Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 43
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Exp Eye Res ; 188: 107787, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479653

RESUMO

Cataract-associated gene discovery in human and animal models have informed on key aspects of human lens development, homeostasis and pathology. Additionally, in vitro models such as the culture of permanent human lens epithelium-derived cell lines (LECs) have also been utilized to understand the molecular biology of lens cells. However, these resources remain uncharacterized, specifically regarding their global gene expression and suitability to model lens cell biology. Therefore, we sought to molecularly characterize gene expression in the human LEC, SRA01/04, which is commonly used in lens studies. We first performed short tandem repeat (STR) analysis and validated SRA01/04 LEC for its human origin, as recommended by the eye research community. Next, we used Illumina HumanHT-12 v3.0 Expression BeadChip arrays to gain insights into the global gene expression profile of SRA01/04. Comparative analysis of SRA01/04 microarray data was performed using other resources such as the lens expression database iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery), the cataract gene database Cat-Map and the published lens literature. This analysis showed that SRA01/04 significantly expresses >40% of the top iSyTE lens-enriched genes (313 out of 749) across different developmental stages. Further, SRA01/04 also significantly expresses ~53% (168 out of 318) of cataract-associated genes in Cat-Map. We also performed comparative gene expression analysis between SRA01/04 cells and the previously validated mouse LEC 21EM15. To gain insight into whether SRA01/04 reflects epithelial or fiber cell characteristics, we compared its gene expression profile to previously reported differentially expressed genes in isolated mouse lens epithelial and fiber cells. This analysis suggests that SRA01/04 has reduced expression of several fiber cell-enriched genes. In agreement with these findings, cell culture analysis demonstrates that SRA01/04 has reduced potential to initiate spontaneous lentoid body formation compared to 21EM15 cells. Next, to independently validate SRA01/04 microarray gene expression, we subjected several candidate genes to RT-PCR and RT-qPCR assays. This analysis demonstrates that SRA01/04 supports expression of many key genes associated with lens development and cataract, including CRYAB, CRYBB2, CRYGS, DKK3, EPHA2, ETV5, GJA1, HSPB1, INPPL1, ITGB1, PAX6, PVRL3, SFRP1, SPARC, TDRD7, and VIM, among others, and therefore can be relevant for understanding the mechanistic basis of these factors. At the same time, SRA01/04 cells do not exhibit robust expression of several genes known to be important to lens biology and cataract such as ALDH1A1, COL4A6, CP, CRYBA4, FOXE3, HMX1, HSF4, MAF, MEIS1, PITX3, PRX, SIX3, and TRPM3, among many others. Therefore, the present study offers a rich transcript-level resource for case-by-case evaluation of the potential advantages and limitations of SRA01/04 cells prior to their use in downstream investigations. In sum, these data show that the human LEC, SRA01/04, exhibits lens epithelial cell-like character reflected in the expression of several lens-enriched and cataract-associated genes, and therefore can be considered as a useful in vitro resource when combined with in vivo studies to gain insight into specific aspects of human lens epithelial cells.

2.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(6): 704-716, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172578

RESUMO

Phenotypic heterogeneity is a hallmark of complex traits, and genetic studies of such traits may focus on them as a single diagnostic entity or by analyzing specific components. For example, in orofacial clefting (OFC), three subtypes-cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP), and cleft palate (CP) have been studied separately and in combination. To further dissect the genetic architecture of OFCs and how a given associated locus may be contributing to distinct subtypes of a trait we developed a framework for quantifying and interpreting evidence of subtype-specific or shared genetic effects in complex traits. We applied this technique to create a "cleft map" of the association of 30 genetic loci with three OFC subtypes. In addition to new associations, we found loci with subtype-specific effects (e.g., GRHL3 [CP], WNT5A [CLP]), as well as loci associated with two or all three subtypes. We cross-referenced these results with mouse craniofacial gene expression datasets, which identified additional promising candidate genes. However, we found no strong correlation between OFC subtypes and expression patterns. In aggregate, the cleft map revealed that neither subtype-specific nor shared genetic effects operate in isolation in OFC architecture. Our approach can be easily applied to any complex trait with distinct phenotypic subgroups.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1813-1825, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215115

