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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article will familiarize the reader with the most common cutaneous adverse events with immune checkpoint inhibitors, as well as their grading and treatment. DATA SOURCES: Recent research articles, relevant review articles, and case series/reports in English from PubMed database mostly from 2010 onwards. STUDY SELECTIONS: Most data are from retrospective studies and case series. Older studies regarding mechanism were included if they were of particular importance. RESULTS: An understanding of this review should enable the reader to identify specific skin disorders in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPI), grade the adverse event, and be able to treat or refer the patient as needed. CONCLUSION: Allergists/immunologists need to be familiar with these immune-related adverse cutaneous adverse events as their incidence will increase with the everexpanding use of CPI and in particular as patients will certainly continue to be referred suspecting drug allergies.

2.
Oncologist ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) is the most common regorafenib-induced adverse event and is in need of effective prevention and palliation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Regorafenib Dose Optimization Study (ReDOS), a four-arm, previously published trial with a 1:1:1:1 randomization scheme, was analyzed in a manner in keeping with the original protocol to assess whether clobetasol 0.05% cream (a corticosteroid) applied to the palms and soles twice per day for 8 weeks was more effective when prescribed pre-emptively (before the development of HFSR) versus reactively (after the development of HFSR). Patients were assessed during the first two cycles of regorafenib. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients received pre-emptive clobetasol, and 55 received reactive clobetasol. Groups were balanced on demographics. Over the first two cycles, no evidence of HFSR occurred in 30% with pre-emptive clobetasol versus 13% with reactive clobetasol (p = .03). During the first cycle, 54% and 45% of patients had no HFSR with pre-emptive and reactive clobetasol, respectively (p = .35). During the second cycle, 33% and 15% had no HFSR with pre-emptive and reactive clobetasol, respectively (p = .02). During the second cycle, rates of grade 1, 2, and 3 HFSR were 30%, 8%, and 3%, respectively, with pre-emptive clobetasol and 43%, 18%, and 7%, respectively, with reactive clobetasol (p = .12). Patient-reported outcomes showed HFSR compromised nearly all activities of daily living with worse quality of life in patients who received reactive versus pre-emptive clobetasol. No clobetasol-induced adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Pre-emptive clobetasol might lessen regorafenib-induced hand-foot reactions compared with reactive therapy. Further confirmatory studies are needed in a larger patient cohort. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Regorafenib causes hand-foot skin reactions. Pre-emotive clobetasol, a high-potency topical corticosteroid, appears to lessen the severity of this adverse event. Although further study is needed, the favorable adverse event profile of this intervention might prompt clinicians to discuss this option with their patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206291

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) negatively affects psychosocial health and quality of life (QoL). Currently, there are no approved pharmacologic agents to prevent CIA. Here, we evaluated the safety, tolerability, and potential signal of efficacy of topical calcitriol (BPM31543) on CIA prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Phase 1 trial included 23 female patients with breast cancer, gynecologic cancer, or sarcomas receiving a taxane-based chemotherapy. Patients received a 3 + 3 dose-escalation regimen at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 µg/mL, with 3-6 patients per group. Patients applied topical BPM31543 to the scalp twice a day for 2 weeks prior to chemotherapy and continued until chemotherapy treatment was completed. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) during first 28 day application was determined. Adverse event (AE) monitoring, pharmacokinetics, blinded photographic assessments, and patient self-assessment were evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 23 patients treated with BPM31543, 8 patients experienced at least 1 treatment-related adverse event (AE). The majority of AEs were mild to moderate in severity. Only 1 patient experienced SAEs (vomiting, nausea, fever, and flank pain) considered treatment related. Alopecia < 50% from baseline was observed in 8 patients at Week 7, and, of which 2 patients had < 50% alopecia maintained at Week 15. There were no detectable effects of topical BPM31543 on serum levels of calcitriol. CONCLUSIONS: BPM31543 applied topically twice daily to the scalp is safe and well tolerated in patients receiving taxane-based chemotherapy. No DLT was observed at up to 80 µg/mL, and MTD was not reached. Based on the data from this trial, BPM31543 represents a promising therapy and warrants further investigation in Phase 2/3 trials.

