Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 405
Filtrar
1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009286, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is acquired by inhalation of spores of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma spp. Although this pathogen is distributed worldwide, it is more prevalent in the Americas. However, the real burden of histoplasmosis remains undefined in many endemic regions. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a series of 61 autopsies to individuals who died in a hospital in the Brazilian Amazon focused on infectious diseases. We performed a detailed histological and microbiological evaluation with genetic characterization of Histoplasma strains with the aim to evaluate the contribution of histoplasmosis to morbidity and mortality. Additionally, we assessed the clinicopathological correlation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Evidence of Histoplasma infection was detected in 21 patients (34%). Eight cases were disseminated infections, all of them occurred in HIV-positive patients. Six cases were localized histoplasmosis, limited to the lungs. In seven patients Histoplasma DNA was detected by PCR in patients with no histological lesions. Histoplasma infection was detected in 38% of HIV-positive patients and was a major contributor to death in 22% of them. Lungs, liver and spleen were affected in all cases of disseminated histoplasmosis. Phylogenetic analysis of the strains suggested a high diversity of Histoplasma species circulating in the Brazilian Amazon. Histoplasmosis was clinically missed in 75% of the disseminated infections. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of histoplasmosis, the low index of clinical suspicion, and the severity of the disseminated disease highlight the need of proactively implementing sensitive routine screening methods for this pathogen in endemic areas. Antifungal prophylaxis against Histoplasma should be encouraged in the severely immunocompromised HIV patients in these areas. In conclusion, substantial mortality is associated with disseminated histoplasmosis among HIV-positive patients in the Brazilian Amazon.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2349, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859192

RESUMO

Substantial COVID-19 research investment has been allocated to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, which currently face recruitment challenges or early discontinuation. We aim to estimate the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on survival in COVID-19 from all currently available RCT evidence, published and unpublished. We present a rapid meta-analysis of ongoing, completed, or discontinued RCTs on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine treatment for any COVID-19 patients (protocol: https://osf.io/QESV4/ ). We systematically identified unpublished RCTs (ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane COVID-registry up to June 11, 2020), and published RCTs (PubMed, medRxiv and bioRxiv up to October 16, 2020). All-cause mortality has been extracted (publications/preprints) or requested from investigators and combined in random-effects meta-analyses, calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), separately for hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. Prespecified subgroup analyses include patient setting, diagnostic confirmation, control type, and publication status. Sixty-three trials were potentially eligible. We included 14 unpublished trials (1308 patients) and 14 publications/preprints (9011 patients). Results for hydroxychloroquine are dominated by RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY, two highly pragmatic trials, which employed relatively high doses and included 4716 and 1853 patients, respectively (67% of the total sample size). The combined OR on all-cause mortality for hydroxychloroquine is 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.20; I² = 0%; 26 trials; 10,012 patients) and for chloroquine 1.77 (95%CI: 0.15, 21.13, I² = 0%; 4 trials; 307 patients). We identified no subgroup effects. We found that treatment with hydroxychloroquine is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients, and there is no benefit of chloroquine. Findings have unclear generalizability to outpatients, children, pregnant women, and people with comorbidities.

3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e03742020, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656146

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon are caused mostly by snakes from the Bothrops genus and envenomated patients may suffer from tissue complications. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for severe tissue complications (STC) in patients with Bothrops snakebite in the Amazonas state, Brazil. RESULTS: Snakebites that were classified as severe and affected female patients with comorbidities presented greater risks of developing STCs. In addition, hospitalizations of patients with STC exceeded 5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and epidemiological characteristics can prove essential for assessing the evolution of STC and clinical prognosis of patients with Bothrops snakebites.