RESUMO

Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is generally viewed as a complex trait with multiple genetic and environmental contributions. In 70% of cases, CL/P presents as an isolated feature and/or deemed nonsyndromic. In the remaining 30%, CL/P is associated with multisystem phenotypes or clinically recognizable syndromes, many with a monogenic basis. Here we report the identification, via exome sequencing, of likely pathogenic variants in two genes that encode interacting proteins previously only linked to orofacial clefting in mouse models. A variant in GDF11 (encoding growth differentiation factor 11), predicting a p.(Arg298Gln) substitution at the Furin protease cleavage site, was identified in one family that segregated with CL/P and both rib and vertebral hypersegmentation, mirroring that seen in Gdf11 knockout mice. In the second family in which CL/P was the only phenotype, a mutation in FST (encoding the GDF11 antagonist, Follistatin) was identified that is predicted to result in a p.(Cys56Tyr) substitution in the region that binds GDF11. Functional assays demonstrated a significant impact of the specific mutated amino acids on FST and GDF11 function and, together with embryonic expression data, provide strong evidence for the importance of GDF11 and Follistatin in the regulation of human orofacial development.

4.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 629-638, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic PLOD3 variants cause a connective tissue disorder (CTD) that has been described rarely. We further characterise this CTD and propose a clinical diagnostic label to improve recognition and diagnosis of PLOD3-related disease. METHODS: Reported PLOD3 phenotypes were compared with known CTDs utilising data from three further individuals from a consanguineous family with a homozygous PLOD3 c.809C>T; p.(Pro270Leu) variant. PLOD3 mRNA expression in the developing embryo was analysed for tissue-specific localisation. Mouse microarray expression data were assessed for phylogenetic gene expression similarities across CTDs with overlapping clinical features. RESULTS: Key clinical features included ocular abnormalities with risk for retinal detachment, sensorineural hearing loss, reduced palmar creases, finger contractures, prominent knees, scoliosis, low bone mineral density, recognisable craniofacial dysmorphisms, developmental delay and risk for vascular dissection. Collated clinical features showed most overlap with Stickler syndrome with variable features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Human lysyl hydroxylase 3/PLOD3 expression was localised to the developing cochlea, eyes, skin, forelimbs, heart and cartilage, mirroring the clinical phenotype of this disorder. CONCLUSION: These data are consistent with pathogenic variants in PLOD3 resulting in a clinically distinct Stickler-like syndrome with vascular complications and variable features of EDS and EB. Early identification of PLOD3 variants would improve monitoring for comorbidities and may avoid serious adverse ocular and vascular outcomes.

5.
Hum Genet ; 137(11-12): 941-954, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417254

RESUMO

Isolated or syndromic congenital cataracts are heterogeneous developmental defects, making the identification of the associated genes challenging. In the past, mouse lens expression microarrays have been successfully applied in bioinformatics tools (e.g., iSyTE) to facilitate human cataract-associated gene discovery. To develop a new resource for geneticists, we report high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiles of mouse lens at key embryonic stages (E)10.5 (lens pit), E12.5 (primary fiber cell differentiation), E14.5 and E16.5 (secondary fiber cell differentiation). These stages capture important events as the lens develops from an invaginating placode into a transparent tissue. Previously, in silico whole-embryo body (WB)-subtraction-based "lens-enriched" expression has been effective in prioritizing cataract-linked genes. To apply an analogous approach, we generated new mouse WB RNA-seq datasets and show that in silico WB subtraction of lens RNA-seq datasets successfully identifies key genes based on lens-enriched expression. At ≥2 counts-per-million expression, ≥1.5 log2 fold-enrichment (p < 0.05) cutoff, E10.5 lens exhibits 1401 enriched genes (17% lens-expressed genes), E12.5 lens exhibits 1937 enriched genes (22% lens-expressed genes), E14.5 lens exhibits 2514 enriched genes (31% lens-expressed genes), and E16.5 lens exhibits 2745 enriched genes (34% lens-expressed genes). Biological pathway analysis identified genes associated with lens development, transcription regulation and signaling pathways, among other functional groups. Furthermore, these new RNA-seq data confirmed high expression of established cataract-linked genes and identified new potential regulators in the lens. Finally, we developed new lens stage-specific UCSC Genome Brower annotation tracks and made these publicly accessible through iSyTE ( https://research.bioinformatics.udel.edu/iSyTE/ ) for user-friendly visualization of lens gene expression/enrichment to prioritize genes from high-throughput data from cataract cases.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1143-1157, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805042

