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1.
Lung Cancer ; 137: 149-156, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The understanding of histo-molecular mechanisms associated with resistance to osimertinib is a critical step to define the optimal treatment strategy in advanced EGFR-mutated Non-Small-Cell-Lung-Cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective analysis on a cohort of consecutive patients treated with osimertinib for an advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC and collected histo-molecular data from plasma and tumor samples at the time of progression. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed for all samples. Best Overall Response Rate (ORR), Progression Free Survival (PFS), Overall Survival (OS) and data on treatment post-progression efficacy were also collected. RESULTS: Two-hundred and twenty-six patients were included from 9 Academic French Hospitals between April 2015-October 2018. Osimertinib was given in second-line or more in 219 patients (97%). Best ORR was 52% and best central nervous system ORR was 56%. Median PFS and OS were 9.5 months (IQR 4.0-17.2) and 24 months (IQR 12.4-NR) respectively. At the time of analysis, 150 patients (66%) had tumor progression. Among them, 73 contributive samples (56 tumor biopsies) were available. The most frequent molecular alterations were C797S mutation (n = 9 (13%)) and MET amplification (n = 8 (11%)). Histologic transformation occurred in 5 patients (9% of tumor biopsies). In T790M + NSCLC, loss of T790 M occurred in 68% of cases. Median PFS and OS with treatment beyond progression were 6.0 months (IQR 2.0-10.4) and 15.1 months (IQR 6.7-NR) respectively and longer in case of osimertinib continuation beyond progression. CONCLUSION: We confirmed the efficacy of osimertinib in patients with advanced EGFR mutation positive NSCLC. At progression, the most frequent molecular alterations were MET amplification and C797S mutation.

2.
Int J Oncol ; 55(2): 527-535, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268157

RESUMO

A substantial number of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) have two oncogenic risk factors: Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and tobacco use. These factors can be competitive or synergistic at the chromosomal and genomic levels, with strong prognostic and therapeutic implications. HPV16 has been shown in vitro to be a high­risk HPV that induces low rates of chromosomal copy number alterations. However, chromosomal instability can be increased by smoking. Evaluating chromosomal instability in HPV­positive patients according to their smoking status is therefore critical for assessing the prognosis and therapeutic impact. The aim of this study was to assess chromosomal instability in patients with HPV­positive OPSCC according to smoking status. Chromosomal instability was investigated with array­based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in 50 patients with OPSCC. Differences in chromosomal alterations were examined according to the HPV and smoking status of the patients. HPV­positive tumors (24/26 were HPV16­positive) had fewer genomic aberrations (P=0.0082) and fewer breakpoints (P=0.048) than HPV­negative tumors. We confirmed the association between HPV­positive OPSCC and chromosomal losses at 11q. We verified the association between HPV­negative OPSCC and losses at 3p and 9p and gains at 7q and 11q13. In the patients with OPSCC who were HPV­positive, the total number of chromosomal aberrations per tumor was significantly higher in the group of patients who were smokers (P=0.003). However, the cytobands did not differ significantly according to the smoking status. On the whole, the data of this study may help to improve the stratification of HPV­positive OPSCC patients and must be supplemented by next­generation sequencing studies in order to describe the mutational and transcriptomic profiles of such patients according to smoking status.

4.
Eur Respir J ; 51(3)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545318

RESUMO

ALK rearrangement and EGFR/KRAS mutations constitute the primary biomarkers tested to provide targeted or nontargeted therapies in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of biomarker testing for NSCLC.Between 2013 and 2014, 843 treatment-naive patients were prospectively recruited at 19 French hospitals into a longitudinal observational cohort study. Two testing strategies were compared, i.e. with "at least one biomarker status known" and "at least KRAS status known", in addition to "no biomarker testing" as the reference strategy. The Kaplan-Meier approach was employed to assess restricted mean survival time. Direct medical costs incurred by hospitals were estimated with regard to treatment, inpatient care and biomarker testing.Compared with "no biomarker testing", the "at least one biomarker status known" strategy yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of EUR13 230 per life-year saved, which decreased to EUR7444 per life-year saved with the "at least KRAS status known" testing strategy. In sensitivity analyses, biomarker testing strategies were less costly and more effective in 41% of iterations.In summary, molecular testing prior to treatment initiation proves to be cost-effective in advanced NSCLC management and may assist decision makers in defining conditions for further implementation of these innovations in general practice.

