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1.
J Dermatol Sci ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192826

RESUMO

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are potentially life-threatening, immune-mediated adverse reactions characterized by widespread erythema, epidermal necrosis, and detachment of skin and mucosa. Efforts to grow and develop functional international collaborations and a multidisciplinary interactive network focusing on SJS/TEN as an uncommon but high burden disease will be necessary to improve efforts in prevention, early diagnosis and improved acute and long-term management. SJS/TEN 2019: From Science to Translation was a 1.5-day scientific program held April 26-27, 2019, in Vancouver, Canada. The meeting successfully engaged clinicians, researchers, and patients and conducted many productive discussions on research and patient care needs.

2.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Early identification and treatment of SCARs may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To identify biomarkers to predict outcomes in hospitalized cancer patients who developed SCARs. METHODS: Retrospective review of 144 hospitalized cancer patients with a morbilliform rash, recorded testing for serum cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) or elafin, and a dermatology consultation. Rashes were categorized as 'simple' morbilliform rash without systemic involvement or 'complex' morbilliform rash with systemic involvement. RESULTS: Fifty-four of 144 (37.5%) patients died during follow-up. Elevated levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were associated with decreased survival. OS in patients with elevated levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α was 53.7%, 56.6%, 53.6%, respectively compared to 85.7%, 82.5% and 83.6% with lower levels. Patients with increased levels of both IL-6 and TNF-α had a nearly 6-fold increase in mortality (HR 5.82) compared to patients with lower levels. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective design, limited sample size, and high-risk population. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized cancer patients with rash and elevated IL-6 and TNF-α were nearly 6 times more likely to die over the course of follow-up. These biomarkers may serve as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for this high-risk population.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e030114, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of orvepitant (10 or 30 mg given once daily, orally for 4 weeks), a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, compared with placebo in reducing the intensity of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (EGFRI)-induced intense pruritus. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. SETTING: 15 hospitals in Italy and five hospitals in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 44 patients aged ≥18 years receiving an EGFRI for a histologically confirmed malignant solid tumour and experiencing moderate or intense pruritus after EGFRI treatment. INTERVENTION: 30 or 10 mg orvepitant or placebo tablets once daily for 4 weeks (randomised 1:1:1). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was change from baseline in mean patient-recorded numerical rating scale (NRS) score (over the last three recordings) at week 4. Secondary outcome measures were NRS score, verbal rating scale score, Skindex-16 and Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire at each study visit (baseline, weeks 1, 4, 8); rescue medication use; EGFRI dose reduction; and study withdrawal because of intense uncontrolled pruritus. RESULTS: The trial was terminated early because of recruitment challenges; only 44 of the planned 90 patients were randomised. All patients were analysed for efficacy and safety. Mean NRS score change from baseline to week 4 was -2.78 (SD: 2.64) points in the 30 mg group, -3.04 (SD: 3.06) points in the 10 mg group and -3.21 (SD: 1.77) points in the placebo group; the difference between orvepitant and placebo was not statistically significant. No safety signal was detected. Adverse events related to orvepitant (asthenia, dizziness, dry mouth, hyperhidrosis) were all of mild or moderate severity. CONCLUSIONS: Orvepitant was safe and well tolerated. No difference in NRS score between the orvepitant and placebo groups was observed at the week 4 primary endpoint. A number of explanations for this outcome are possible. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EudraCT2013-002763-25.

