating metallosupramolecular polymer (MSP). Vapors of strong electrophiles such as diethyl chlorophosphate (DECP), a nerve agent simulant, can trigger the disassembly of MSPs, resulting in conductive SWCNT pathways. Herein, we report that separated SWCNTs have a large impact on the sensitivity and selectivity of chemical sensors. Semiconducting SWCNT (S-SWCNT) sensors are the most sensitive to DECP (up to 10000% increase in conductivity). By contrast, the responses of metallic SWCNT (M-SWCNT) sensors were smaller but less susceptible to interfering signals. For saturated water vapor, increasing and decreasing conductivities were observed for S- and M-SWCNT sensors, respectively. Mixtures of M- and S-SWCNTs revealed reduced responses to saturated water vapor as a result of canceling effects. Our results reveal that S- and M-SWCNTs compensate sensitivity and selectivity, and the combined use of separated SWCNTs, either in arrays or in single sensors, offers advantages in sensing systems.

11.
ACS Sens ; 2(10): 1405-1409, 2017 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29035512

RESUMO

We report amperometric detection of formaldehyde (HCHO) using hydroxylamine hydrochloride and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with HCHO to emit HCl vapor, which injects a hole carrier into semiconducting SWCNTs. The increase of conductivity in SWCNTs is easily monitored using an ohmmeter. The debundling of SWCNTs with a metallo-supramolecular polymer (MSP) increased the active surface area in the SWCNTs network, leading to excellent sensitivity to HCHO with a limit of detection (LoD) of 0.016 ppm. The response of sensor is reversible, and the sensor is reusable. The selectivity to HCHO is 105-106 times higher than interferences with other volatiles such as water, methanol, and toluene. Moreover, false-positive responses caused by a significant variation of humidity and/or temperature are successfully discriminated from true-positive responses by using two sensors, one with and the other without hydroxylamine hydrochloride, in a referenced system.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Formaldeído/análise , Hidroxilaminas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Tensoativos/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica/instrumentação , Formaldeído/química , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência
12.
Acc Chem Res ; 48(3): 521-9, 2015 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25734700

RESUMO

Enantiomeric excess (ee) is a measure of the purity of an enantiomer of a chiral compound with respect to the presence of the complementary enantiomer. It is an important aspect of chemistry, especially in the fields of pharmaceuticals and asymmetric catalysis. Existing methods for determination of enantiomeric excesses using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy mostly rely on special chiral reagents (auxiliaries) that form two or more diastereomeric complexes with a chiral compound. As a result of this, the NMR spectrum of each enantiomer is different, allowing the determination of enantiomeric excess. In this Account, we describe a molecular design process that has allowed us to prepare prochiral solvating agents for NMR determination of ee of a wide variety of analyte types. At the outset of this work, we initially encountered the phenomenon of NMR peak splitting in the oxoporphyrinogen (OxP) host component of a supramolecular host-guest complex, where the extent of the splitting is apparently proportional to the guests' ee. Upon closer examination of the mechanism of action, it was found that several complicating factors, including prototropic tautomerism, macrocyclic inversion (ring-flipping), and 1:2 host-guest stoichiometry, obstruct potential applications of OxP as a chiral solvating agent. By considering the molecular conformation of the OxP host, a saddle-shaped calix[4]pyrrole, we moved to study the tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) dication since it has a similar form, and it was found that it could also be used to probe ee. However, although TPP does not suffer from disadvantageous tautomeric processes, it is still subject to macrocyclic inversion and has the additional serious disadvantage of operating for ee sensing only at depressed temperatures. The intrinsic disadvantages of the OxP and TPP systems were finally overcome by covalently modifying the OxP chromophore by regioselective N-alkylation at one face of the molecule. This procedure yields a host Bz2OxP that undergoes 1:1 host-guest interactions, cannot be protonated (and so does not suffer drawbacks due to tautomeric processes), and can interact solely through hydrogen bonding with a much wider range of analyte types, including acids, esters, amines (including amino acid derivatives), and ketones, for the determination of their ee at room temperature. Chiral sensing, in this case, can be understood by considering the breakdown of the host's symmetry when it interacts with a chiral guest under fast exchange. Furthermore, chirality discrimination (i.e., which is the major enantiomer in a sample) can be performed by addition of a small amount of one of the known enantiomers. Adaptation of a symmetrical molecule for ee sensing presents certain intrinsic advantages, including identical binding constants of each enantiomer. Our results indicate that other symmetrical molecules might also be useful as NMR probes of enantiopurity. These systems could provide insights into important chirality principles such as majority rule, intermolecular chirality transfer, and asymmetric reactions. The Bz2OxP system is also of note from the point of view that it does not rely on the formation of diastereomers.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(20): 18352-9, 2014 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25275963