5.
Eur J Cancer ; 94: 61-69, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients are characterised by a better prognosis than their HPV-negative counterparts. However, this significant survival advantage is not homogeneous and among HPV-positive patients those with a smoking history have a significantly increased risk of oncologic failure. The reason why tobacco consumption impacts negatively the prognosis is still elusive. Tobacco might induce additional genetic alterations leading to a more aggressive phenotype. The purpose of this study was to characterise the mutational profile of HPV-positive OPCs by smoking status. We hypothesise a higher frequency of mutations affecting smokers. METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing of 39 genes that are recurrently mutated in head and neck cancers (HNCs) caused by tobacco/alcohol consumption was performed in 62 HPV-driven OPC cases including smokers and non-smokers. RESULTS: The study population included 37 (60%) non-smokers and 25 (40%) smokers. Twenty (32%) patients had no mutation, 14 (23%) had 1 mutation and 28 (45%) had 2 or more mutations. The most commonly mutated genes regardless of tobacco consumption were PIK3CA (19%), MLL2 (19%), TP53 (8%), FAT 1 (15%), FBXW7 (16%), NOTCH1 (10%) and FGFR3 (10%). Mutation rate was not significantly different in smokers compared with non-smokers even when analyses focused on heavy smokers (>20 pack-years vs. <20 pack-years). Similarly, there was no significant difference in mutations patterns according to tobacco consumption. CONCLUSION: In HPV-positive patients, smoking does not increase the mutation rate of genes that are recurrently mutated in traditional HNC. Additional studies are warranted to further describe the molecular landscape of HPV-driven OPC according to tobacco consumption.

6.
Lung Cancer ; 109: 92-100, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate MUC1, MUC2, MUC5B, MUC5AC, and MUC6 expression in invasive lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA) and invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) of the lung, and the impact of oncogenic drivers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MUC1, MUC2, MUC5B, MUC5AC, MUC6, TTF1 and Hnf4α immunohistochemistry was performed on surgical samples from 52 patients with IMA (n=25) or LPA (n=27). We searched for EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and HER2 mutations and ALK, ROS1, and NRG1 rearrangements. RESULTS: MUC1, MUC2, MUC5B, MUC5AC, and MUC6 expression was detected in tumor cells in 77%, 2%, 63%, 36%, and 21% of cases, respectively. MUC1 was significantly more overexpressed in LPA. MUC5B, MUC5AC, and MUC6 were typically detected in goblet cells and overexpressed in IMA. Hnf4α-positive IMA (n=11) were TTF1-negative and typically did not expressed MUC1 and expressed MUC5AC and MUC6. Hnf4α-negative IMA (n=14) showed a reverse profile of mucins expression, with MUC1 expression and a lack of MUC5AC and MUC6 expression. EGFR-positive status was significantly associated with LPA, MUC1 expression, and no MUC5B, MUC5AC, or MUC6 expression. KRAS-positive status was significantly associated with IMA and MUC5B and MUC5AC expression. CONCLUSIONS: LPA and IMA exhibit specific mucin expression profiles, with MUC1 being associated with LPA, while MUC5B, MUC5AC, and MUC6 were associated with IMA. Hnf4α expression and EGFR and KRAS mutations may play a role in mucin expression profiles of these lung adenocarcinoma subtypes.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/metabolismo , Epitélio/fisiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mucinas/metabolismo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes erbB-1/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Mucinas/genética , Oncogenes/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
7.
Anal Chem ; 89(3): 1724-1733, 2017 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935690

RESUMO

This study tested the claim that digital PCR (dPCR) can offer highly reproducible quantitative measurements in disparate laboratories. Twenty-one laboratories measured four blinded samples containing different quantities of a KRAS fragment encoding G12D, an important genetic marker for guiding therapy of certain cancers. This marker is challenging to quantify reproducibly using quantitative PCR (qPCR) or next generation sequencing (NGS) due to the presence of competing wild type sequences and the need for calibration. Using dPCR, 18 laboratories were able to quantify the G12D marker within 12% of each other in all samples. Three laboratories appeared to measure consistently outlying results; however, proper application of a follow-up analysis recommendation rectified their data. Our findings show that dPCR has demonstrable reproducibility across a large number of laboratories without calibration. This could enable the reproducible application of molecular stratification to guide therapy and, potentially, for molecular diagnostics.