4.
Oncologist ; 25(2): 140-149, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitor therapy is widely known to cause a number of immune-related adverse events. One rare adverse effect that is emerging is eosinophilic fasciitis, a fibrosing disorder causing inflammatory infiltration of subcutaneous fascia. It is characterized clinically by edema and subsequent induration and tightening of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The condition is rare, yet at our institutions we have seen four cases in the past 3 years. We describe our 4 cases and review 11 other cases reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We present four cases of eosinophilic fasciitis following treatment with programmed cell death protein 1 or programmed cell death-ligand 1 blockade. All patients had extremity involvement with characteristic skin changes ranging from peripheral edema to induration, tightening, and joint limitation. The patients had varying degrees of peripheral eosinophilia. In two of our patients, the diagnosis was made by full-thickness skin biopsy showing lymphocytic infiltration of the subcutaneous fascia, with CD4+ T cells predominating in one case and CD8+ T cells in the other. In the other two cases, the diagnosis was made on the basis of characteristic imaging findings in the context of clinical features consistent with the diagnosis. All four patients were treated with glucocorticoids with varying degrees of success; immunotherapy had to be discontinued in all four. Patients with advanced melanoma who experienced this adverse effect had either a partial response or a complete response to therapy. CONCLUSION: Eosinophilic fasciitis can occur as a result of checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Although a tissue diagnosis is the gold standard, imaging studies may facilitate the diagnosis in the presence of consistent clinical features, but a degree of suspicion is key to recognizing the condition early. Therapy requires a collaborative approach by oncology, rheumatology, and dermatology; physical therapy is an important adjunct in treatment. For advanced melanoma, it may be a good prognostic indicator. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: It is important for clinicians to recognize that eosinophilic fasciitis is a potential immune-related adverse event (irAE) as a consequence of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. The presentation is quite stereotypical; the diagnosis can be made by imaging in the absence of a full-thickness skin biopsy. Early intervention is important to limit morbidity. This irAE may be a good prognostic sign among patients with melanoma.

7.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1839-1842, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768065

RESUMO

Histiocytoses are clonal hematopoietic disorders frequently driven by mutations mapping to the BRAF and MEK1 and MEK2 kinases. Currently, however, the developmental origins of histiocytoses in patients are not well understood, and clinically meaningful therapeutic targets outside of BRAF and MEK are undefined. In this study, we uncovered activating mutations in CSF1R and rearrangements in RET and ALK that conferred dramatic responses to selective inhibition of RET (selpercatinib) and crizotinib, respectively, in patients with histiocytosis.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Histiocitose/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Histiocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
8.
Oncologist ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitor therapy is widely known to cause a number of immune-related adverse events. One rare adverse effect that is emerging is eosinophilic fasciitis, a fibrosing disorder causing inflammatory infiltration of subcutaneous fascia. It is characterized clinically by edema and subsequent induration and tightening of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The condition is rare, yet at our institutions we have seen four cases in the past 3 years. We describe our 4 cases and review 11 other cases reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We present four cases of eosinophilic fasciitis following treatment with programmed cell death protein 1 or programmed cell death-ligand 1 blockade. All patients had extremity involvement with characteristic skin changes ranging from peripheral edema to induration, tightening, and joint limitation. The patients had varying degrees of peripheral eosinophilia. In two of our patients, the diagnosis was made by full-thickness skin biopsy showing lymphocytic infiltration of the subcutaneous fascia, with CD4+ T cells predominating in one case and CD8+ T cells in the other. In the other two cases, the diagnosis was made on the basis of characteristic imaging findings in the context of clinical features consistent with the diagnosis. All four patients were treated with glucocorticoids with varying degrees of success; immunotherapy had to be discontinued in all four. Patients with advanced melanoma who experienced this adverse effect had either a partial response or a complete response to therapy. CONCLUSION: Eosinophilic fasciitis can occur as a result of checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Although a tissue diagnosis is the gold standard, imaging studies may facilitate the diagnosis in the presence of consistent clinical features, but a degree of suspicion is key to recognizing the condition early. Therapy requires a collaborative approach by oncology, rheumatology, and dermatology; physical therapy is an important adjunct in treatment. For advanced melanoma, it may be a good prognostic indicator. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: It is important for clinicians to recognize that eosinophilic fasciitis is a potential immune-related adverse event (irAE) as a consequence of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. The presentation is quite stereotypical; the diagnosis can be made by imaging in the absence of a full-thickness skin biopsy. Early intervention is important to limit morbidity. This irAE may be a good prognostic sign among patients with melanoma.

