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J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 69(12): 1391-1414, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526242


Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a well-established risk factor for public health. To support both health risk assessment and epidemiological studies, data are needed on spatial and temporal patterns of PM2.5 exposures. This review article surveys publicly available exposure datasets for surface PM2.5 mass concentrations over the contiguous U.S., summarizes their applications and limitations, and provides suggestions on future research needs. The complex landscape of satellite instruments, model capabilities, monitor networks, and data synthesis methods offers opportunities for research development, but would benefit from guidance for new users. Guidance is provided to access publicly available PM2.5 datasets, to explain and compare different approaches for dataset generation, and to identify sources of uncertainties associated with various types of datasets. Three main sources used to create PM2.5 exposure data are ground-based measurements (especially regulatory monitoring), satellite retrievals (especially aerosol optical depth, AOD), and atmospheric chemistry models. We find inconsistencies among several publicly available PM2.5 estimates, highlighting uncertainties in the exposure datasets that are often overlooked in health effects analyses. Major differences among PM2.5 estimates emerge from the choice of data (ground-based, satellite, and/or model), the spatiotemporal resolutions, and the algorithms used to fuse data sources.Implications: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has large impacts on human morbidity and mortality. Even though the methods for generating the PM2.5 exposure estimates have been significantly improved in recent years, there is a lack of review articles that document PM2.5 exposure datasets that are publicly available and easily accessible by the health and air quality communities. In this article, we discuss the main methods that generate PM2.5 data, compare several publicly available datasets, and show the applications of various data fusion approaches. Guidance to access and critique these datasets are provided for stakeholders in public health sectors.

Environ Sci Technol ; 53(11): 6392-6401, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070029


Diffuse emission sources outside of kitchen areas are poorly understood, and measurements of their emission factors (EFs) are sparse for regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Thirty-one in-field emission measurements were taken in northern Ghana from combustion sources common to rural regions worldwide. Sources sampled included commercial cooking, trash burning, kerosene lanterns, and diesel generators. EFs were calculated for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as carbonaceous particulate matter, specifically elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). EC and OC emissions were measured from kerosene lighting events (EFEC = 25.1 g/kg-fuel SD = 25.7, EFOC = 9.5 g/kg-fuel SD = 10.0). OC emissions from trash burning events were large and highly variable (EFOC = 38.9 g/kg-fuel SD = 30.5). Combining our results with other recent in-field emission factors for rural Ghana, we explored updated emission estimates for Ghana using a region specific emissions inventory. Large differences are calculated for all updated source emissions, showing a 96% increase in OC and 78% decrease in EC compared to prior estimates for Ghana's emissions. Differences for carbon monoxide were small when averaged across all updated source types (-1%), though the household wood use and trash burning categories individually show large differences.

Poluentes Atmosféricos , Utensílios Domésticos , Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gana , Material Particulado
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 397-412, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598475


The African continent is undergoing immense social and economic change, particularly regarding population growth and urbanization, where the urban population in Africa is anticipated to increase by a factor of 3 over the next 40 years. To understand the potential health impacts from this demographical shift and design efficient emission mitigation strategies, we used improved Africa-specific emissions that account for inefficient combustion sources for a number of sectors such as transportation, household energy generation, waste burning, and home heating and cooking. When these underrepresented emissions sources are combined with the current estimates of emissions in Africa, ambient particulate matter concentrations from present-day anthropogenic activity contribute to 13 210 annual premature deaths, with the largest contributions (38%) coming from residential emissions. By scaling both the population and the emissions for projected national-scale levels of growth, the predicted health impact grows to approximately 78 986 annual premature deaths by 2030 with 45% now resulting from emissions related to energy combustion. In order to mitigate this resulting increase in premature deaths, three scenarios have been developed which reduce sector-specific future emissions based on prior targets for technological improvements and emission controls in transportation, energy production and residential activities. These targeted potential mitigation strategies can avoid up to 37% of the estimated annual premature deaths by 2030 with the largest opportunity being a reduction of 10 868 annual deaths from switching half of the energy generation in South Africa to renewable technologies.

Nature ; 545(7655): 467-471, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505629


Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NOx emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NOx emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

União Europeia/economia , Gasolina/análise , Gasolina/economia , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico/envenenamento , Emissões de Veículos/prevenção & controle , Emissões de Veículos/envenenamento , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia/estatística & dados numéricos , Gasolina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/economia , Ozônio/envenenamento , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/economia , Material Particulado/envenenamento , Emissões de Veículos/análise
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(6): 1269-1274, 2017 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28115698


Residential solid fuel use contributes to degraded indoor and ambient air quality and may affect global surface temperature. However, the potential for national-scale cookstove intervention programs to mitigate the latter issues is not yet well known, owing to the spatial heterogeneity of aerosol emissions and impacts, along with coemitted species. Here we use a combination of atmospheric modeling, remote sensing, and adjoint sensitivity analysis to individually evaluate consequences of a 20-y linear phase-out of cookstove emissions in each country with greater than 5% of the population using solid fuel for cooking. Emissions reductions in China, India, and Ethiopia contribute to the largest global surface temperature change in 2050 [combined impact of -37 mK (11 mK to -85 mK)], whereas interventions in countries less commonly targeted for cookstove mitigation such as Azerbaijan, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan have the largest per cookstove climate benefits. Abatement in China, India, and Bangladesh contributes to the largest reduction of premature deaths from ambient air pollution, preventing 198,000 (102,000-204,000) of the 260,000 (137,000-268,000) global annual avoided deaths in 2050, whereas again emissions in Ukraine and Azerbaijan have the largest per cookstove impacts, along with Romania. Global cookstove emissions abatement results in an average surface temperature cooling of -77 mK (20 mK to -278 mK) in 2050, which increases to -118 mK (-11 mK to -335 mK) by 2100 due to delayed CO2 response. Health impacts owing to changes in ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) amount to ∼22.5 million premature deaths prevented between 2000 and 2100.