Assuntos
Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Antivenenos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Serpentes
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5089, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658571

RESUMO

Plasmodium vivax is a world-threatening human malaria parasite, whose biology remains elusive. The unavailability of in vitro culture, and the difficulties in getting a high number of pure parasites makes RNA isolation in quantity and quality a challenge. Here, a methodological outline for RNA-seq from P. vivax isolates with low parasitemia is presented, combining parasite maturation and enrichment with efficient RNA extraction, yielding ~ 100 pg.µL-1 of RNA, suitable for SMART-Seq Ultra-Low Input RNA library and Illumina sequencing. Unbiased coding transcriptome of ~ 4 M reads was achieved for four patient isolates with ~ 51% of transcripts mapped to the P. vivax P01 reference genome, presenting heterogeneous profiles of expression among individual isolates. Amongst the most transcribed genes in all isolates, a parasite-staged mixed repertoire of conserved parasite metabolic, membrane and exported proteins was observed. Still, a quarter of transcribed genes remain functionally uncharacterized. In parallel, a P. falciparum Brazilian isolate was also analyzed and 57% of its transcripts mapped against IT genome. Comparison of transcriptomes of the two species revealed a common trophozoite-staged expression profile, with several homologous genes being expressed. Collectively, these results will positively impact vivax research improving knowledge of P. vivax biology.

5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 596104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732657

RESUMO

The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ with multiple functions including the removal of senescent red blood cells and the coordination of immune responses against blood-borne pathogens, such as malaria parasites. Despite the major role of the spleen, the study of its function in humans is limited by ethical implications to access human tissues. Here, we employed multiparameter flow cytometry combined with cell purification techniques to determine human spleen cell populations from transplantation donors. Spleen immuno-phenotyping showed that CD45+ cells included B (30%), CD4+ T (16%), CD8+ T (10%), NK (6%) and NKT (2%) lymphocytes. Myeloid cells comprised neutrophils (16%), monocytes (2%) and DCs (0.3%). Erythrocytes represented 70%, reticulocytes 0.7% and hematopoietic stem cells 0.02%. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound nanoparticles involved in intercellular communication and secreted by almost all cell types. EVs play several roles in malaria that range from modulation of immune responses to vascular alterations. To investigate interactions of plasma-derived EVs from Plasmodium vivax infected patients (PvEVs) with human spleen cells, we used size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) to separate EVs from the bulk of soluble plasma proteins and stained isolated EVs with fluorescent lipophilic dyes. The integrated cellular analysis of the human spleen and the methodology employed here allowed in vitro interaction studies of human spleen cells and EVs that showed an increased proportion of T cells (CD4+ 3 fold and CD8+ 4 fold), monocytes (1.51 fold), B cells (2.3 fold) and erythrocytes (3 fold) interacting with PvEVs as compared to plasma-derived EVs from healthy volunteers (hEVs). Future functional studies of these interactions can contribute to unveil pathophysiological processes involving the spleen in vivax malaria.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009245, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661895

RESUMO

Access to antivenoms is not guarranteed for vulnerable populations that inhabit remote areas in the Amazon. The study of therapeutic itineraries (TI) for treatment of snakebites would support strategies to provide timely access to users. A TI is the set of processes by which individuals adhere to certain forms of treatment, and includes the path traveled in the search for healthcare, and practices to solve their health problems. This study aims to describe TIs of snakebite patients in the Brazilian Amazon. This study was carried out at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado, in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The itinerary from the moment of the bite to the patient's admission to the reference unit was analyzed. Sample size was defined by saturation. After an exploratory survey to collect epidemiological variables, in-depth interviews were conducted following a semi-structured guide. Patients originated from rural areas of 11 different municipalities, including ones located >500 kilometers from Manaus. A great fragmentation was observed in the itineraries, marked by several changes of means of transport along the route. Four themes emerged from the analysis: exposure to snakebite during day-to-day activities, use of traditional therapeutic practices, and personal perception of the severity, as well as the route taken and its contingencies. Access to healthcare requires considerable effort on the part of snakebite patients. Major barriers were identified, such as the low number of hospitals that offer antivenom treatment, poor access to healthcare due to long distances and geographic barriers, low acceptability of healthcare offered in countryside, lack of use of personal protective equipment, common use of ineffective or deleterious self-care practices, late recognition of serious clinical signs and resistance to seeking medical assistance. Health education, promotion of immediate transport to health centers and decentralization of antivenom from reference hospitals to community healthcare centers in the Brazilian Amazon are more effective strategies that would to maximize access to antivenom treatment.