9.
Breast ; 48: 89-97, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590108

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This pilot trial aimed to assess if cooling hands and feet with crushed ice during receipt of paclitaxel helps prevent peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: This prospective, randomized trial compared cryotherapy to standard care in patients initiating paclitaxel weekly x 12. For those on cryotherapy, hands and feet were cooled starting 15 min prior to and ending 15 min after each paclitaxel dose. EORTC QLQ-CIPN20 was completed at baseline, weekly x12, then monthly x6. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for subscale scores, adjusting for baseline, and compared between arms (Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Cross-study comparisons used data from 2 prior similarly-conducted neuropathy trials. RESULTS: Forty-six patients were accrued. Three withdrew and one was ineligible. Of the remaining 42 (21 cryotherapy, 21 control), 39 (19 cryotherapy, 20 control) were analyzable for AUC. Cryotherapy was well tolerated, but the AUC of the CIPN20 sensory scores over 12 weeks of paclitaxel was not found to differ between the study arms (mean difference 3.45, 95% CI -3.13 to 10.02, p = 0.26). However, the control arm of the current trial experienced less neuropathy than did the placebo arms of two previous similar trials. When our cryotherapy arm was compared to the combined control arms from all three trials, the cryotherapy arm had less neuropathy (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: While there was no difference in CIPN20 scores identified between the 2 study arms in the current phase II trial, further investigation is needed given that the control arm experienced less neuropathy than was expected.

10.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(8): 1070-1082, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regorafenib confers an overall survival benefit in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer; however, the adverse event profile of regorafenib has limited its use. Despite no supportive evidence, various dosing schedules are used clinically to alleviate toxicities. This study evaluated the safety and activity of two regorafenib dosing schedules. METHODS: In this randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study done in 39 outpatient cancer centres in the USA, adults aged 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum that was refractory to previous standard therapy, including EGFR inhibitors if KRAS wild-type, were enrolled. Eligible patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1 and had no previous treatment with regorafenib. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) into four groups with two distinct regorafenib dosing strategies and two clobetasol usage plans, stratified by hospital. Regorafenib dosing strategies were a dose-escalation strategy (starting dose 80 mg/day orally with weekly escalation, per 40 mg increment, to 160 mg/day regorafenib) if no significant drug-related adverse events occurred and a standard-dose strategy (160 mg/day orally) for 21 days of a 28-day cycle. Clobetasol usage plans (0·05% clobetasol cream twice daily applied to palms and soles) were either pre-emptive or reactive. After randomisation to the four preplanned groups, using the Pocock and Simon dynamic allocation procedures stratified by the treating hospitals, we formally tested the interaction between the two interventions, dosing strategy and clobetasol usage. Given the absence of a significant interaction (p=0·74), we decided to pool the data for the pre-emptive and reactive treatment with clobetasol and compared the two dosing strategies (dose escalation vs standard dose). The primary endpoint was the proportion of evaluable patients (defined as those who were eligible, consented, and received any protocol treatment) initiating cycle 3 and was analysed per protocol. Superiority for dose escalation was declared if the one-sided p value with Fisher's exact test was less than 0·2. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02368886. This study is fully accrued but remains active. FINDINGS: Between June 2, 2015, and June 22, 2017, 123 patients were randomly assigned to treatment, of whom 116 (94%) were evaluable. The per-protocol population consisted of 54 patients in the dose-escalation group and 62 in the standard-dose group. At data cutoff on July 24, 2018, median follow-up was 1·18 years (IQR 0·98-1·57). The primary endpoint was met: 23 (43%, 95% CI 29-56) of 54 patients in the dose-escalation group initiated cycle 3 versus 16 (26%, 15-37) of 62 patients in the standard-dose group (one-sided p=0·043). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were fatigue (seven [13%] patients in the dose-escalation group vs 11 [18%] in the standard-dose group), hand-foot skin reaction (eight [15%] patients vs ten [16%] patients), abdominal pain (nine [17%] patients vs four [6%] patients), and hypertension (four [7%] patients vs nine [15%] patients). 14 patients had at least one drug-related serious adverse event: six patients in the dose-escalation group and eight patients in the standard-dose group. There was one probable treatment-related death in the standard-dose group (myocardial infarction). INTERPRETATION: The dose-escalation dosing strategy represents an alternative approach for optimising regorafenib dosing with comparable activity and lower incidence of adverse events and could be implemented in clinical practice on the basis of these data. FUNDING: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals.