RESUMO

The carbon cycle, by which carbon atoms circulate between atmosphere, oceans, lithosphere, and the biosphere of Earth, is a current hot research topic. The carbon cycle occurring in the lithosphere (e.g., sedimentary carbonates) is based on weathering and metamorphic events so that its processes are considered to occur on the geological time scale (i.e., over millions of years). In contrast, we have recently reported that carbonate anions intercalated within a hydrotalcite (Mg0.75Al0.25(OH)2(CO3)0.125·yH2O), a class of a layered double hydroxide (LDH), are dynamically exchanging on time scale of hours with atmospheric CO2 under ambient conditions. (Ishihara et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18040-18043). The use of (13)C-labeling enabled monitoring by infrared spectroscopy of the dynamic exchange between the initially intercalated (13)C-labeled carbonate anions and carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2. In this article, we report the significant influence of Mg/Al ratio of LDH on the carbonate anion exchange dynamics. Of three LDHs of various Mg/Al ratios of 2, 3, or 4, magnesium-rich LDH (i.e., Mg/Al ratio = 4) underwent extremely rapid exchange of carbonate anions, and most of the initially intercalated carbonate anions were replaced with carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2 within 30 min. Detailed investigations by using infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR revealed that magnesium rich LDH has chemical and structural features that promote the exchange of carbonate anions. Our results indicate that the unique interactions between LDH and CO2 can be optimized simply by varying the chemical composition of LDH, implying that LDH is a promising material for CO2 storage and/or separation.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(24): 8548-51, 2014 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24873554

RESUMO

Linear π-gelators self-assemble into entangled fibers in which the molecules are arranged perpendicular to the fiber long axis. However, orientation of gelator molecules in a direction parallel to the long axes of the one-dimensional (1-D) structures remains challenging. Herein we demonstrate that, at the air-water interface, an oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)-derived π-gelator forms aligned nanorods of 340 ± 120 nm length and 34 ± 5 nm width, in which the gelator molecules are reoriented parallel to the long axis of the rods. The orientation change of the molecules results in distinct excited-state properties upon local photoexcitation, as evidenced by near-field scanning optical microscopy. A detailed understanding of the mechanism by which excitation energy migrates through these 1-D molecular assemblies might help in the design of supramolecular structures with improved charge-transport properties.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(21): 9713-46, 2014 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24562603

RESUMO

Porphyrins and related families of molecules are important organic modules as has been reflected in the award of the Nobel Prizes in Chemistry in 1915, 1930, 1961, 1962, 1965, and 1988 for work on porphyrin-related biological functionalities. The porphyrin core can be synthetically modified by introduction of various functional groups and other elements, allowing creation of numerous types of porphyrin derivatives. This feature makes porphyrins extremely useful molecules especially in combination with their other interesting photonic, electronic and magnetic properties, which in turn is reflected in their diverse signal input-output functionalities based on interactions with other molecules and external stimuli. Therefore, porphyrins and related macrocycles play a preeminent role in sensing applications involving chromophores. In this review, we discuss recent developments in porphyrin-based sensing applications in conjunction with the new advanced concept of nanoarchitectonics, which creates functional nanostructures based on a profound understanding of mutual interactions between the individual nanostructures and their arbitrary arrangements. Following a brief explanation of the basics of porphyrin chemistry and physics, recent examples in the corresponding fields are discussed according to a classification based on physical modes of detection including optical detection (absorption/photoluminescence spectroscopy and energy and electron transfer processes), other spectral modes (circular dichroism, plasmon and nuclear magnetic resonance), electronic and electrochemical modes, and other sensing modes.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(5): 2112-8, 2014 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24422518