8.
Cancer Med ; 5(12): 3579-3585, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27770508

RESUMO

Invasive mucinous lung adenocarcinoma (IMA) is a rare subtype of lung adenocarcinoma with no effective treatment option in advanced disease. KRAS mutations occur in 28-87% of the cases. NRG1 fusions were recently discovered in KRAS-negative IMA cases and otherwise negative for known driver oncogenes and could represent an attractive therapeutic target. Published data suggest that NRG1 fusions occur essentially in nonsmoking Asian women. From an IMA cohort of 25 French patients of known ethnicity, driver oncogenes EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2 mutations, and ALK and ROS1 rearrangements presence were analyzed. In the IMA samples remaining negative for these driver oncogenes, an NRG1 rearrangement detection was performed by FISH. A driver oncogene was identified in 14/25 IMA, namely 12 KRAS mutations (48%), one ROS1 rearrangement (4%), and one ALK rearrangement (4%). The detection of NRG1 rearrangement by FISH was conducted in the 11 pan-negative IMA. One sample was NRG1FISH-positive and 100% of the tumor nuclei analyzed were positive. This NRG1-positive patient was a 61-year-old nonsmoking woman of Vietnamese ethnicity and was the sole patient of Asian ethnicity of the cohort. She died 6 months after the diagnosis with a pulmonary multifocal disease. NRG1FISH detection should be considered in patients with IMA pan-negative for known driver oncogenes. These results might suggest that NRG1 fusion is more frequent in IMA from Asian patient. Larger studies are needed.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neuregulina-1/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neuregulina-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo
9.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(25): 3023-30, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27382093