RESUMO

Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NS-CL/P) is one of the most common human birth defects and is generally considered a complex trait. Despite numerous loci identified by genome-wide association studies, the effect sizes of common variants are relatively small, with much of the presumed genetic contribution remaining elusive. We report exome-sequencing results in 209 people from 72 multi-affected families with pedigree structures consistent with autosomal-dominant inheritance and variable penetrance. Herein, pathogenic variants are described in four genes encoding components of the p120-catenin complex (CTNND1, PLEKHA7, PLEKHA5) and an epithelial splicing regulator (ESRP2), in addition to the known CL/P-associated gene, CDH1, which encodes E-cadherin. The findings were also validated in a second cohort of 497 people with NS-CL/P, comprising small families and singletons with pathogenic variants in these genes identified in 14% of multi-affected families and 2% of the replication cohort of smaller families. Enriched expression of each gene/protein in human and mouse embryonic oro-palatal epithelia, demonstration of functional impact of CTNND1 and ESRP2 variants, and recapitulation of the CL/P spectrum in Ctnnd1 knockout mice support a causative role in CL/P pathogenesis. These data show that primary defects in regulators of epithelial cell adhesion are the most significant contributors to NS-CL/P identified to date and that inherited and de novo single gene variants explain a substantial proportion of NS-CL/P.

7.
PLoS Genet ; 14(3): e1007278, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565969

RESUMO

Opacification of the ocular lens, termed cataract, is a common cause of blindness. To become transparent, lens fiber cells undergo degradation of their organelles, including their nuclei, presenting a fundamental question: does signaling/transcription sufficiently explain differentiation of cells progressing toward compromised transcriptional potential? We report that a conserved RNA-binding protein Celf1 post-transcriptionally controls key genes to regulate lens fiber cell differentiation. Celf1-targeted knockout mice and celf1-knockdown zebrafish and Xenopus morphants have severe eye defects/cataract. Celf1 spatiotemporally down-regulates the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27Kip1 by interacting with its 5' UTR and mediating translation inhibition. Celf1 deficiency causes ectopic up-regulation of p21Cip1. Further, Celf1 directly binds to the mRNA of the nuclease Dnase2b to maintain its high levels. Together these events are necessary for Cdk1-mediated lamin A/C phosphorylation to initiate nuclear envelope breakdown and DNA degradation in fiber cells. Moreover, Celf1 controls alternative splicing of the membrane-organization factor beta-spectrin and regulates F-actin-crosslinking factor Actn2 mRNA levels, thereby controlling fiber cell morphology. Thus, we illustrate new Celf1-regulated molecular mechanisms in lens development, suggesting that post-transcriptional regulatory RNA-binding proteins have evolved conserved functions to control vertebrate oculogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas CELF1/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/genética , Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Cristalino/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Proteínas de Xenopus/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Cristalino/citologia , Cristalino/metabolismo , Camundongos , Xenopus laevis , Peixe-Zebra
8.
Exp Eye Res ; 168: 57-68, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29337142