5.
Oncologist ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021006

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinases, which are expressed on the cell membrane, are involved in a wide range of biological functions such as cell proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation. The identification of FGFR fusions and other alterations in a wide range of solid tumors, including cholangiocarcinoma and bladder cancer, has resulted in the development of several selective FGFR inhibitors for use in these indications, for example, infigratinib, erdafitinib, derazantinib, pemigatinib, and futibatinib. In addition to the typical adverse events associated with tyrosine kinases, the FGFR inhibitors appear to give rise to a number of adverse events affecting the skin. Here we describe these skin events, which include the more common nail adverse events (e.g., onycholysis), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, and stomatitis, as well as less common reactions such as calciphylaxis. This review aims to provide oncologists with an understanding of these dermatologic events and proposes guidelines for the management of treatment-emergent dermatologic adverse events. Awareness of possible adverse events associated with specific drugs should allow physicians to educate patients as to what to expect and implement effective management plans at the earliest possible opportunity, thereby preventing premature discontinuation while maintaining patient quality of life. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Identification of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) aberrations in cholangiocarcinoma and bladder cancer led to development of selective FGFR inhibitors for these indications, based on clinical benefit and safety profiles. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) include those affecting skin, hair, and nails, a unique class effect of these agents. These are usually mild to moderate in severity. This work reviewed skin AEs reported with FGFR inhibitors and provides management guidelines for physicians, aiming to increase awareness of skin events and provide effective treatment strategies. Early intervention and effective management may improve treatment adherence, optimize outcomes, and improve quality of life.

6.
Nat Cancer ; 1(4): 382-393, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864625

RESUMO

Alpelisib is a selective inhibitor of PI3Kα, shown to improve outcomes for PIK3CA mutant, hormone receptor positive (HR+) metastatic breast cancers (MBC) when combined with antiestrogen therapy. To uncover mechanisms of resistance, we conducted a detailed, longitudinal analysis of tumor and plasma circulating tumor DNA among such patients from a phase I/II trial combining alpelisib with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) (NCT01870505). The trial's primary objective was to establish safety with maculopapular rash emerging as the most common grade 3 adverse event (33%). Among 44 evaluable patients, the observed clinical benefit rate was 52%. Correlating genetic alterations with outcome, we identified loss-of-function PTEN mutations in 25% of patients with resistance. ESR1 activating mutations also expanded in number and allele fraction during treatment and were associated with resistance. These data indicate that genomic alterations that mediate resistance to alpelisib or antiestrogen may promote disease progression and highlight PTEN loss as a recurrent mechanism of resistance to PI3Kα inhibition.

7.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850308

RESUMO

Importance: Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) are an anti-mitotic treatment approved for treating newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma, and mesothelioma. TTFields in glioblastoma comprise alternating electric fields (200 kHz) delivered continuously, ideally for ≥18 h/day, to the tumor bed via transducer arrays placed on the shaved scalp. When applied locoregionally to the tumor bed and combined with systemic temozolomide chemotherapy, TTFields improved overall survival vs. temozolomide alone in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Improved efficacy outcomes with TTFields were demonstrated, while maintaining a well-tolerated and manageable safety profile. The most commonly-reported TTFields-associated adverse events (AEs) are beneath-array dermatologic events. Since survival benefit from TTFields increases with duration-of-use, prevention and management of skin AEs are critical to maximize adherence. This paper describes TTFields-associated dermatological AEs and recommends prevention and management strategies based on clinical trial evidence and real-world clinical experience. Observations: TTFields-associated skin reactions include contact dermatitis (irritant/allergic), hyperhidrosis, xerosis or pruritus, and more rarely, skin erosions/ulcers and infections. Skin AEs may be prevented through skin-care and shifting (~2 cm) of array position during changes. TTFields-related skin AE management should be based on clinical phenotype and severity. Depending on diagnosis, recommended treatments include antibiotics, skin barrier films, moisturizers, topical corticosteroids, and antiperspirants. Water-based lotions, soaps, foams, and solutions with minimal impact on electrical impedance are preferred with TTFields use over petroleum-based ointments, which increase impedance. Conclusions: Early identification, prophylactic measures, and symptomatic skin AE management help patients maximize TTFields usage, while maintaining quality-of-life and optimizing therapeutic benefit. Implications for practice: TTFields confer a survival benefit in patients with glioblastoma that correlates positively with duration of daily use. Skin events (rash) are the primary treatment-related AE that can limit duration of use. The recommendations described here will help healthcare professionals to recognize, prevent, and manage dermatologic AEs associated with TTFields treatment. These recommendations may improve cutaneous health and support adherence to therapy, both of which would maximize treatment outcomes.