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an inflammatory myeloid neoplasia with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcomes in children. The somatic BRAF(V600E) mutation occurs frequently, but clinical significance remains to be determined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: BRAF(V600E) mutation was investigated in a French LCH cohort. We analyzed associations between mutation status and clinical presentation, extent of disease, reactivation rate, response to therapy, and long-term permanent sequelae. RESULTS: Among 315 patients with successfully determined BRAF status, 173 (54.6%) carried a BRAF(V600E) mutation. Patients with BRAF(V600E) manifested more severe disease than did those with wild-type BRAF. Patients with BRAF(V600E) comprised 87.8% of patients (43 of 49) with multisystem LCH with risk organ involvement (liver, spleen, hematology), 68.6% of patients (35 of 51) with multisystem LCH without risk organ involvement, 43.9% of patients (86 of 196) with single-system LCH, and 42.1% of patients (8 of 19) with lung-involved LCH (P < .001). BRAF(V600E) mutation was also associated with organ involvement that could lead to permanent, irreversible damage, such as neurologic (75%) and pituitary (72.9%) injuries. Compared with patients with wild-type BRAF, patients with BRAF(V600E) more commonly displayed resistance to combined vinblastine and corticosteroid therapy (21.9% v 3.3%; P = .001), showed a higher reactivation rate (5-year reactivation rate, 42.8% v 28.1%; P = .006), and had more permanent, long-term consequences from disease or treatment (27.9% v 12.6%; P = .001). CONCLUSION: In children with LCH, BRAF(V600E) mutation was associated with high-risk features, permanent injury, and poor short-term response to chemotherapy. Further population-based studies should be undertaken to confirm our observations and to assess the impact of BRAF inhibitors for this subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/enzimologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema de Registros , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem
10.
Head Neck ; 38(11): 1634-1642, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27097597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncogenic mechanisms of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal cancer are still poorly characterized. Analysis of their microRNA expression profile might provide valuable information. METHODS: The microRNA expression profiles were analyzed by micro-arrays in 26 oropharyngeal cancers. A microRNA signature specific to HPV-status was identified by analyzing a learning/training set consisting of 16 oropharyngeal cancers. The robustness of this signature was further confirmed by blind case-by-case classification of a validation set composed of 10 independent tumors. Putative targeted molecular pathways were proposed using DIANA miRPath online software (http://microrna.gr/mirpath). RESULTS: We have identified 25 miRNA signatures, which discriminates HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer from their HPV-negative counterparts. These 25 microRNAs play a potential role in Wnt and PI3K-pathways, cell-adhesion/cell-polarity, and the cytoskeleton regulation. CONCLUSION: Our study contributes to a better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer and in the identification of potential therapeutic molecular targets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1708-1716, 2016.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
11.
Head Neck ; 38(7): 1017-21, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26854757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether preoperative knowledge of the BRAF mutation status would help to determine the extent of surgery for thyroid nodules is still under investigation. METHODS: We developed a method to state the V600E mutation before surgery on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) stained smears checked to contain tumor cells. We evaluated the interest of the preoperative assessment of the mutation for surgical strategy of nodules, diagnosed as malignant, suspicious for malignancy or follicular neoplasms. RESULTS: The mutation was found in 81% (79 of 97) malignant, 59% (20 of 34) suspicious nodules, and in none of follicular neoplasms (n = 29). Overall, the mutation was detected in 82% of papillary carcinomas. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the diagnosis of malignancy were 75%, 100%, 100%, and 46%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The preoperative knowledge of the V600E mutation status is fundamental to plan total thyroidectomy with certainty and should be part of the decision tree for the management of thyroid nodules. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1017-1021, 2016.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/genética , Carcinoma Papilar/cirurgia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Lung Cancer ; 90(3): 561-7, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26520186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: KRAS mutations occur in 20 to 25% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and seem to predict a poor prognosis. There is heterogeneousness in the frequency and spectrum of KRAS mutations, which can be categorized in transitions and transversions. We wondered if subtypes of KRAS mutation were associated with specific clinical phenotypes and specific survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2007 and May 2012, patients with advanced NSCLC and KRAS mutation diagnosed in two university hospitals were included. Clinical and histological characteristics, therapeutics and survival data were collected. RESULTS: Among 635 patients screened for KRAS mutations, 90 were found to be mutated and were included. Median age was 59 years (range: 54-69). Most were males (60%), current or former smokers (63% and 33%, respectively) and had an adenocarcinoma (ADC) (80%). Eighty patients were stage IV and 10 were stage IIIB. Eighty percent of the KRAS mutations were transversions and 20% were transitions. In uni- and multivariate analyses, there was a trend for fewer smokers among patients with transitions than among those with transversions (Odds Ratio [OR]=0.28, 95% CI [0.079-0.999], p=0.05). No significant difference was noted between transitions and transversions for other clinical characteristics. Patients with transitions had more frequently squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) compared to those with transversions, who had more frequently adenocarcinomas (OR=16.7, 95% CI [2.76-100.8], p=0.002). Seventy-nine patients (86%) had received first-line chemotherapy. No significant difference was seen for disease-control rate, median progression-free survival or overall survival between transitions and transversions. CONCLUSION: A higher proportion of non-smokers and SCC subtypes were observed in the transitions compared to transversions. This confirms the heterogeneity of KRAS mutations and could suggest to expand KRAS testing in SCC to assess impact of RAS in SCC, which remains poorly investigated.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas ras/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Códon , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
13.
Cancer Med ; 4(5): 721-31, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25684313