11.
Allergy ; 74(12): 2437-2448, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib has been successfully established in the therapy of advanced melanoma. Despite its superior efficacy, the use of vemurafenib is limited by frequent inflammatory cutaneous adverse events that affect patients' quality of life and may lead to dose reduction or even cessation of anti-tumor therapy. To date, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of vemurafenib-induced rashes have remained largely elusive. METHODS: In this study, we deployed immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, lymphocyte activation tests, and different cell-free protein-interaction assays. RESULTS: We here demonstrate that vemurafenib inhibits the downstream signaling of the canonical pathway of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in vitro, thereby inducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (eg, TNF) and chemokines (eg, CCL5). In line with these results, we observed an impaired expression of AhR-regulated genes (eg, CYP1A1) and an upregulation of the corresponding proinflammatory genes in vivo. Moreover, results of lymphocyte activation tests showed the absence of drug-specific T cells in respective patients. CONCLUSION: Taken together, we obtained no hint of an underlying sensitization against vemurafenib but found evidence suggesting that vemurafenib enhances proinflammatory responses by inhibition of canonical AhR signaling. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the central role of the AhR in skin inflammation and may point toward a potential role for topical AhR agonists in supportive cancer care.

12.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(11): 2172-2180, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306779

RESUMO

Although histopathological differences have been reported between acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) rash and non-aGVHD rash in CD34+-selected peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) recipients, skin biopsy alone is usually insufficient to determine rash etiology. As such, distinguishing inflammatory non-aGVHD rashes, such as drug eruptions, from cutaneous aGVHD after CD34+-selected PBSCT remains challenging and relies on clinical presentation. This study aimed to identify etiologies of skin rash in the first year after CD34+-selected PBSCT and to assess whether laboratory serologic markers, transplant characteristics, and rash morphology and symptomatology aid in differentiation of cutaneous aGVHD rash versus non-aGVHD rash. We conducted a retrospective study of 243 adult patients who underwent CD34+-selected PBSCT at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 2008 and 2011. Among this cohort of transplant recipients, only 43 patients (17.7%) developed cutaneous aGVHD. A total of 152 patients (63%) were identified with rash within 1 year after PBSCT. The proportion of patients who experienced peripheral eosinophilia was not different between those with an aGVHD versus non-aGVHD rash (P ≥ .90), nor when stratified by CD34+ selection method (Isolex, P = .70; CliniMACS, P≥ .90). The proportion of patients with pruritus was also not different between those with an aGVHD rash versus non-aGVHD rash (P= .20), or when stratified by CD34+ selection modality (Isolex, P = .20; CliniMACS, P = .50). The most common cause of non-aGVHD rash among those with a clear etiology was drug (39% of Isolex; 26% of CliniMACS). Single drug culprits were identified in 51% of drug rashes. The most commonly reported offending agents included antibiotics, keratinocyte growth factor, chemotherapy, and recombinant glycosylated human IL-7.