8.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(12): 6119-6128, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856211

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) frequently result in cutaneous immune-related adverse events (IrAEs). Although the majority of these events are mild-to-moderate in severity, up to 5% are severe, which may lead to morbidity and dose interruption or discontinuation of ICI therapy. In addition, up to 25% of dermatologic IrAEs are corticosteroid-refractory or corticosteroid-dependent. These 2020 MASCC recommendations cover the diagnosis and management of cutaneous IrAEs with a focus on moderate-to-severe and corticosteroid-resistant events. Although the usage of immune-suppressive therapy has been advocated in this setting, there is a lack of randomized clinical trial data to provide a compelling level of evidence of its therapeutic benefit.

9.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781177

RESUMO

Long-term survival of cancer patients has risen dramatically during the last few decades. Despite this remarkable success, the same treatments that have enabled cure or remission often secondarily affect the skin, hair, and nails. Conditions including scarring, striae distensae, persistent alopecia, pigmentary changes, nail alterations, chronic radiation dermatitis, and radiation fibrosis have been associated with anxiety, depression, decreased quality of life, and impaired function. These dermatologic changes are cosmetically disfiguring, may limit activities, and are a visual reminder of past illness. Interventions towards improving these untoward sequelae and restoring the appearance and function of skin and appendages are critical for normalization and may contribute to improved quality of life in cancer survivors. Herein, we outline dermatologic sequelae of cancer therapies with a review of medical and procedural treatment strategies to restore dermatologic health in the survivorship population.

10.
JAMA Dermatol ; 156(9): 963-972, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756880

RESUMO

Importance: Persistent radiation-induced alopecia (pRIA) and its management have not been systematically described. Objective: To characterize pRIA in patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors or head and neck sarcoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study of patients from January 1, 2011, to January 30, 2019, was conducted at 2 large tertiary care hospitals and comprehensive cancer centers. Seventy-one children and adults diagnosed with primary CNS tumors or head and neck sarcomas were evaluated for pRIA. Main Outcomes and Measures: The clinical and trichoscopic features, scalp radiation dose-response relationship, and response to topical minoxidil were assessed using standardized clinical photographs of the scalp, trichoscopic images, and radiotherapy treatment plans. Results: Of the 71 patients included (median [range] age, 27 [4-75] years; 51 female [72%]), 64 (90%) had a CNS tumor and 7 (10%) had head and neck sarcoma. Alopecia severity was grade 1 in 40 of 70 patients (56%), with localized (29 of 54 [54%]), diffuse (13 of 54 [24%]), or mixed (12 of 54 [22%]) patterns. The median (range) estimated scalp radiation dose was 39.6 (15.1-50.0) Gy; higher dose (odds ratio [OR], 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04-1.28) and proton irradiation (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.05-30.8) were associated with greater alopecia severity (P < .001), and the dose at which 50% of patients were estimated to have severe (grade 2) alopecia was 36.1 Gy (95% CI, 33.7-39.6 Gy). Predominant trichoscopic features included white patches (16 of 28 [57%]); in 15 patients, hair-shaft caliber negatively correlated with scalp dose (correlation coefficient, -0.624; P = .01). The association between hair density and scalp radiation dose was not statistically significant (-0.381; P = .16). Twenty-eight of 34 patients (82%) responded to topical minoxidil, 5% (median follow-up, 61 [interquartile range, 21-105] weeks); 4 of 25 (16%) topical minoxidil recipients with clinical images improved in severity grade. Two patients responded to hair transplantation and 1 patient responded to plastic surgical reconstruction. Conclusions and Relevance: Persistent radiation-induced alopecia among patients with primary CNS tumors or head and neck sarcomas represents a dose-dependent phenomenon that has distinctive clinical and trichoscopic features. The findings of this study suggest that topical minoxidil and procedural interventions may have benefit in the treatment of pRIA.