RESUMO

Induction TPF regimen is a standard treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx. The efficacy and safety of adding cetuximab to induction TPF (ETPF) therapy was evaluated. Patients with nonmetastatic resectable stage III/IV SCC of the oropharynx were treated with weekly cetuximab followed the same day by docetaxel and cisplatin and by a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil on days 1-5 (every 3 weeks, 3 cycles). The primary endpoint was clinical and radiological complete response (crCR) of primary tumor at 3 onths. Secondary endpoints were crCR rates, overall response, pathological CR, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Forty-two patients were enrolled, and 41 received ETPF. The all nine planned cetuximab doses and the full three doses of planned chemotherapy were completed in 31 (76%) and 36 (88%) patients, respectively. Twelve (29%) patients required dose reduction. The crCR of primary tumor at the completion of therapy was observed in nine (22%) patients. ETPF was associated with a tumor objective response rate (ORR) of 58%. The most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities were as follows: nonfebrile neutropenia (39%), febrile neutropenia (19%), diarrhea (10%), and stomatitis (12%). Eighteen (44%) patients experienced acne-like skin reactions of any grade. One toxic death occurred secondary to chemotherapy-induced colitis with colonic perforation. This phase II study reports an interesting response rate for ETPF in patients with moderately advanced SCC of the oropharynx. The schedule of ETPF evaluated in this study cannot be recommended at this dosage.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Oral Oncol ; 50(11): 1025-34, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25156715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human-papillomaviruses (HPV) type 16 is a causative agent in an increasing subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs). These tumors have distinct oncogenic mechanisms and a more favorable prognosis than tobacco-induced OPSCCs. Although these differences emphasize the need for a specific therapeutic approach, HPV status is still not used to guide treatment. A better characterization of the molecular profile related to HPV16-induced OPSCC might help to develop personalized treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using a human whole-genome DNA-microarray, we have examined the gene expression profiles in 15 HPV-negative and 15 transcriptionally-active HPV-positive OPSCCs. The study was conducted in two steps. Firstly, a learning/training-set consisting of 8 HPV16-positive and 8 HPV16-negative OPSCCs was analyzed to identify a specific signature. Potentially confounding factors (stage, sex and tobacco) were equally distributed in both groups. Subsequently the robustness of this signature was confirmed by blind case-by-case classification of a validation-set composed of the 14 remaining tumors. RESULTS: We have identified a signature composed of 224 genes, which discriminates HPV16-induced OPSCC from their HPV-negative counterparts. After the blind classification of the 14 tumours, the viral status was revealed: 13 out of 14 tumors were correctly classified according to tumor etiology, 1/14 was not determined and none were misclassified. Several of the differentially expressed genes were involved in cell-cycle regulation, DNA replication and repair, transcription regulation, immune response and apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our study contributes to a better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of HPV-positive OPSCCs and in the identification of potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/genética , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia
15.
Lung Cancer ; 85(2): 276-81, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24997135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas (SC) are highly disseminated types of non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Their prognosis is poor. New therapeutic targets are needed to improve disease management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1995 to 2013, clinical and survival data from all consecutive patients with surgically treated SC were collected. Pathological and biomarker analyses were performed: TTF1, P63, c-MET and ALK expression (immunohistochemistry), PAS staining, ALK rearrangement (FISH), and EGFR, KRAS, HER2, BRAF, PIK3CA, and MET genes mutations (PCR). RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included. Median age was 61 years (53-69). Histological subtypes were pleomorphic carcinoma (78%), carcinosarcoma (12%), and giant-cell and/or spindle-cell carcinoma (10%). Blood vessel invasion (BVI) was present in 90% of cases. Morphology and immunohistochemistry were indicative of an adenocarcinoma, squamous, and adenosquamous origin in 41.5%, 17% and 11.5%, respectively, 30% remained not-otherwise-specified. KRAS, PIK3CA, EGFR, and MET mutations were found in 31%, 8%, 3%, and 3%, respectively. No tumors had HER2 or BRAF mutations, or ALK rearrangement, whereas 34% had a c-MET positive score. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 29% for the whole population. At multivariate analysis, tumor size <50mm (HR=1.96 [1.04-3.73], p=0.011), no lymph-node metastasis (HR=3.25 [1.68-6.31], p<0.0001), no parietal pleural invasion (HR=1.16 [1.06-1.28], p=0.002), no BVI (HR=1.22 [1.06-1.40], p=0.005), and no squamous component (HR=3.17 [1.48-6.79], p=0.01) were associated with longer OS. Biomarkers did not influence OS. CONCLUSION: Dedifferentiation in NSCLC could lead to SC and an epithelial subtype component could influence outcome. BVI was present in almost all SCs and was an independent factor of poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinossarcoma/mortalidade , Carcinossarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinossarcoma/genética , Carcinossarcoma/metabolismo , Carcinossarcoma/terapia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Cancer Med ; 3(1): 61-9, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24408092