13.
Invest New Drugs ; 37(6): 1247-1256, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240513

RESUMO

Purpose Cancer therapy-associated paronychia (CAP) is a frequent adverse event associated with cytotoxic and targeted therapies that may impact dosing of anticancer therapies and patient quality of life (QoL). There are currently no evidence-based management strategies or approved treatments for CAP. Materials and Methods This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled phase 2 study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of 6 to 8 weeks of 1% or 2% povidone-iodine (PVP-I) topical solution versus vehicle-control in adult patients with CAP. Patients were randomized to one of three treatment arms administered twice daily: 1% PVP-I (Cohort A), 2% PVP-I (Cohort B), or vehicle-control (Cohort C). The primary endpoint was a two-grade reduction (or reduction to grade 0 if involved nails were grade 1) on the six-point Paronychia Severity Grading (PSG) scale. Secondary endpoints included safety and the effect on QoL and microbiota. Results A total of 102 patients with cancer were randomized to the study. In Cohort A, 83 of 205 (40.5%, P = 0.6059) affected nails met the primary endpoint versus Cohort C. In Cohort B, 88 of 167 (52.7%, P = 0.0063) affected nails met the primary endpoint versus 64 of 169 (37.9%) in Cohort C. Nineteen of 29 patients (65.5%) in Cohort B reported moderately or very painful nails at baseline that decreased to 15 patients (51.7%) at visit 2 and five patients (17.2%) at visit 3. Conclusions Treatment with twice-daily topical 2% PVP-I was safe and resulted in improvement in CAP compared with control. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03207906. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03207906.

14.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(30): 2746-2758, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216228

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to report the efficacy of topical and systemic treatments for immune-related cutaneous adverse events (ircAEs) attributed to checkpoint inhibitors in an uncontrolled cohort of patients referred to oncodermatology clinics. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with ircAEs evaluated by dermatologists from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2017, at three tertiary care hospitals and cancer centers were identified through electronic medical records. Clinicopathologic characteristics, dermatologic therapy outcome, and laboratory data were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 285 patients (median age, 65 years [range, 17 to 89 years]) with 427 ircAEs were included: pruritus (n = 138; 32%), maculopapular rash (n = 120; 28%), psoriasiform rash (n = 22; 5%), and others (n = 147; 34%). Immune checkpoint inhibitor class was associated with ircAE phenotype (P = .007), where maculopapular rash was predominant in patients who received combination therapy. Severity of ircAEs was significantly reduced (mean Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade: 1.74 v 0.71; P < .001) with dermatologic interventions, including topical corticosteroids, oral antipruritics, and systemic immunomodulators. A total of 88 ircAEs (20%) were managed with systemic immunomodulators. Of these, 22 (25%) of 88 persisted or worsened. In seven patients with corticosteroid-refractory ircAEs, improvement resulted from targeted biologic immunomodulatory therapies that included rituximab and dupilumab. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) was elevated in 34 (52%) of 65 patients; grade 3 or greater ircAEs were associated with increased absolute eosinophils (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.3 to 13.4) and IL-10 (odds ratio, 23.8; 95% CI, 2.1 to 262.5); mean immunoglobulin E serum levels were greater in higher-grade ircAEs: 1,093 kU/L (grade 3), 245 kU/L (grade 2), and 112 kU/L (grade 1; P = .043). CONCLUSION: Most ircAEs responded to symptom- and phenotype-directed dermatologic therapies, whereas biologic therapies were effective in patients with corticosteroid-refractory disease. Increased eosinophils, IL-6, IL-10, and immunoglobulin E were associated with ircAEs, and they may represent actionable therapeutic targets for immune-related skin toxicities.