RESUMO

Advances in sequencing have facilitated nucleotide-resolution genome-wide transcriptomic profiles across multiple mouse eye tissues. However, these RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) based eye developmental transcriptomes are not organized for easy public access, making any further analysis challenging. Here, we present a new database "Express" (http://www.iupui.edu/∼sysbio/express/) that unifies various mouse lens and retina RNA-seq data and provides user-friendly visualization of the transcriptome to facilitate gene discovery in the eye. We obtained RNA-seq data encompassing 7 developmental stages of lens in addition to that on isolated lens epithelial and fibers, as well as on 11 developmental stages of retina/isolated retinal rod photoreceptor cells from publicly available wild-type mouse datasets. These datasets were pre-processed, aligned, quantified and normalized for expression levels of known and novel transcripts using a unified expression quantification framework. Express provides heatmap and browser view allowing easy navigation of the genomic organization of transcripts or gene loci. Further, it allows users to search candidate genes and export both the visualizations and the embedded data to facilitate downstream analysis. We identified total of >81,000 transcripts in the lens and >178,000 transcripts in the retina across all the included developmental stages. This analysis revealed that a significant number of the retina-expressed transcripts are novel. Expression of several transcripts in the lens and retina across multiple developmental stages was independently validated by RT-qPCR for established genes such as Pax6 and Lhx2 as well as for new candidates such as Elavl4, Rbm5, Pabpc1, Tia1 and Tubb2b. Thus, Express serves as an effective portal for analyzing pruned RNA-seq expression datasets presently collected for the lens and retina. It will allow a wild-type context for the detailed analysis of targeted gene-knockout mouse ocular defect models and facilitate the prioritization of candidate genes from Exome-seq data of eye disease patients.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Cristalino/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
9.
Hum Mutat ; 39(4): 471-494, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314435

RESUMO

Mutations in the transcription factor genes FOXE3, HSF4, MAF, and PITX3 cause congenital lens defects including cataracts that may be accompanied by defects in other components of the eye or in nonocular tissues. We comprehensively describe here all the variants in FOXE3, HSF4, MAF, and PITX3 genes linked to human developmental defects. A total of 52 variants for FOXE3, 18 variants for HSF4, 20 variants for MAF, and 19 variants for PITX3 identified so far in isolated cases or within families are documented. This effort reveals FOXE3, HSF4, MAF, and PITX3 to have 33, 16, 18, and 7 unique causal mutations, respectively. Loss-of-function mutant animals for these genes have served to model the pathobiology of the associated human defects, and we discuss the currently known molecular function of these genes, particularly with emphasis on their role in ocular development. Finally, we make the detailed FOXE3, HSF4, MAF, and PITX3 variant information available in the Leiden Online Variation Database (LOVD) platform at https://www.LOVD.nl/FOXE3, https://www.LOVD.nl/HSF4, https://www.LOVD.nl/MAF, and https://www.LOVD.nl/PITX3. Thus, this article informs on key variants in transcription factor genes linked to cataract, aphakia, corneal opacity, glaucoma, microcornea, microphthalmia, anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis, and Ayme-Gripp syndrome, and facilitates their access through Web-based databases.

10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(D1): D875-D885, 2018 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036527

RESUMO

Although successful in identifying new cataract-linked genes, the previous version of the database iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) was based on expression information on just three mouse lens stages and was functionally limited to visualization by only UCSC-Genome Browser tracks. To increase its efficacy, here we provide an enhanced iSyTE version 2.0 (URL: http://research.bioinformatics.udel.edu/iSyTE) based on well-curated, comprehensive genome-level lens expression data as a one-stop portal for the effective visualization and analysis of candidate genes in lens development and disease. iSyTE 2.0 includes all publicly available lens Affymetrix and Illumina microarray datasets representing a broad range of embryonic and postnatal stages from wild-type and specific gene-perturbation mouse mutants with eye defects. Further, we developed a new user-friendly web interface for direct access and cogent visualization of the curated expression data, which supports convenient searches and a range of downstream analyses. The utility of these new iSyTE 2.0 features is illustrated through examples of established genes associated with lens development and pathobiology, which serve as tutorials for its application by the end-user. iSyTE 2.0 will facilitate the prioritization of eye development and disease-linked candidate genes in studies involving transcriptomics or next-generation sequencing data, linkage analysis and GWAS approaches.