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) are a therapeutic option as second-line therapy in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), regardless of the EGFR gene status. Identifying patients with early progression during EGFR-TKI treatment will help clinicians to choose the best regimen, TKI or chemotherapy. From a prospective database, all patients treated with gefitinib or erlotinib between 2001 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into two groups according to their tumor response by RECIST after 45 days of treatment, progressive disease (PD) or controlled disease (CD). Two hundred and sixty-eight patients were treated with EGFR-TKI, among whom 239 were classified as PD (n = 75) and CD (n = 164). Median overall survival was 77 days (95% CI 61-109) for PD and 385 days (95% CI 267-481) for CD. Patients with PD were of younger age (P = 0.004) and more frequently current smokers (P = 0.001) had more frequently a performance status ≥2 (P = 0.012), a weight loss ≥10% (P = 0.025), a shorter time since diagnosis (P < 0.0001), a pathological classification as non-otherwise-specified NSCLC (P = 0.01), and the presence of abdominal metastases (P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, abdominal metastases were the only factor associated with early progression (odds ratio (OR) 2.17, 95% CI [1.12-4.19]; P = 0.021). Wild-type EGFR versus mutated EGFR was associated with early progression. The presence of abdominal metastasis was independently associated with early progression in metastatic NSCLC receiving EGFR-TKI.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Progressão da Doença , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Cloridrato de Erlotinib , Feminino , Gefitinibe , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem
17.
World J Urol ; 32(2): 551-7, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24196429

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bladder carcinoma (B-TCC) is the fifth most prevalent carcinoma in the United States (US) or Europe. In addition, B-TCC is the most expensive carcinoma per patient between diagnosis and death, because of its 50-80 % recurrence rate. B-TCC is an optimal carcinoma for which to detect DNA alterations in urine, which is easily obtainable. Chromosomal aberrations in tumors have been closely related to the carcinogenesis process. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed a highly specific and sensitive oligo-CGH-array for the diagnosis and follow-up of B-TCC, based on the detection of chromosomal aberrations in urine samples. One hundred and sixty-four urine samples were analyzed. The qualitative results, including chromosomal aberrations, were obtained. Quantitative results are expressed as a percentage of chromosomal alterations on the autosomes. RESULTS: From the urine samples, we were able to differentiate B-TCC from non-malignant conditions with an accuracy of 100 % for patients without history of B-TCC. For follow-up of B-TCC in clinical practice, at least a deletion (8p; 9p; 9q) or a cut-off of >2 % of chromosomal imbalance was considered as a positive test. According to our criteria, 100 % of high-grade tumors were diagnosed, and the sensitivity to predict positive cystoscopy was 95 % (specificity 73 %). A cut-off >9 % was a strong signature of high-grade TCC (odds ratio 53 CI 95 % 7-417; p = 0.0002). CONCLUSION: We developed a sensitive clinical tool for the detection of B-TCC using DNA extracted from patient urine. This tool is also able to identify low-grade B-TCC and identify high-risk patients harboring a high-grade disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/urina , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Cistoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina
19.
Prostate ; 72(12): 1382-8, 2012 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22228175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis is a potential new biomarker in prostate cancer. We hypothesize that quantitative detection of CTCs in patients pre- and post-radical prostatectomy (RP) using quantitative TaqMan® fluorogenic RT-PCR will improve the accuracy of the Kattan nomogram to predict the probability of recurrence-free survival (RFS) post-RP. METHODS: Ninty-two patients who underwent RP between 2004 and 2009 had venous blood samples taken pre- (Day - 1) and post-operatively (Day + 7). We performed quantitative Taqman® RT-PCR to detect circulating prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) mRNA. We calculated both the logarithmic ratio of Day + 7/Day - 1 for PSA (PSAr) and PSMA (PSMAr) expression (log(Day+7/Day-1) ) and the Kattan nomogram predicted probability of disease recurrence for each patient. We then analyzed how the AUC-ROC analysis for the Kattan nomogram prediction alone (K) compared to the addition of the PSAr and PSMAr in predicting 5-year RFS. RESULTS: The mean age (years), PSA (ng/ml), and follow-up (mo) was 65.1, 9.13, and 72, respectively. The AUCs for K, PSAr + K, and PSMAr + K were 0.752 (95%CI 0.620-0.860), 0.830 (95%CI 0.740-0.911), and 0.837 (95%CI 0.613-0.923), respectively (P = 0.03). The Kattan 5-year PSA RFS was 75%. The actual 5-year PSA RFS survival rate was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: Data from modern quantitative RT-PCR to detect circulating prostate-derived PSA and PSM mRNA pre- and post-RP improves the accuracy of the Kattan nomogram to predict biochemical recurrence.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II/genética , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/genética , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Idoso , Antígenos de Superfície/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Seguimentos , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Antígeno Prostático Específico/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Recidiva
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