11.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 4(1): 54, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Papulopustular rash is a common class effect of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRI) that can affect patients' health-related quality of life and cause disruptions to treatment. SWOG S1013 (NCT01416688) is a multi-center study designed to validate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy EGFRI 18 (FACT-EGFRI 18) using 7-items from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 to assess EGFRI-induced skin-related toxicities and their impact on functional status. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of colorectal or lung cancer to receive EGFRI therapies for at least 6 weeks were enrolled. Patient self-assessments using the FACT-EGFRI 18 were completed prior to undergoing CTCAE assessment by trained clinicians at baseline, weekly × 6, and then monthly × 3. The psychometric properties of the FACT-EGFRI 14 (skin toxicity items only) and 18 (plus 2 nail and 2 hair items) were established based on criterion validity, known groups validity, internal consistency reliability, and responsiveness to change. RESULTS: Of the 146 registered patients, 124 were evaluable. High Cronbach's alpha (> 0.70) for both FACT-EGFRI 14 and FACT-EGFRI 18 scores across assessment times were observed. Although agreement (i.e. criterion validity) between individual and summary scales of the FACT-EGFRI 18 for assessing skin toxicity was good, agreement with the clinician-reported CTCAE was only fair. The minimal important difference was determined to be 3 points. The results also demonstrated responsiveness to symptom change. DISCUSSION: Based on the results of this multi-center validation study, the FACT-EGFRI 18 patient-reported outcome instrument provided data from the patient's perspective yielding unique information as well as complementing clinician-rated CTCAE grades, especially for the symptoms of pain, pruritus, and paronychia. CONCLUSIONS: Good to excellent psychometric properties for the FACT-EGFRI 18 were demonstrated, supporting further use of this patient-reported outcomes measure. Additional validation with a more diverse group of patients should be conducted.

12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 183(1): 227-237, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rash develops in approximately 50% of patients receiving alpelisib for breast cancer, often requiring dose modifications. Here, we describe the clinicopathologic, laboratory, and management characteristics of alpelisib-related dermatologic adverse events (dAEs). METHODS: A single center-retrospective analysis was conducted. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients (mean age 56 years, range 27-83) receiving alpelisib most frequently in combination with endocrine therapy (79, 77.5%) were included. We identified 41 (40.2%) patients with all-grade rash distributed primarily along the trunk (78%) and extremities (70%) that developed approximately within two weeks of treatment initiation (mean 12.8 ± 1.5 days) and lasted one-week (mean duration 7.1 ± 0.8 days). Of 29 patients with documented morphology of alpelisib-related dAEs, 26 (89.7%) had maculopapular rash. Histology showed perivascular and interface lymphocytic dermatitis. All-grade rash correlated with an increase in serum eosinophils from 2.7 to 4.4%, p < 0.05, and prophylaxis with non-sedating antihistamines (n = 43) was correlated with a reduction of grade 1/2 rash (OR 0.39, p = 0.09). Sixteen (84.2%) of 19 patients with grade 3 dAEs resulted in interruption of alpelisib, which were managed with antihistamines, topical and systemic corticosteroids. We did not observe rash recurrence in 12 (75%) patients who were re-challenged. CONCLUSIONS: A maculopapular rash associated with increased blood eosinophils occurs frequently with alpelisib. While grade 3 rash leads to alpelisib therapy interruption, dermatologic improvement is evident with systemic corticosteroids; and most patients can continue oncologic treatment at a maintained or reduced dose upon re-challenge with alpelisib.

13.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 40: 485-500, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421446

RESUMO

Over the past 2 decades, rapid advancement in systemic anticancer therapeutics has led to astounding improvement in survival rates of patients with cancer. However, this celebrated progress has brought with it an evolving spectrum of drug toxicities that limit their prodigious capabilities. Cutaneous adverse events are of the most frequent of these toxicities, with substantial impact on quality of life and commonly resulting in dose reduction or change in therapy. Thus, familiarity with the array of dermatologic manifestations caused by these drugs is prudent for patient treatment. As such, the advent of dedicated oncodermatologists, and their introduction into multidisciplinary cancer care, has been crucial in optimizing treatment through therapeutic achievement and overall well-being. This review will address the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and management strategies of the major dermatologic adverse events of systemic anticancer agents, including cytotoxic chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.