11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11572, 2017 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912564

RESUMO

Lens development involves a complex and highly orchestrated regulatory program. Here, we investigate the transcriptomic alterations and splicing events during mouse lens formation using RNA-seq data from multiple developmental stages, and construct a molecular portrait of known and novel transcripts. We show that the extent of novelty of expressed transcripts decreases significantly in post-natal lens compared to embryonic stages. Characterization of novel transcripts into partially novel transcripts (PNTs) and completely novel transcripts (CNTs) (novelty score ≥ 70%) revealed that the PNTs are both highly conserved across vertebrates and highly expressed across multiple stages. Functional analysis of PNTs revealed their widespread role in lens developmental processes while hundreds of CNTs were found to be widely expressed and predicted to encode for proteins. We verified the expression of four CNTs across stages. Examination of splice isoforms revealed skipped exon and retained intron to be the most abundant alternative splicing events during lens development. We validated by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing, the predicted splice isoforms of several genes Banf1, Cdk4, Cryaa, Eif4g2, Pax6, and Rbm5. Finally, we present a splicing browser Eye Splicer ( http://www.iupui.edu/~sysbio/eye-splicer/ ), to facilitate exploration of developmentally altered splicing events and to improve understanding of post-transcriptional regulatory networks during mouse lens development.

12.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 58(10): 3896-3922, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28763805

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous research showed that the absence of ß1-integrin from the mouse lens after embryonic day (E) 13.5 (ß1MLR10) leads to the perinatal apoptosis of lens epithelial cells (LECs) resulting in severe microphthalmia. This study focuses on elucidating the molecular connections between ß1-integrin deletion and this phenotype. Methods: RNA sequencing was performed to identify differentially regulated genes (DRGs) in ß1MLR10 lenses at E15.5. By using bioinformatics analysis and literature searching, Egr1 (early growth response 1) was selected for further study. The activation status of certain signaling pathways (focal adhesion kinase [FAK]/Erk, TGF-ß, and Akt signaling) was studied via Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Mice lacking both ß1-integrin and Egr1 genes from the lenses were created (ß1MLR10/Egr1-/-) to study their relationship. Results: RNA sequencing identified 120 DRGs that include candidates involved in the cellular stress response, fibrosis, and/or apoptosis. Egr1 was investigated in detail, as it mediates cellular stress responses in various cell types, and is recognized as an upstream regulator of numerous other ß1MLR10 lens DRGs. In ß1MLR10 mice, Egr1 levels are elevated shortly after ß1-integrin loss from the lens. Further, pErk1/2 and pAkt are elevated in ß1MLR10 LECs, thus providing the potential signaling mechanism that causes Egr1 upregulation in the mutant. Indeed, deletion of Egr1 from ß1MLR10 lenses partially rescues the microphthalmia phenotype. Conclusions: ß1-integrin regulates the appropriate levels of Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in LECs, whereas its deficiency results in the overexpression of Egr1, culminating in reduced cell survival. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the microphthalmia observed in ß1MLR10 mice.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Integrina beta1/fisiologia , Cristalino/metabolismo , Cristalino/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Fibrose , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
13.
Dev Biol ; 429(1): 105-117, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716713

RESUMO

Myc proto-oncogenes regulate diverse cellular processes during development, but their roles during morphogenesis of specific tissues are not fully understood. We found that c-myc regulates cell proliferation in mouse lens development and previous genome-wide studies suggested functional roles for N-myc in developing lens. Here, we examined the role of N-myc in mouse lens development. Genetic inactivation of N-myc in the surface ectoderm or lens vesicle impaired eye and lens growth, while "late" inactivation in lens fibers had no effect. Unexpectedly, defective growth of N-myc-deficient lenses was not associated with alterations in lens progenitor cell proliferation or survival. Notably, N-myc-deficient lens exhibited a delay in degradation of DNA in terminally differentiating lens fiber cells. RNA-sequencing analysis of N-myc-deficient lenses identified a cohort of down-regulated genes associated with fiber cell differentiation that included DNaseIIß. Further, an integrated analysis of differentially expressed genes in N-myc-deficient lens using normal lens expression patterns of iSyTE, N-myc-binding motif analysis and molecular interaction data from the String database led to the derivation of an N-myc-based gene regulatory network in the lens. Finally, analysis of N-myc and c-myc double-deficient lens demonstrated that these Myc genes cooperate to drive lens growth prior to lens vesicle stage. Together, these findings provide evidence for exclusive and cooperative functions of Myc transcription factors in mouse lens development and identify novel mechanisms by which N-myc regulates cell differentiation during eye morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Cristalino/citologia , Cristalino/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Cristalino/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma/genética
14.
Hum Genet ; 136(2): 205-225, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27878435