RESUMO

We report chiral guest binding as a probe of prototropic tautomerism and macrocyclic inversion in a highly conjugated tetrapyrrole studied using (1)H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with mandelic acid as the chiral guest. Both tautomerism and macrocycle inversion can be influenced in a non-trivial way depending on temperature and the respective concentrations of tetrapyrrole host, chiral guest or water. Chirality of the interacting guest is the key feature since it permits separation and detailed observation of macrocyclic inversion and tautomerism. Based on this, a methodology was developed to identify and characterize the dynamic processes. Our observations suggest that yields of products (e.g., of asymmetric reactions) can be affected by reactivity of functional groups (in molecules undergoing tautomerism or inversion) by varying solution properties including reagent concentrations and impurities such as water. This work establishes a connection between the important chemical concepts of chirality, tautomerism, and macrocyclic dynamics.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(48): 18040-3, 2013 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24237420

RESUMO

The carbon cycle of carbonate solids (e.g., limestone) involves weathering and metamorphic events, which usually occur over millions of years. Here we show that carbonate anion intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH), a class of hydrotalcite, undergoes an ultrarapid carbon cycle with uptake of atmospheric CO2 under ambient conditions. The use of (13)C-labeling enabled monitoring by IR spectroscopy of the dynamic exchange between initially intercalated (13)C-labeled carbonate anions and carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2. Exchange is promoted by conditions of low humidity with a half-life of exchange of ~24 h. Since hydrotalcite-like clay minerals exist in Nature, our finding implies that the global carbon cycle involving exchange between lithosphere and atmosphere is much more dynamic than previously thought.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Carbonatos/química , Hidróxidos/química , Hidróxido de Magnésio/química , Ânions/química , Atmosfera/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Ciclo do Carbono
18.
Nat Commun ; 4: 2188, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23864041

RESUMO

Enantiomeric excess of chiral compounds is a key parameter that determines their activity or therapeutic action. The current paradigm for rapid measurement of enantiomeric excess using NMR is based on the formation of diastereomeric complexes between the chiral analyte and a chiral resolving agent, leading to (at least) two species with no symmetry relationship. Here we report an effective method of enantiomeric excess determination using a symmetrical achiral molecule as the resolving agent, which is based on the complexation with analyte (in the fast exchange regime) without the formation of diastereomers. The use of N,N'-disubstituted oxoporphyrinogen as the resolving agent makes this novel method extremely versatile, and appropriate for various chiral analytes including carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols and protected amino acids using the same achiral molecule. The model of sensing mechanism exhibits a fundamental linear response between enantiomeric excess and the observed magnitude of induced chemical shift non-equivalence in the (1)H NMR spectra.


Assuntos
Álcoois/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Álcoois/química , Aminoácidos/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Ésteres , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Porfirinogênios/química , Teoria Quântica , Estereoisomerismo
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 5(13): 5927-30, 2013 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23781945

RESUMO

Methanol is a highly toxic substance, but it is unfortunately very difficult to differentiate from other alcohols (especially ethanol) without performing chemical analyses. Here we report that a composite film prepared from oxoporphyrinogen (OxP) and a layered double hydroxide (LDH) undergoes a visible color change (from magenta to purple) when exposed to methanol, a change that does not occur upon exposure to ethanol. Interestingly, methanol-induced color variation of the OxP-LDH composite film is retained even after removal of methanol under reduced pressure, a condition that does not occur in the case of conventional solvatochromic dyes. The original state of the OxP-LDH composite film could be recovered by rinsing it with tetrahydrofuran (THF), enabling repeated usage of the composite film. The mechanism of color variation, based on solid-state (13)C-CP/MAS NMR and solution-state (13)C NMR studies, is proposed to be anion transfer from LDH to OxP triggered by methanol exposure.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 49(61): 6870-2, 2013 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23792803

RESUMO

Visualization of an acid-base equilibrium in a non-polar solvent (dichloromethane), which may be extended to other solvents, is reported. It is based on an oxoporphyrinogen as a multichromic indicator of prevailing acidity in solution and presents up to six distinct hues depending on degree of protonation, tautomeric state or presence of a basic guest.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Metileno/química , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Colorimetria , Estrutura Molecular , Solventes/química
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