7.
Malar J ; 20(1): 146, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vivax malaria diagnosis remains a challenge in malaria elimination, with current point of care rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) missing many clinically significant infections because of usually lower peripheral parasitaemia. Haemozoin-detecting assays have been suggested as an alternative to immunoassay platforms but to date have not reached successful field deployment. Haemozoin is a paramagnetic crystal by-product of haemoglobin digestion by malaria parasites and is present in the food vacuole of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic capability of a new haemozoin-detecting platform, the Gazelle™ device with optical microscopy, RDT and PCR in a vivax malaria-endemic region. METHODS: A comparative, double-blind study evaluating symptomatic malaria patients seeking medical care was conducted at an infectious diseases reference hospital in the western Brazilian Amazon. Optical microscopy, PCR, RDT, and Gazelle™ were used to analyse blood samples. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and Kappa values were calculated. RESULTS: Out of 300 patients, 24 test results were excluded from the final analysis due to protocol violation (6) and inconclusive and/or irretrievable results (18). Gazelle™ sensitivity was 96.1 % (91.3-98.3) and 72.1 % (65.0-78.3) when compared to optical microscopy and PCR, respectively whereas it was 83.9 % and 62.8 % for RDTs. The platform presented specificity of 100 % (97.4-100), and 99.0 % (94.8-99.9) when compared to optical microscopy, and PCR, respectively, which  was the same for RDTs. Its correct classification rate was 98.2 % when compared to optical microscopy and 82.3 % for PCR; the test's accuracy when compared to optical microscopy was 98.1 % (96.4-99.7), when compared to RDT was 95.2 % (93.0-97.5), and when compared to PCR was 85.6 % (82.1-89.1). Kappa (95 % CI) values for Gazelle™ were 96.4 (93.2-99.5), 88.2 (82.6-93.8) and 65.3 (57.0-73.6) for optical microscopy, RDT and PCR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Gazelle™ device was shown to have faster, easier, good sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy when compared to microscopy and was superior to RDT, demonstrating to be an alternative for vivax malaria screening particularly in areas where malaria is concomitant with other febrile infections (including dengue fever, zika, chikungunya, Chagas, yellow fever, babesiosis).

8.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(4): 759-776, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689276

RESUMO

Antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action and wide therapeutic potential are needed to pave the way for malaria eradication. Violacein is a natural compound known for its biological activity against cancer cells and several pathogens, including the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Herein, using chemical genomic profiling (CGP), we found that violacein affects protein homeostasis. Mechanistically, violacein binds Pf chaperones, PfHsp90 and PfHsp70-1, compromising the latter's ATPase and chaperone activities. Additionally, violacein-treated parasites exhibited increased protein unfolding and proteasomal degradation. The uncoupling of the parasite stress response reflects the multistage growth inhibitory effect promoted by violacein. Despite evidence of proteotoxic stress, violacein did not inhibit global protein synthesis via UPR activation-a process that is highly dependent on chaperones, in agreement with the notion of a violacein-induced proteostasis collapse. Our data highlight the importance of a functioning chaperone-proteasome system for parasite development and differentiation. Thus, a violacein-like small molecule might provide a good scaffold for development of a novel probe for examining the molecular chaperone network and/or antiplasmodial drug design.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 572, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Zika virus outbreak has triggered a set of local and global actions for a rapid, effective, and timely public health response. A World Health Organization (WHO) initiative, supported by the Department of Chronic Condition Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections (DCCI) of the Health Surveillance Secretariat (SVS), Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) and other public health funders, resulted in the start of the "Study on the persistence of Zika virus in body fluids of patients with ZIKV infection in Brazil - ZIKABRA study". The ZIKABRA study was designed to increase understanding of how long ZIKV persists in bodily fluids and informing best measures to prevent its transmission. Data collection began in July 2017 and the last follow up visit occurred in 06/26/2020. METHODS: A framework for the ZIKABRA Cooperation initiative is provided through a description and analysis of the mechanisms, strategies and the ethos that have guided the models of international governance and technical cooperation in health for scientific exchange in the context of a public health emergency. Among the methodological strategies, we included a review of the legal documents that supported the ZIKABRA Cooperation; weekly documents produced in the meetings and working sessions; technical reports; memorandum of understanding and the research protocol. CONCLUSION: We highlight the importance of working in cooperation between different institutional actors to achieve more significant results than that obtained by each group working in isolation. In addition, we point out the advantages of training activities, ongoing supervision, the construction of local installed research capacity, training academic and non-academic human resources, improvement of laboratory equipment, knowledge transfer and the availability of the ZIKABRA study protocol for development of similar studies, favoring the collective construction of knowledge to provide public health emergency responses. Strategy harmonization; human resources and health services; timing and recruiting particularities and processing institutional clearance in the different sites can be mentioned as challenges in this type of initiative.