RESUMO

Pediatric cataract is highly heterogeneous clinically and etiologically. While mostly isolated, cataract can be part of many multisystem disorders, further complicating the diagnostic process. In this study, we applied genomic tools in the form of a multi-gene panel as well as whole-exome sequencing on unselected cohort of pediatric cataract (166 patients from 74 families). Mutations in previously reported cataract genes were identified in 58% for a total of 43 mutations, including 15 that are novel. GEMIN4 was independently mutated in families with a syndrome of cataract, global developmental delay with or without renal involvement. We also highlight a recognizable syndrome that resembles galactosemia (a fulminant infantile liver disease with cataract) caused by biallelic mutations in CYP51A1. A founder mutation in RIC1 (KIAA1432) was identified in patients with cataract, brain atrophy, microcephaly with or without cleft lip and palate. For non-syndromic pediatric cataract, we map a novel locus in a multiplex consanguineous family on 4p15.32 where exome sequencing revealed a homozygous truncating mutation in TAPT1. We report two further candidates that are biallelically inactivated each in a single cataract family: TAF1A (cataract with global developmental delay) and WDR87 (non-syndromic cataract). In addition to positional mapping data, we use iSyTE developmental lens expression and gene-network analysis to corroborate the proposed link between the novel candidate genes and cataract. Our study expands the phenotypic, allelic and locus heterogeneity of pediatric cataract. The high diagnostic yield of clinical genomics supports the adoption of this approach in this patient group.


Assuntos
Catarata/diagnóstico , Catarata/genética , Loci Gênicos , Alelos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Fenda Labial/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Homozigoto , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microcefalia/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Pol1 do Complexo de Iniciação de Transcrição/genética , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética
15.
Birth Defects Res ; 109(1): 27-37, 2017 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28029220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in genomics methodologies, in particular the availability of next-generation sequencing approaches have made it possible to identify risk loci throughout the genome, in particular the exome. In the current study, we present findings from an exome study conducted in five affected individuals of a multiplex family with cleft palate only. METHODS: The GEnome MINIng (GEMINI) pipeline was used to functionally annotate the single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions and deletions. Filtering methods were applied to identify variants that are clinically relevant and present in affected individuals at minor allele frequencies (≤1%) in the 1000 Genomes Project single nucleotide polymorphism database, Exome Aggregation Consortium, and Exome Variant Server databases. The bioinformatics tool Systems Tool for Craniofacial Expression-Based Gene Discovery was used to prioritize cleft candidates in our list of variants, and Sanger sequencing was used to validate the presence of identified variants in affected and unaffected relatives. RESULTS: Our analyses approach narrowed the candidates down to the novel missense variant in ARHGAP29 (GenBank: NM_004815.3, NP_004806.3;c.1654T>C [p.Ser552Pro]. A functional assay in zebrafish embryos showed that the encoded protein lacks the activity possessed by its wild-type counterpart, and migration assays revealed that keratinocytes transfected with wild-type ARHGAP29 migrated faster than counterparts transfected with the p.Ser552Pro ARHGAP29 variant or empty vector (control). CONCLUSION: These findings reveal ARHGAP29 to be a regulatory protein essential for proper development of the face, identifies an amino acid that is key for this, and provides a potential new diagnostic tool.Birth Defects Research 109:27-37, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Fissura Palatina/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Alelos , Animais , Fenda Labial/genética , Biologia Computacional , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exoma , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
16.
Exp Eye Res ; 156: 22-33, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26992779

