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Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 752-768, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388402


The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors play an important role in normal development of multiple organs. Three NFI family members are highly expressed in the brain, and deletions or sequence variants in two of these, NFIA and NFIX, have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and brain malformations. NFIB, however, has not previously been implicated in human disease. Here, we present a cohort of 18 individuals with mild ID and behavioral issues who are haploinsufficient for NFIB. Ten individuals harbored overlapping microdeletions of the chromosomal 9p23-p22.2 region, ranging in size from 225 kb to 4.3 Mb. Five additional subjects had point sequence variations creating a premature termination codon, and three subjects harbored single-nucleotide variations resulting in an inactive protein as determined using an in vitro reporter assay. All individuals presented with additional variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including muscular hypotonia, motor and speech delay, attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities. While structural brain anomalies, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, were variable, individuals most frequently presented with macrocephaly. To determine whether macrocephaly could be a functional consequence of NFIB disruption, we analyzed a cortex-specific Nfib conditional knockout mouse model, which is postnatally viable. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging and histology, we demonstrate that Nfib conditional knockout mice have enlargement of the cerebral cortex but preservation of overall brain structure and interhemispheric connectivity. Based on our findings, we propose that haploinsufficiency of NFIB causes ID with macrocephaly.

Fam Cancer ; 17(3): 451-457, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080081


One of the main challenges in cancer genetics is responding to the exponential demand for genetic counseling, especially in patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer. To address this demand, we have set up a new procedure, based on pre-genetic counseling telephone interviews (PTI) followed by routing of patients: D1, a PTI is scheduled within 14 days; D7-D14, genetic counselors perform a 20 min PTI in order to establish a pre-genetic counseling file, by collecting personal and family medical history via a structured questionnaire and; D10-17, routing: pre-genetic counseling appointment files are analyzed by a cancer geneticist with 3 possible conclusions: (a) priority face-to-face genetic counseling (FTFGC) appointment with a cancer geneticist, if the genetic test results have an immediate therapeutic impact; (b) non-priority FTFGC with a genetic counselor, or (c) no FTFGC required or substitution by a more appropriate index case. In the context of breast and/or ovarian cancer, 1012 patients received PTIs, 39.1% of which did not lead to FTFGC. The mean delay for non-priority FTFGC was maintained at 18 weeks and priority FTFGC appointments were guaranteed within 8 weeks. The required resources for 1012 patients was estimated at 0.12 FTE secretaries, 0.62 FTE genetic counselors and 0.08 FTE cancer geneticists and the procedure was shown to be cost-effective. This new procedure allows the suppression of up to 1/3 of appointments, guarantees priority for appointments with therapeutic impact and optimizes the interaction and breakdown of tasks between genetic counselors and cancer geneticists.

Mol Cytogenet ; 8: 72, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26421060


BACKGROUND: Most microdeletions involving chromosome sub-bands 9q33.3-9q34.11 to this point have been detected by analyses focused on STXBP1, a gene known to cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 4 and other seizure phenotypes. Loss-of-function mutations of STXBP1 have also been identified in some patients with intellectual disability without epilepsy. Consequently, STXBP1 is widely assumed to be the gene causing both seizures and intellectual disability in patients with 9q33.3-q34.11 microdeletions. RESULTS: We report five patients with overlapping microdeletions of chromosome 9q33.3-q34.11, four of them previously unreported. Their common clinical features include intellectual disability, psychomotor developmental delay with delayed or absent speech, muscular hypotonia, and strabismus. Microcephaly and short stature are each present in four of the patients. Two of the patients had seizures. De novo deletions range from 1.23 to 4.13 Mb, whereas the smallest deletion of 432 kb in patient 3 was inherited from her mother who is reported to have mild intellectual disability. The smallest region of overlap (SRO) of these deletions in 9q33.3 does not encompass STXBP1, but includes two genes that have not been previously associated with disease, RALGPS1 and GARNL3. Sequencing of the two SRO genes RALGPS1 and GARNL3 in at least 156 unrelated patients with mild to severe idiopathic intellectual disability detected no causative mutations. Gene expression analyses in our patients demonstrated significantly reduced expression levels of GARNL3, RALGPS1 and STXBP1 only in patients with deletions of the corresponding genes. Thus, reduced expression of STXBP1 was ruled out as a cause for seizures in our patient whose deletion did not encompass STXBP1. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that microdeletions of this region on chromosome 9q cause a clinical spectrum including intellectual disability, developmental delay especially concerning speech, microcephaly, short stature, mild dysmorphisms, strabismus, and seizures of incomplete penetrance, and may constitute a new contiguous gene deletion syndrome which cannot completely be explained by deletion of STXBP1.

Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(10): 2582-7, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23929658


West syndrome is a well-recognized form of epilepsy, defined by a triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia and developmental arrest. West syndrome is heterogenous, caused by mutations of genes ARX, STXBP1, KCNT1 among others; 16p13.11 and 17q21.31 microdeletions are less frequent, usually associated with intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. So-called "idiopathic" West syndrome is of better prognostic, without prior intellectual deficiency and usually responsive to anti-epileptic treatment. We report on a boy falling within the scope of idiopathic West syndrome, with no dysmorphic features and normal development before the beginning of West syndrome, with a good resolution after treatment, bearing a de novo 15q13.3 microdeletion. Six genes are located in the deleted region, including CHRNA7, which encodes a subunit of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, and is frequently associated with epilepsy. Exploration of the 15q13.3 region should be proposed in idiopathic West syndrome.

Transtornos Cromossômicos/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Convulsões/complicações , Espasmos Infantis/complicações , Adulto , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Eletroencefalografia , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/genética
Eur J Hum Genet ; 21(7): 784-7, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23169491


Nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor; WT) is the most common renal tumor of childhood. To date, several genetic abnormalities predisposing to WT have been identified in rare overgrowth syndromes. Among them, abnormal methylation of the 11p15 region, GPC3 and DIS3L2 mutations, which are responsible for Beckwith-Wiedemann, Simpson-Golabi-Behmel and Perlman syndromes, respectively. However, the underlying cause of WT remains unknown in the majority of cases. We report three unrelated patients who presented with WT in addition to a constitutional 9q22.3 microdeletion and dysmorphic/overgrowth syndrome. The size of the deletions was variable (ie, from 1.7 to 8.9 Mb) but invariably encompassed the PTCH1 gene. Subsequently, we identified a somatic PTCH1 nonsense mutation in the renal tumor of one patient. In addition, by array comparative genomic hybridization method, we analyzed the DNA extracted from the blood samples of nine patients with overgrowth syndrome and WT, but did not identify any deleterious chromosomal imbalances in these patients. These findings strongly suggest that patients with constitutional 9q22.3 microdeletion have an increased risk of WT, and that PTCH1 have a role in the pathogenesis of nephroblastomas.

Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Macrossomia Fetal/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Mutação , Receptores Patched , Receptor Patched-1 , Gravidez , Tumor de Wilms/patologia