14.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(4): 1130-1143, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360716

RESUMO

Antineoplastic agents that use the immune system have revolutionized cancer treatment. Specifically, implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies that block cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4, programmed cell death protein 1, or programmed cell death ligand 1 show improved and sustained responses in patients with cancer. However, these agents are associated with a plethora of adverse events, many manifesting in the skin. As the clinical application of cancer immunotherapies expands, understanding the clinical and histopathologic features of associated cutaneous toxicities becomes increasingly important to dermatologists, oncologists, and pathologists to ensure timely diagnosis and appropriate care. This review discusses cutaneous reactions to immune checkpoint inhibitors, focusing on histopathologic features.

15.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(5): 1239-1253, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461079

RESUMO

As the incidence of cutaneous malignancies continues to rise and their treatment with immunotherapy expands, dermatologists and their patients are more likely to encounter immune checkpoint inhibitors. While the blockade of immune checkpoint target proteins (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4, programmed cell death-1, and programmed cell death ligand-1) generates an antitumor response in a substantial fraction of patients, there is a critical need for reliable predictive biomarkers and approaches to address refractory disease. The first article of this Continuing Medical Education series reviews the indications, efficacy, safety profile, and evidence supporting checkpoint inhibition as therapeutics for metastatic melanoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. Pivotal studies resulting in the approval of ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, cemiplimab, and avelumab by regulatory agencies for various cutaneous malignancies, as well as ongoing clinical research trials, are discussed.

16.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(5): 1255-1268, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454097

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a pillar in the management of advanced malignancies. However, nonspecific immune activation may lead to immune-related adverse events, wherein the skin and its appendages are the most frequent targets. Cutaneous immune-related adverse events include a diverse group of inflammatory reactions, with maculopapular rash, pruritus, psoriasiform and lichenoid eruptions being the most prevalent subtypes. Cutaneous immune-related adverse events occur early, with maculopapular rash presenting within the first 6 weeks after the initial immune checkpoint inhibitor dose. Management involves the use of topical corticosteroids for mild to moderate (grades 1-2) rash, addition of systemic corticosteroids for severe (grade 3) rash, and discontinuation of immunotherapy with grade 4 rash. Bullous pemphigoid eruptions, vitiligo-like skin hypopigmentation/depigmentation, and psoriasiform rash are more often attributed to programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death ligand-1 inhibitors. The treatment of bullous pemphigoid eruptions is similar to the treatment of maculopapular rash and lichenoid eruptions, with the addition of rituximab in grade 3-4 rash. Skin hypopigmentation/depigmentation does not require specific dermatologic treatment aside from photoprotective measures. In addition to topical corticosteroids, psoriasiform rash may be managed with vitamin D3 analogues, narrowband ultraviolet B light phototherapy, retinoids, or immunomodulatory biologic agents. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and other severe cutaneous immune-related adverse events, although rare, have also been associated with checkpoint blockade and require inpatient care as well as urgent dermatology consultation.

17.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(4): 429-436, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293798

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Malignant glioma (MG) is the most deadly primary brain cancer. Signaling though the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis is activated in most MGs and therefore a potential therapeutic target. The mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus and the AKT inhibitor perifosine are each well-tolerated as single agents but with limited activity reclinical data demonstrate synergistic anti-tumor effects from combined treatment. Therefore, we initiated a phase I trial of combined therapy in recurrent MGs to determine safety and a recommended phase II dose. METHODS: Adults with recurrent MG, Karnofsky Performance Status ≥ 60 were enrolled, with no limit on the number of prior therapies. Temsirolimus dose was escalated using standard 3 + 3 design from 15 mg to 170 mg administered once weekly. Perifosine was fixed as a 600 mg load on day 1 followed by 100 mg nightly (single agent MTD) until dose level 7 when the load increased to 900 mg. RESULTS: We treated 35 patients with with glioblastoma (17) or other MGs (18; including nine anaplastic astrocytoma, nine anaplastic oligodendroglioma, one anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, and two low grade astrocytomas with radiographic transformation to MG). We observed five dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs): one at dose level 3 (50mg temsirolimus), then two at dose level 7 expansion (170 mg temsirolimus), and then two more at dose level 6 expansion (170 mg temsirolimus). DLTs included thrombocytopenia (n = 3), intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 1) and lung infection (n = 1). CONCLUSION: Combining the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus dosed at 115 mg weekly and the AKT inhibitor perifosine dosed at 100 mg daily (following 600 mg load) is tolerable in heavily pretreated adults with recurrent MGs.

18.
J Dermatol Sci ; 98(1): 2-12, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192826

RESUMO

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are potentially life-threatening, immune-mediated adverse reactions characterized by widespread erythema, epidermal necrosis, and detachment of skin and mucosa. Efforts to grow and develop functional international collaborations and a multidisciplinary interactive network focusing on SJS/TEN as an uncommon but high burden disease will be necessary to improve efforts in prevention, early diagnosis and improved acute and long-term management. SJS/TEN 2019: From Science to Translation was a 1.5-day scientific program held April 26-27, 2019, in Vancouver, Canada. The meeting successfully engaged clinicians, researchers, and patients and conducted many productive discussions on research and patient care needs.

19.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Early identification and treatment of SCARs may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To identify biomarkers to predict outcomes in hospitalized patients with cancer who developed SCARs. METHODS: Retrospective review of 144 hospitalized patients with cancer with a morbilliform rash, recorded testing for serum cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) or elafin, and a dermatology consultation. Rashes were categorized as simple morbilliform rash without systemic involvement or complex morbilliform rash with systemic involvement. RESULTS: Fifty-four of 144 (37.5%) patients died during follow-up. Elevated levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were associated with decreased survival. Overall survivals in patients with elevated levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were 53.7%, 56.6%, 53.6%, respectively, compared with 85.7%, 82.5% and 83.6%, respectively, in those with lower levels. Patients with increased levels of both IL-6 and TNF-α had a nearly 6-fold increase in mortality (hazard ratio, 5.82) compared with patients with lower levels. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective design, limited sample size, and high-risk population. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with cancer with rash and elevated IL-6 and TNF-α were nearly 6 times more likely to die over the course of follow-up. These biomarkers may serve as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for this high-risk population.

20.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e030114, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of orvepitant (10 or 30 mg given once daily, orally for 4 weeks), a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, compared with placebo in reducing the intensity of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (EGFRI)-induced intense pruritus. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. SETTING: 15 hospitals in Italy and five hospitals in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 44 patients aged ≥18 years receiving an EGFRI for a histologically confirmed malignant solid tumour and experiencing moderate or intense pruritus after EGFRI treatment. INTERVENTION: 30 or 10 mg orvepitant or placebo tablets once daily for 4 weeks (randomised 1:1:1). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was change from baseline in mean patient-recorded numerical rating scale (NRS) score (over the last three recordings) at week 4. Secondary outcome measures were NRS score, verbal rating scale score, Skindex-16 and Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire at each study visit (baseline, weeks 1, 4, 8); rescue medication use; EGFRI dose reduction; and study withdrawal because of intense uncontrolled pruritus. RESULTS: The trial was terminated early because of recruitment challenges; only 44 of the planned 90 patients were randomised. All patients were analysed for efficacy and safety. Mean NRS score change from baseline to week 4 was -2.78 (SD: 2.64) points in the 30 mg group, -3.04 (SD: 3.06) points in the 10 mg group and -3.21 (SD: 1.77) points in the placebo group; the difference between orvepitant and placebo was not statistically significant. No safety signal was detected. Adverse events related to orvepitant (asthenia, dizziness, dry mouth, hyperhidrosis) were all of mild or moderate severity. CONCLUSIONS: Orvepitant was safe and well tolerated. No difference in NRS score between the orvepitant and placebo groups was observed at the week 4 primary endpoint. A number of explanations for this outcome are possible. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EudraCT2013-002763-25.

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