RESUMO

Over the past several decades, the biology of the developing lens has been investigated using molecular genetics-based approaches in various vertebrate model systems. These efforts, involving target gene knockouts or knockdowns, have led to major advances in our understanding of lens morphogenesis and the pathological basis of cataracts, as well as of other lens related eye defects. In particular, we now have a functional understanding of regulators such as Pax6, Six3, Sox2, Oct1 (Pou2f1), Meis1, Pnox1, Zeb2 (Sip1), Mab21l1, Foxe3, Tfap2a (Ap2-alpha), Pitx3, Sox11, Prox1, Sox1, c-Maf, Mafg, Mafk, Hsf4, Fgfrs, Bmp7, and Tdrd7 in this tissue. However, whether these individual regulators interact or their targets overlap, and the significance of such interactions during lens morphogenesis, is not well defined. The arrival of high-throughput approaches for gene expression profiling (microarrays, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), etc.), which can be coupled with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) or RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays, along with improved computational resources and publically available datasets (e.g. those containing comprehensive protein-protein, protein-DNA information), presents new opportunities to advance our understanding of the lens tissue on a global systems level. Such systems-level knowledge will lead to the derivation of the underlying lens gene regulatory network (GRN), defined as a circuit map of the regulator-target interactions functional in lens development, which can be applied to expedite cataract gene discovery. In this review, we cover the various systems-level approaches such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and ChIP that are already being applied to lens studies and discuss strategies for assembling and interpreting these vast amounts of high-throughput information for effective dispersion to the scientific community. In particular, we discuss strategies for effective interpretation of this new information in the context of the rich knowledge obtained through the application of traditional single-gene focused experiments on the lens. Finally, we discuss our vision for integrating these diverse high-throughput datasets in a single web-based user-friendly tool iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) - a resource that is already proving effective in the identification and characterization of genes linked to lens development and cataract. We anticipate that application of a similar approach to other ocular tissues such as the retina and the cornea, and even other organ systems, will significantly impact disease gene discovery.


Assuntos
Catarata/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Cristalino/embriologia , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Cristalino/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA ; 7(4): 527-57, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27133484

RESUMO

The molecular biology of metazoan eye development is an area of intense investigation. These efforts have led to the surprising recognition that although insect and vertebrate eyes have dramatically different structures, the orthologs or family members of several conserved transcription and signaling regulators such as Pax6, Six3, Prox1, and Bmp4 are commonly required for their development. In contrast, our understanding of posttranscriptional regulation in eye development and disease, particularly regarding the function of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), is limited. We examine the present knowledge of RBPs in eye development in the insect model Drosophila as well as several vertebrate models such as fish, frog, chicken, and mouse. Interestingly, of the 42 RBPs that have been investigated for their expression or function in vertebrate eye development, 24 (~60%) are recognized in eukaryotic cells as components of RNA granules such as processing bodies, stress granules, or other specialized ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We discuss the distinct developmental and cellular events that may necessitate potential RBP/RNA granule-associated RNA regulon models to facilitate posttranscriptional control of gene expression in eye morphogenesis. In support of these hypotheses, three RBPs and RNP/RNA granule components Tdrd7, Caprin2, and Stau2 are linked to ocular developmental defects such as congenital cataract, Peters anomaly, and microphthalmia in human patients or animal models. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary approaches such as the bioinformatics tool iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) to prioritize RBPs for deriving posttranscriptional regulatory networks in eye development and disease. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:527-557. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/congênito , Olho/embriologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila/embriologia , Humanos
18.
Development ; 143(2): 318-28, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657765