10.
Malar J ; 20(1): 87, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As malaria endemic countries strive towards elimination, intensified spatial heterogeneities of local transmission could undermine the effectiveness of traditional intervention policy. METHODS: The dynamic nature of large-scale and long-term malaria heterogeneity across Brazilian Amazon basin were explored by (1) exploratory analysis of Brazil's rich clinical malaria reporting database from 2004 to 2018, and (2) adapting Gini coefficient to study the distribution of malaria cases in the region. RESULTS: As transmission declined, heterogeneity increased with cases clustering into smaller subpopulations across the territory. In 2004, the 1% of health units with the greatest number of cases accounted for 46% of all reported Plasmodium vivax cases, whereas in 2018 52% of P. vivax cases occurred in the top 1% of health units. Plasmodium falciparum had lower levels of transmission than P. vivax, and also had greater levels of heterogeneity with 75% of cases occurring in the top 1% of health units. Age and gender stratification of cases revealed peri-domestic and occupational exposure settings that remained relatively stable. CONCLUSION: The pathway to decreasing incidence is characterized by higher proportions of cases in males, in adults, due to importation, and caused by P. vivax. Characterization of spatio-temporal heterogeneity and risk groups can aid stratification for improved malaria control towards elimination with increased heterogeneity potentially allowing for more efficient and cost-effective targeting. Although distinct epidemiological phenomena were clearly observed as malaria transmission declines, the authors argue that there is no canonical path to malaria elimination and a more targeted and dynamic surveillance will be needed if Brazil decides to adopt the elimination target.

11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009165, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibody responses as serological markers of Plasmodium vivax infection have been shown to correlate with exposure, but little is known about the other factors that affect antibody responses in naturally infected people from endemic settings. To address this question, we studied IgG responses to novel serological exposure markers (SEMs) of P. vivax in three settings with different transmission intensity. METHODOLOGY: We validated a panel of 34 SEMs in a Peruvian cohort with up to three years' longitudinal follow-up using a multiplex platform and compared results to data from cohorts in Thailand and Brazil. Linear regression models were used to characterize the association between antibody responses and age, the number of detected blood-stage infections during follow-up, and time since previous infection. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to test the performance of SEMs to identify P. vivax infections in the previous 9 months. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Antibody titers were associated with age, the number of blood-stage infections, and time since previous P. vivax infection in all three study sites. The association between antibody titers and time since previous P. vivax infection was stronger in the low transmission settings of Thailand and Brazil compared to the higher transmission setting in Peru. Of the SEMs tested, antibody responses to RBP2b had the highest performance for classifying recent exposure in all sites, with area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.83 in Thailand, AUC = 0.79 in Brazil, and AUC = 0.68 in Peru. CONCLUSIONS: In low transmission settings, P. vivax SEMs can accurately identify individuals with recent blood-stage infections. In higher transmission settings, the accuracy of this approach diminishes substantially. We recommend using P. vivax SEMs in low transmission settings pursuing malaria elimination, but they are likely to be less effective in high transmission settings focused on malaria control.

12.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes. OBJECTIVES: Here we tested Malaria Box compounds in order to evaluate their activity against male and female gametocytes in Plasmodium berghei, mosquito infection in P. vivax and ookinete formation in both species. METHODS/FINDINGS: The membrane feeding assay and the development of ookinetes by a 24 h ex vivo culture and the ookinete yield per 1000 erythrocytes were used to test transmission-blocking potential of the Malaria Box compounds in P. vivax. For P. berghei we used flow cytometry to evaluate male and female gametocyte time course and fluorescence microscopy to check the ookinete development. The two species used in this study showed similar results concerning the compounds' activity against gametocytes and ookinetes, which were different from those in P. falciparum. In addition, from the eight Malaria Box compounds tested in both species, compounds MMV665830, MMV665878 and MMV665941 were selected as a hit compounds due the high inhibition observed. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that P. berghei is suitable as an initial screening system to test compounds against P. vivax.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/transmissão
14.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heparanase (HPSE) is the only known mammalian enzyme that can degrade heparan sulfate. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are essential components of the glycocalyx, and maintain physiological barriers between the blood and endothelial cells. HPSE increases during sepsis, which contributes to injurious glyocalyx degradation, loss of endothelial barrier function, and mortality. OBJECTIVES: As platelets are one of the most abundant cellular sources of HPSE, we sought to determine whether HPSE expression and activity increases in human platelets during clinical sepsis. We also examined associations between platelet HPSE expression and clinical outcomes. PATIENTS/METHODS: Expression and activity of HPSE was determined in platelets isolated from septic patients (n = 59) and, for comparison, sex-matched healthy donors (n = 46) using complementary transcriptomic, proteomic, and functional enzymatic assays. Septic patients were followed for the primary outcome of mortality, and clinical data were captured prospectively for septic patients. RESULTS: The mRNA expression of HPSE was significantly increased in platelets isolated from septic patients. Ribosomal footprint profiling, followed by [S35] methionine labeling assays, demonstrated that HPSE mRNA translation and HPSE protein synthesis were significantly upregulated in platelets during sepsis. While both the pro- and active forms of HPSE protein increased in platelets during sepsis, only the active form of HPSE protein significantly correlated with sepsis-associated mortality. Consistent with transcriptomic and proteomic upregulation, HPSE enzymatic activity was also increased in platelets during sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: During clinical sepsis HPSE, translation, and enzymatic activity are increased in platelets. Increased expression of the active form of HPSE protein is associated with sepsis-associated mortality.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244981, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400705

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) has been detected in blood, urine, semen, cerebral spinal fluid, saliva, amniotic fluid, and breast milk. In most ZIKV infected individuals, the virus is detected in the blood to one week after the onset of symptoms and has been found to persist longer in urine and semen. To better understand virus dynamics, a prospective cohort study was conducted in Brazil to assess the presence and duration of ZIKV and related markers (viral RNA, antibodies, T cell response, and innate immunity) in blood, semen, saliva, urine, vaginal secretions/menstrual blood, rectal swab and sweat. The objective of the current manuscript is to describe the cohort, including an overview of the collected data and a description of the baseline characteristics of the participants. Men and women ≥ 18 years with acute illness and their symptomatic and asymptomatic household contacts with positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test for ZIKV in blood and/or urine were included. All participants were followed up for 12 months. From July 2017 to June 2019, a total of 786 participants (284 men, 502 women) were screened. Of these, 260 (33.1%) were enrolled in the study; index cases: 64 men (24.6%), 162 (62.3%) women; household contacts: 12 men (4.6%), 22 (8.5%) women. There was a statistically significant difference in age and sex between enrolled and not enrolled participants (p<0.005). Baseline sociodemographic and medical data were collected at enrollment from all participants. The median and interquartile range (IQR) age was 35 (IQR; 25.3, 43) for men and 36.5 years (IQR; 28, 47) for women. Following rash, which was one of the inclusion criteria for index cases, the most reported symptoms in the enrollment visit since the onset of the disease were fever, itching, arthralgia with or without edema, non-purulent conjunctivitis, headache, and myalgia. Ten hospitalizations were reported by eight patients (two patients were hospitalized twice) during follow up, after a median of 108 days following symptom onset (range 7 to 266 days) and with a median of 1.5 days (range 1 to 20 days) of hospital stay. A total of 4,137 visits were performed, 223 (85.8%) participants have attended all visits and 37 (14.2%) patients were discontinued.

16.
Acta Trop ; 215: 105819, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406443

RESUMO

The outbreaks caused by the Aedes aegypti-transmitted dengue virus (DENV), zakat virus (ZIKV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) result in a significant impact to the health systems of tropical countries. Furthermore, the occurrence of patients coinfected by at least two of these arboviruses is an aggravating factor in that scenario. On this basis, surveillance tools such as the Rapid Index Survey for Aedes aegypti (LIRAa) are used to estimate vector infestation in order to improve the prediction of human outbreaks. Ae. aegypti eggs were collected in the city of Vitória da Conquista, in Bahia State, Brazil, and subsequently hatched into larvae, which were analyzed in pools or individually for the presence of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV by molecular biology methods. The detection data for arboviruses were crossed with the LIRAa obtained in each region of the study city. Thirty larvae pools were analyzed, and fourteen (46.6%) of them were detected positive for DENV, ZIKV, and/or CHIKV. Among the individually analyzed larvae (n = 30), nine (30%) were positive for any of these arboviruses, and four (13.3%) were simultaneously coinfected by DENV and ZIKV. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the detection of circulating arboviruses and LIRAa. The simultaneous Ae. aegypti larvae infection by two different arboviruses is an unprecedented finding. This result suggests the occurrence of a vertical arboviruses co-transmission from the female mosquito to its offspring in nature. The occurrence of concomitant circulation of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV in Ae. aegypti from a single study region is another finding of this article. Finally, LIRAa seems to not only estimate vector infestation but also to predict circulation of arboviruses.

17.
Exp Parasitol ; 222: 108064, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421382

RESUMO

Experimental studies for understanding the relationship between Plasmodium vivax and its vector hosts are difficult, because of to the lack of a long-term, in vitro continuous culture system unavailability of infected blood samples, seasonality of the disease, and the concentration of most cases in remote areas. This study evaluates the duration of the infectivity of P. vivax to Anopheles aquasalis after collecting blood from malaria-infected patients. Blood was collected from patients and stored at 4 °C and 37 °C. Every day, for 4 days, the blood was fed to An. aquasalis adult females, and a Giemsa-stained thick blood smear was mounted to account for sexual (gametocytes) and asexual (trophozoites and schizonts) stages and calculate parasitemia. Oocysts in the midgut of the mosquitoes were counted on the seventh day after feeding. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the mean number of oocysts (MO) and the parasite density (PD) in each storage condition and post-infection time-points. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the number of oocysts for each day between temperatures. The results show that P. vivax stored at 4 °C and at 37 °C has its infectivity to An. aquasalis preserved for 2 days and 3 days, respectively. Infection rate (IR), PD and MO were higher on the day of blood collection and decreased gradually over time. The parasite density (number of parasites/µL) diminished faster at 4 °C than at 37 °C. In this study, a preservation protocol is shown for long-lasting infectivity of P. vivax in a blood sample taken from malaria-infected patients. These results show that infectivity of P. vivax stored at 4 °C and at 37 °C to An. aquasalis persist until 3 days after blood collection, but parasite density, infection rate, and mean of oocysts decreased 24h after blood collection. Since the malaria cases are increasingly far from the urban areas these results indicate that is possible, losing some infectivity, to realize experimental infections several dozen hours after the blood collection. However, it is necessary to improve the procedures for preserving P. vivax gametocytes for mosquito infection in the laboratory.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Vivax/sangue , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium vivax/patogenicidade , População Rural , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Malar J ; 20(1): 13, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria and HIV are two important public health issues. However, evidence on HIV-Plasmodium vivax co-infection (HIV/PvCo) is scarce, with most of the available information related to Plasmodium falciparum on the African continent. It is unclear whether HIV can change the clinical course of vivax malaria and increase the risk of complications. In this study, a systematic review of HIV/PvCo studies was performed, and recent cases from the Brazilian Amazon were included. METHODS: Medical records from a tertiary care centre in the Western Brazilian Amazon (2009-2018) were reviewed to identify HIV/PvCo hospitalized patients. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes are reported. Also, a systematic review of published studies on HIV/PvCo was conducted. Metadata, number of HIV/PvCo cases, demographic, clinical, and outcome data were extracted. RESULTS: A total of 1,048 vivax malaria patients were hospitalized in the 10-year period; 21 (2.0%) were HIV/PvCo cases, of which 9 (42.9%) had AIDS-defining illnesses. This was the first malaria episode in 11 (52.4%) patients. Seven (33.3%) patients were unaware of their HIV status and were diagnosed on hospitalization. Severe malaria was diagnosed in 5 (23.8%) patients. One patient died. The systematic review search provided 17 articles (12 cross-sectional or longitudinal studies and 5 case report studies). A higher prevalence of studies involved cases in African and Asian countries (35.3 and 29.4%, respectively), and the prevalence of reported co-infections ranged from 0.1 to 60%. CONCLUSION: Reports of HIV/PvCo are scarce in the literature, with only a few studies describing clinical and laboratory outcomes. Systematic screening for both co-infections is not routinely performed, and therefore the real prevalence of HIV/PvCo is unknown. This study showed a low prevalence of HIV/PvCo despite the high prevalence of malaria and HIV locally. Even though relatively small, this is the largest case series to describe HIV/PvCo.

19.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200339, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503145

RESUMO

We evaluated sweat, blood and urine specimens obtained from an ongoing cohort study in Brazil. Samples were collected at pre-established intervals after the initial rash presentation and tested for Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA presence by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). From 254 participants with confirmed infection, ZIKV RNA was detected in the sweat of 46 individuals (18.1%). Sweat presented a median cycle threshold (Ct) of 34.74 [interquartile range (IQR) 33.44-36.04], comparable to plasma (Ct 35.96 - IQR 33.29-36.69) and higher than urine (Ct 30.78 - IQR 28.72-33.22). Concomitant detection with other specimens was observed in 33 (72%) of 46 participants who had a positive result in sweat. These findings represent an unusual and not yet investigated virus shedding through eccrine glands.


Assuntos
RNA Viral/genética , Suor/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Sangue/virologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Viral/classificação , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Urina/virologia , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
20.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2471-2479, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471512

RESUMO

COVID-19 is still placing a heavy health and financial burden worldwide. Impairment in patient screening and risk management plays a fundamental role on how governments and authorities are directing resources, planning reopening, as well as sanitary countermeasures, especially in regions where poverty is a major component in the equation. An efficient diagnostic method must be highly accurate, while having a cost-effective profile. We combined a machine learning-based algorithm with mass spectrometry to create an expeditious platform that discriminate COVID-19 in plasma samples within minutes, while also providing tools for risk assessment, to assist healthcare professionals in patient management and decision-making. A cross-sectional study enrolled 815 patients (442 COVID-19, 350 controls and 23 COVID-19 suspicious) from three Brazilian epicenters from April to July 2020. We were able to elect and identify 19 molecules related to the disease's pathophysiology and several discriminating features to patient's health-related outcomes. The method applied for COVID-19 diagnosis showed specificity >96% and sensitivity >83%, and specificity >80% and sensitivity >85% during risk assessment, both from blinded data. Our method introduced a new approach for COVID-19 screening, providing the indirect detection of infection through metabolites and contextualizing the findings with the disease's pathophysiology. The pairwise analysis of biomarkers brought robustness to the model developed using machine learning algorithms, transforming this screening approach in a tool with great potential for real-world application.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metabolômica , Adulto , Idoso , Automação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , /isolamento & purificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...