15.
JAMA Dermatol ; 155(6): 724-728, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840033

RESUMO

Importance: Persistent alopecia occurs in a subset of patients undergoing chemotherapy, yet the quality of life (QOL) of these patients and their response to therapy have not been described in a large patient cohort. Objective: To characterize the clinical presentation of patients with persistent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (pCIA) or endocrine therapy-induced alopecia after chemotherapy (EIAC) and their QOL and treatment outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective multicenter cohort of 192 women with cancer treated with cytotoxic agents who received a clinical diagnosis of persistent alopecia (98 with pCIA and 94 with EIAC) between January 1, 2009, and July 31, 2017, was analyzed. All patients were from the dermatology service in 2 comprehensive cancer centers and 1 tertiary-care hospital. Data on demographics, chemotherapy regimens, severity, clinical patterns, and response to hair-growth promoting agents were assessed. Data from the Hairdex questionnaire were used to assess the QOL of patients with alopecia. Main Outcomes and Measures: The clinical presentation, response to dermatologic therapy, and QOL of patients with pCIA were assessed and compared with those of patients with EIAC. Results: A total of 98 women with pCIA (median age, 56.5 years [range, 18-83 years]) and 94 women with EIAC (median age, 56 years [range, 29-84 years]) were included. The most common agents associated with pCIA were taxanes for 80 patients (82%); the most common agents associated with EIAC were aromatase inhibitors for 58 patients (62%). Diffuse alopecia was predominant in patients with pCIA compared with patients with EIAC (31 of 75 [41%] vs 23 of 92 [25%]; P = .04), with greater severity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, grade 2) among patients with pCIA (29 of 75 [39%] vs 12 of 92 [13%]; P < .001). A negative emotional effect was reported by both groups. After treatment with topical minoxidil or spironolactone, moderate to significant improvement was observed for 36 of 54 patients with pCIA (67%) and for 32 of 42 patients with EIAC (76%). Conclusions and Relevance: Persistent chemotherapy-induced alopecia is frequently more severe and diffuse when compared with EIAC, and both groups of patients experienced a negative effect. A modest benefit was observed with dermatologic therapy. Additional studies are warranted to develop effective strategies for prevention and effective therapy for pCIA and EIAC.


Assuntos
Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Minoxidil/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , Espironolactona/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Alopecia/epidemiologia , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nature ; 567(7749): 521-524, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867592

RESUMO

Histiocytic neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of clonal haematopoietic disorders that are marked by diverse mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway1,2. For the 50% of patients with histiocytosis who have BRAFV600 mutations3-5, RAF inhibition is highly efficacious and has markedly altered the natural history of the disease6,7. However, no standard therapy exists for the remaining 50% of patients who lack BRAFV600 mutations. Although ERK dependence has been hypothesized to be a consistent feature across histiocytic neoplasms, this remains clinically unproven and many of the kinase mutations that are found in patients who lack BRAFV600 mutations have not previously been biologically characterized. Here we show ERK dependency in histiocytoses through a proof-of-concept clinical trial of cobimetinib, an oral inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2, in patients with histiocytoses. Patients were enrolled regardless of their tumour genotype. In parallel, MAPK alterations that were identified in treated patients were characterized for their ability to activate ERK. In the 18 patients that we treated, the overall response rate was 89% (90% confidence interval of 73-100). Responses were durable, with no acquired resistance to date. At one year, 100% of responses were ongoing and 94% of patients remained progression-free. Cobimetinib treatment was efficacious regardless of genotype, and responses were observed in patients with ARAF, BRAF, RAF1, NRAS, KRAS, MEK1 (also known as MAP2K1) and MEK2 (also known as MAP2K2) mutations. Consistent with the observed responses, the characterization of the mutations that we identified in these patients confirmed that the MAPK-pathway mutations were activating. Collectively, these data demonstrate that histiocytic neoplasms are characterized by a notable dependence on MAPK signalling-and that they are consequently responsive to MEK inhibition. These results extend the benefits of molecularly targeted therapy to the entire spectrum of patients with histiocytosis.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/enzimologia , Histiocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose/enzimologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/genética , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/patologia , Histiocitose/genética , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/genética
17.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(3): 237-243, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) is a risk factor for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), specifically basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but whether features, histology, or recurrence of NMSC after RT resemble those observed in the general population is unknown. METHODS: A retrospective review (1994-2017) was performed within the Adult Long-Term Follow-Up Program and Dermatology Service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Demographics, clinical features, histology, treatment, and recurrence were collected for this patient cohort that was under close medical surveillance. Pathology images were reviewed when available. RESULTS: A total of 946 survivors (mean age, 40 years [SD, 13]) were assessed for NMSC. The mean age at first cancer diagnosis was 16 years (range, 0-40 years [11]), and the most common diagnosis was Hodgkin lymphoma (34%; n=318). In 63 survivors, 281 primary in-field lesions occurred, of which 273 (97%) were BCC and 8 (3%) were SCC. Mean intervals from time of RT to BCC and SCC diagnosis were 24 years (range, 2-44 years) and 32 years (range, 14-46 years), respectively. The most common clinical presentation of BCC was macule (47%; n=67), and the most common histologic subtypes were superficial for BCC (48%; n=131) and in situ for SCC (55%; n=5). Mohs surgery predominated therapeutically (42%; n=117), the mean duration of follow-up after treatment was 6 years (range, 12 days-23 years), and the 5-year recurrence rate was 1% (n=1). CONCLUSIONS: Most NMSCs arising in sites of prior RT were of low-risk subtypes. Recurrence was similar to that observed in the general population. Current guidelines recommend surgical intervention for tumors arising in sites of prior RT because they are considered to be at high risk for recurrence. These findings suggest that an expanded role for less aggressive therapy may be appropriate, but further research is needed.

18.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(3): 255-289, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865922

RESUMO

The aim of the NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities is to provide guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events resulting from cancer immunotherapy. The NCCN Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities Panel is an interdisciplinary group of representatives from NCCN Member Institutions and ASCO, consisting of medical and hematologic oncologists with expertise in a wide array of disease sites, and experts from the fields of dermatology, gastroenterology, neuro-oncology, nephrology, emergency medicine, cardiology, oncology nursing, and patient advocacy. Several panel representatives are members of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC). The initial version of the NCCN Guidelines was designed in general alignment with recommendations published by ASCO and SITC. The content featured in this issue is an excerpt of the recommendations for managing toxicity related to immune checkpoint blockade and a review of existing evidence. For the full version of the NCCN Guidelines, including recommendations for managing toxicities related to chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, visit NCCN.org.

19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 175(2): 267-276, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806923

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) remains a distressing adverse event of cancer treatment but may be prevented by scalp cooling. The effectiveness of scalp cooling, however, is dependent on the chemotherapy regimen with successful hair preservation (i.e., < 50% hair loss) in 41-59% of women on taxane-based therapies in comparison to 16-36% on anthracycline-based therapies. Despite the potential utility, use of scalp cooling has shown a more equivocal impact on quality of life (QoL). In this review, we aim to evaluate the use of scalp cooling for CIA and quantitative QoL measures. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases for clinical studies on scalp cooling to prevent CIA published before October 29, 2018 was performed. Clinical studies with 5 or more patients that reported on a quantitative QoL measure were included and graded according to a modified five-point scale from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. RESULTS: Studies meeting inclusion criteria included 4 randomized clinical trials (RCT), 8 cohort studies, and 1 cross-sectional study with 1282 unique patients. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30: 46%) and Breast Cancer Module (QLQ-BR23: 46%) represented the most commonly used QoL assessments. Overall, 4 (31%) of the 13 studies concluded that scalp cooling was associated with significant improvements in QoL measures; 8 (62%) determined that there was either non-significant or no improvements; and 1 (7.7%) provided a mixed conclusion. Although 2 (50%) RCT demonstrated that scalp cooling can effectively prevent CIA depending on the chemotherapy regimen, these studies did not show that successful hair preservation was associated with improved QoL measures. CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrates that scalp cooling is not consistently associated with significant QoL improvements as assessed by EORTC QLQ-C30 and -BR23. Representing a critical limitation, more than one-third of the studies did not subcategorize QoL outcomes for successfully or unsuccessfully scalp-cooled patients but rather reported on QoL measures for all scalp-cooled patients in general. Failure to prevent hair loss in patients undergoing an expensive and potentially uncomfortable treatment likely contributes to decreased well-being, impacting the overall distribution of QoL measures in scalp cooling patients compared to controls. Future studies should incorporate validated QoL instruments specific to hair disease and classify QoL outcomes for scalp-cooled patients based on the degree of hair preservation.


Assuntos
Alopecia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Crioterapia , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Alopecia/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Taxoides/uso terapêutico
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