RESUMO

Lens epithelial cells differentiate into lens fibers (LFs) in response to a fibroblast growth factor (FGF) gradient. This cell fate decision requires the transcription factor Prox1, which has been hypothesized to promote cell cycle exit in differentiating LF cells. However, we find that conditional deletion of Prox1 from mouse lenses results in a failure in LF differentiation despite maintenance of normal cell cycle exit. Instead, RNA-seq demonstrated that Prox1 functions as a global regulator of LF cell gene expression. Intriguingly, Prox1 also controls the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) and can bind to their promoters, correlating with decreased downstream signaling through MAPK and AKT in Prox1 mutant lenses. Further, culturing rat lens explants in FGF increased their expression of Prox1, and this was attenuated by the addition of inhibitors of MAPK. Together, these results describe a novel feedback loop required for lens differentiation and morphogenesis, whereby Prox1 and FGFR signaling interact to mediate LF differentiation in response to FGF.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Cristalino/citologia , Cristalino/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
19.
Development ; 143(2): 356-66, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26681494

RESUMO

The developing lens is a powerful system for investigating the molecular basis of inductive tissue interactions and for studying cataract, the leading cause of blindness. The formation of tightly controlled cell-cell adhesions and cell-matrix junctions between lens epithelial (LE) cells, between lens fiber (LF) cells, and between these two cell populations enables the vertebrate lens to adopt a highly ordered structure and acquire optical transparency. Adhesion molecules are thought to maintain this ordered structure, but little is known about their identity or interactions. Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (Crim1), a type I transmembrane protein, is strongly expressed in the developing lens and its mutation causes ocular disease in both mice and humans. How Crim1 regulates lens morphogenesis is not understood. We identified a novel ENU-induced hypomorphic allele of Crim1, Crim1(glcr11), which in the homozygous state causes cataract and microphthalmia. Using this and two other mutant alleles, Crim1(null) and Crim1(cko), we show that the lens defects in Crim1 mouse mutants originate from defective LE cell polarity, proliferation and cell adhesion. Crim1 adhesive function is likely to be required for interactions both between LE cells and between LE and LF cells. We show that Crim1 acts in LE cells, where it colocalizes with and regulates the levels of active ß1 integrin and of phosphorylated FAK and ERK. The RGD and transmembrane motifs of Crim1 are required for regulating FAK phosphorylation. These results identify an important function for Crim1 in the regulation of integrin- and FAK-mediated LE cell adhesion during lens development.


Assuntos
Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Cristalino/citologia , Animais , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Imuno-Histoquímica , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Cristalino/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Organogênese/genética , Organogênese/fisiologia , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
20.
Genom Data ; 5: 223-227, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26185746

RESUMO

Microarray-based profiling represents an effective method to analyze cellular or tissue-specific gene expression on the genome-level. However, in comparative analyses between control and mutant samples, microarrays often identify a large number of differentially expressed genes, in turn making it challenging to isolate the select "high-priority candidates" that are most relevant to an observed mutant phenotype. Here, we describe an integrative approach for mouse mutant lens microarray gene expression analysis using publically accessible systems-level information such as wild-type mouse lens expression data in iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery), protein-protein interaction data in public databases, gene ontology enrichment data, and transcription factor binding profile data. This strategy, when applied to small Maf Mafg-/-:Mafk+/- mouse lens microarray datasets (deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database with accession number GSE65500) in Agrawal et al. 2015 [1], led to the effective prioritization of candidate genes linked to lens defects in these mutants. Indeed, from the original list of genes that are differentially expressed at ±1.5-fold and p<0.05 in Mafg-/-:Mafk+/- mutant lenses, this analysis led to the identification of thirty-six high-priority candidates, in turn reducing the number of genes for further study by approximately 1/3rd of the total. Moreover, eight of these genes are linked to mammalian cataract in the published literature, validating the efficacy of this approach. Additionally, these high-priority candidates contribute valuable information for the assembly of a gene regulatory network in the lens. In sum, the pipeline outlined in this report represents an effective approach for initial as well as downstream microarray expression data analysis to identify genes important for lens biology and cataracts. We anticipate that this integrative strategy can be extended to prioritize phenotypically relevant candidate genes from microarray data in other cells and tissues.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA