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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471310

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In patients with >1 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), the distinction between separate primary lung carcinomas (SPLCs) and intrapulmonary metastases (IPMs) is a common diagnostic dilemma with critical staging implications. Here, we compared the performance of comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) to standard histopathologic approaches for distinguishing NSCLC clonal relationships in clinical practice. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We queried 4119 NSCLCs analyzed by 341-468 gene MSK-IMPACT NGS assay for patients with >1 surgically-resected tumor profiled by NGS. Tumor relatedness predicted by prospective histopathologic assessment was contrasted with comparative genomic profiling by subsequent NGS. RESULTS: Sixty patients with NGS performed on >1 NSCLCs were identified, yielding 76 tumor pairs. NGS classified tumor pairs into 51 definite SPLCs (median 14, up to 72 unique somatic mutations per pair), and 25 IPMs (24 definite, 1 high-probability; median 5, up to 16 shared somatic mutations per pair). Prospective histologic prediction was discordant with NGS in 17 cases (22%), particularly in the prediction of IPMs (44% discordant). Retrospective review highlighted several histologic challenges, including morphologic progression in some IPMs. We subsampled MSK-IMPACT data to model the performance of less comprehensive assays, and identified several clinicopathologic differences between NGS-defined tumor pairs, including increased risk of subsequent recurrence for IPMs. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive NGS allows unambiguous delineation of clonal relationship among NSCLCs. In comparison, standard histopathologic approach is adequate in most cases, but has notable limitations in the recognition of IPMs. Our results support the adoption of broad panel NGS to supplement histology for robust discrimination of NSCLC clonal relationships in clinical practice.

2.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1422-1427, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406350

RESUMO

TRK fusions are found in a variety of cancer types, lead to oncogenic addiction, and strongly predict tumor-agnostic efficacy of TRK inhibition1-8. With the recent approval of the first selective TRK inhibitor, larotrectinib, for patients with any TRK-fusion-positive adult or pediatric solid tumor, to identify mechanisms of treatment failure after initial response has become of immediate therapeutic relevance. So far, the only known resistance mechanism is the acquisition of on-target TRK kinase domain mutations, which interfere with drug binding and can potentially be addressable through second-generation TRK inhibitors9-11. Here, we report off-target resistance in patients treated with TRK inhibitors and in patient-derived models, mediated by genomic alterations that converge to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. MAPK pathway-directed targeted therapy, administered alone or in combination with TRK inhibition, re-established disease control. Experimental modeling further suggests that upfront dual inhibition of TRK and MEK may delay time to progression in cancer types prone to the genomic acquisition of MAPK pathway-activating alterations. Collectively, these data suggest that a subset of patients will develop off-target mechanisms of resistance to TRK inhibition with potential implications for clinical management and future clinical trial design.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455678

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The majority of broad-panel tumor genomic profiling has used a gene-centric approach, although much of that data is unused in clinical decision-making. We hypothesized that a pathway-centric approach using next-generation sequencing, combined with conventional clinicopathologic features, may better predict disease-free survival (DFS) in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Utilizing our prospectively maintained database, we analyzed 492 patients with primary, untreated, completely surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma. Ten canonical pathways were analyzed using broad-panel next-generation sequencing. The correlations of disease-free survival and number (and type) of pathway (NPA) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Associations between altered pathways and clinicopathologic variables, as well as identification of actionable therapeutic strategies, were explored. RESULTS: Median NPA for the cohort was 2 (range, 0-5). Smoking status, solid morphologic appearance on preoperative CT, maximal standardized uptake value, pathologic tumor size, aggressive histologic subtype, lymphovascular invasion, visceral pleural invasion, and positive lymph nodes were significantly associated with NPA (P<0.05). Of 543 actionable genetic alterations identified, 455 (84%) were within the RTK/RAS pathway. Eighty-six tumors had actionable therapeutic genomic alterations in >1 pathway. On multivariable analysis, higher NPA was significantly associated with worse DFS (HR, 1.31; P=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: NPA and specific pathway alterations are associated with clinicopathologic features in patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma. Cell cycle, Hippo, TGFß, and p53 pathway alterations are associated with poor DFS. Finally, NPA is an independent risk factor for poor DFS in our cohort.

4.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375766

RESUMO

With the FDA approval of larotrectinib, NTRK fusion assessment has recently become a standard part of management for patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancers. Unlike somatic mutation assessment, the detection of NTRK fusions is not straightforward, and various assays exist at the DNA, RNA, and protein level. Here, we investigate the performance of immunohistochemistry and DNA-based next-generation sequencing to indirectly or directly detect NTRK fusions relative to an RNA-based next-generation sequencing approach in the largest cohort of NTRK fusion positive solid tumors to date. A retrospective analysis of 38,095 samples from 33,997 patients sequenced by a targeted DNA-based next-generation sequencing panel (MSK-IMPACT), 2189 of which were also examined by an RNA-based sequencing assay (MSK-Fusion), identified 87 patients with oncogenic NTRK1-3 fusions. All available institutional NTRK fusion positive cases were assessed by pan-Trk immunohistochemistry along with a cohort of control cases negative for NTRK fusions by next-generation sequencing. DNA-based sequencing showed an overall sensitivity and specificity of 81.1% and 99.9%, respectively, for the detection of NTRK fusions when compared to RNA-based sequencing. False negatives occurred when fusions involved breakpoints not covered by the assay. Immunohistochemistry showed overall sensitivity of 87.9% and specificity of 81.1%, with high sensitivity for NTRK1 (96%) and NTRK2 (100%) fusions and lower sensitivity for NTRK3 fusions (79%). Specificity was 100% for carcinomas of the colon, lung, thyroid, pancreas, and biliary tract. Decreased specificity was seen in breast and salivary gland carcinomas (82% and 52%, respectively), and positive staining was often seen in tumors with neural differentiation. Both sensitivity and specificity were poor in sarcomas. Selection of the appropriate assay for NTRK fusion detection therefore depends on tumor type and genes involved, as well as consideration of other factors such as available material, accessibility of various clinical assays, and whether comprehensive genomic testing is needed concurrently.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337644

RESUMO

Purpose: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are effective in only a minority of patients with esophagogastric cancer (EGC). Here, we aimed to identify predictors of durable clinical benefit to ICI in EGC.Experimental Design: Patients with advanced EGC treated with ICIs at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY) were identified. Clinicopathologic variables were assessed. In patients profiled by MSK-IMPACT-targeted sequencing, outcomes were correlated with tumor genomic features.Results: One-hundred sixty-one patients were treated with ICIs (110 with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and 51 with anti-CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1.7 and 4.9 months, respectively. Greater number of disease sites (≥3), liver metastases, treatment with ≥3 prior therapies and ECOG performance status ≥2 were associated with poorer PFS and OS. Patients treated with combination ICI and those with PD-L1-positive tumors had improved outcomes. There was no difference in outcomes between patients treated with antibiotics during or in the 2 months preceding ICI treatment versus those who were not. Occurrence of irAEs was associated with improved OS. In genomically profiled tumors (n = 89), survival was associated with increasing tumor mutation burden (TMB). However, in multivariable analyses and when microsatellite unstable (MSI) patients were excluded, a significant association was no longer observed.Conclusions: In patients with advanced EGC, heavily pretreated patients, those with high-volume disease and/or poor PS were less likely to benefit from ICI. irAEs were associated with improved OS. TMB correlated with improved survival, but this association was not observed when MSI-high patients were excluded.

6.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited mutations are easily detected factors that influence the disease courses and optimal treatment strategies of some cancers. Germline mutations in BRCA1 associated protein 1 (BAP1) are associated with unique disease profiles in mesothelioma, atypical spitz nevi, and uveal melanoma, but the patient characteristics of an unselected population of BAP1 carriers identified by an ascertainment prevalence study are unknown. METHODS: We collected blood samples, cancer histories, and occupational exposures from 183 unselected patients with BAP1-related diseases. Clinical information for each patient was obtained from medical records. Germline DNA was extracted from blood samples and sequenced using a next-generation sequencing assay. We tested screening criteria developed to identify patients with a possible germline BAP1 mutation. RESULTS: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline BAP1 mutations were observed in 5 of 180 sequenced specimens and were exclusively found in patients identified by our screening criteria. Several patients with characteristics suspicious for a heritable deleterious mutation did not have a germline BAP1 mutation. The prevalence of pathogenic germline BAP1 mutations in patients with mesothelioma was 4.4% (95% confidence interval 1.1-11.1). CONCLUSIONS: Results from the first unselected prevalence ascertainment study of germline BAP1 alterations suggest that the frequency of this mutation is low among patients with mesothelioma. The proposed screening criteria successfully identified all patients with germline BAP1-mutant mesothelioma. These screening guidelines may assist physicians in selecting patients who would benefit from genetic testing. Future efforts should validate and refine these criteria and search for other germline mutations associated with mesothelioma and related diseases.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263031

RESUMO

Purpose: The genomic landscape of gliomas has been characterized and now contributes to disease classification, yet the relationship between molecular profile and disease progression and treatment response remain poorly understood.Experimental Design: We integrated prospective clinical sequencing of 1,004 primary and recurrent tumors from 923 glioma patients with clinical and treatment phenotypes.Results: Thirteen percent of glioma patients harbored a pathogenic germline variant, including a subset associated with heritable genetic syndromes and variants mediating DNA repair dysfunctions (29% of the total) that were associated with somatic biallelic inactivation and mechanism-specific somatic phenotypes. In astrocytomas, genomic alterations in effectors of cell-cycle progression correlated with aggressive disease independent of IDH mutation status, arose preferentially in enhancing tumors (44% vs. 8%, P < 0.001), were associated with rapid disease progression following tumor recurrence (HR = 2.6, P = 0.02), and likely preceded the acquisition of alkylating therapy-associated somatic hypermutation. Thirty-two percent of patients harbored a potentially therapeutically actionable lesion, of whom 11% received targeted therapies. In BRAF-mutant gliomas, response to agents targeting the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling axis was influenced by the type of mutation, its clonality, and its cellular and genomic context.Conclusions: These data reveal genomic correlates of disease progression and treatment response in diverse types of glioma and highlight the potential utility of incorporating genomic information into the clinical decision-making for patients with glioma.

8.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-6, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347936

RESUMO

Background: Plasma cfDNA evaluation at acquired resistance to targeted therapies in lung cancer is routine, however, reports of extended clinical application and pitfalls in laboratory practice are still limited. In this study we describe our experience with cfDNA testing using EGFR T790M as a prototype. Methods: Patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients who underwent plasma EGFR T790M testing at acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) from January 2016 through August 2017 were identified. Molecular laboratory records were reviewed to assess performance of testing by digital PCR, concordance between plasma and tissue testing, turnaround time (TAT), plasma T790M variant allele frequency (VAF), and its correlations with metastatic sites and clinical outcomes. Results: 177 patients underwent T790M cfDNA testing during this period. Plasma T790M was positive in 32% of patients. The median TAT was shorter for plasma T790M compared to tissue PCR (9 vs. 15 days, p < .0001), and led to osimertinib use in 84% of positive patients. In 52 patients with plasma and tissue T790M evaluation, the concordance was 77%. Plasma T790M VAF did not correlate with time to osimertinib discontinuation (p = .4). Plasma T790M status correlated with a higher number of metastatic sites (4 vs. 3, p < .001) and bone metastases (p = .0002). Conclusion: Plasma EGFR T790M testing had shorter TAT compared to tissue testing, however, it was longer than anticipated. Test sensitivity is higher in patients with osseous metastases and with higher metastatic burden suggesting a more limited role for early detection. T790M VAF was not associated with clinical outcomes.

9.
Nature ; 571(7766): 576-579, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292550

RESUMO

Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose individuals to certain cancers1-3, and disease-specific screening and preventative strategies have reduced cancer mortality in affected patients4,5. These classical tumour-suppressor genes have tumorigenic effects associated with somatic biallelic inactivation, although haploinsufficiency may also promote the formation and progression of tumours6,7. Moreover, BRCA1/2-mutant tumours are often deficient in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination8-13, and consequently exhibit increased therapeutic sensitivity to platinum-containing therapy and inhibitors of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP)14,15. However, the phenotypic and therapeutic relevance of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 remains poorly defined in most cancer types. Here we show that in the 2.7% and 1.8% of patients with advanced-stage cancer and germline pathogenic or somatic loss-of-function alterations in BRCA1/2, respectively, selective pressure for biallelic inactivation, zygosity-dependent phenotype penetrance, and sensitivity to PARP inhibition were observed only in tumour types associated with increased heritable cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers (BRCA-associated cancer types). Conversely, among patients with non-BRCA-associated cancer types, most carriers of these BRCA1/2 mutation types had evidence for tumour pathogenesis that was independent of mutant BRCA1/2. Overall, mutant BRCA is an indispensable founding event for some tumours, but in a considerable proportion of other cancers, it appears to be biologically neutral-a difference predominantly conditioned by tumour lineage-with implications for disease pathogenesis, screening, design of clinical trials and therapeutic decision-making.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175097

RESUMO

Purpose: Although multimodal chemotherapy has improved outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma, the prognosis for patients who present with metastatic and/or recurrent disease remains poor. In this study, we sought to define how often clinical genomic sequencing of osteosarcoma samples could identify potentially actionable alterations.Experimental Design: We analyzed genomic data from 71 osteosarcoma samples from 66 pediatric and adult patients sequenced using MSK-IMPACT, a hybridization capture-based large panel next-generation sequencing assay. Potentially actionable genetic events were categorized according to the OncoKB precision oncology knowledge base, of which levels 1 to 3 were considered clinically actionable.Results: We found at least one potentially actionable alteration in 14 of 66 patients (21%), including amplification of CDK4 (n = 9, 14%: level 2B) and/or MDM2 (n = 9, 14%: level 3B), and somatic truncating mutations/deletions in BRCA2 (n = 3, 5%: level 2B) and PTCH1 (n = 1, level 3B). In addition, we observed mutually exclusive patterns of alterations suggesting distinct biological subsets defined by gains at 4q12 and 6p12-21. Specifically, potentially targetable gene amplifications at 4q12 involving KIT, KDR, and PDGFRA were identified in 13 of 66 patients (20%), which showed strong PDGFRA expression by IHC. In another largely nonoverlapping subset of 14 patients (24%) with gains at 6p12-21, VEGFA amplification was identified.Conclusions: We found potentially clinically actionable alterations in approximately 21% of patients with osteosarcoma. In addition, at least 40% of patients have tumors harboring PDGFRA or VEGFA amplification, representing candidate subsets for clinical evaluation of additional therapeutic options. We propose a new genomically based algorithm for directing patients with osteosarcoma to clinical trial options.

11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: EGFR-mutant lung cancers are clinically and genomically heterogeneous with concurrent RB transcriptional corepressor 1 (RB1)/tumor protein p53 (TP53) alterations identifying a subset at increased risk for small cell transformation. The genomic alterations that induce lineage plasticity are unknown. METHODS: Patients with EGFR/RB1/TP53-mutant lung cancers, identified by next-generation sequencing from 2014 to 2018, were compared to patients with untreated, metastatic EGFR-mutant lung cancers without both RB1 and TP53 alterations. Time to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation, overall survival, SCLC transformation rate, and genomic alterations were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients with EGFR/RB1/TP53-mutant lung cancers represented 5% (43 of 863) of EGFR-mutant lung cancers but were uniquely at risk for transformation (7 of 39, 18%), with no transformations in EGFR-mutant lung cancers without baseline TP53 and RB1 alterations. Irrespective of transformation, patients with EGFR/TP53/RB1-mutant lung cancers had a shorter time to discontinuation than EGFR/TP53- and EGFR-mutant -only cancers (9.5 versus 12.3 versus 36.6 months, respectively, p = 2 × 10-9). The triple-mutant population had a higher incidence of whole-genome doubling compared to NSCLC and SCLC at large (80% versus 34%, p < 5 × 10-9 versus 51%, p < 0.002, respectively) and further enrichment in triple-mutant cancers with eventual small cell histology (seven of seven pre-transformed plus four of four baseline SCLC versus 23 of 32 never transformed, respectively, p = 0.05). Activation-induced cytidine deaminase/apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like mutation signature was also enriched in triple-mutant lung cancers that transformed (false discovery rate = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: EGFR/TP53/RB1-mutant lung cancers are at unique risk of histologic transformation, with 25% presenting with de novo SCLC or eventual small cell transformation. Triple-mutant lung cancers are enriched in whole-genome doubling and Activation-induced cytidine deaminase/apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like hypermutation which may represent early genomic determinants of lineage plasticity.

12.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186531

RESUMO

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is an aggressive malignancy harboring IDH2 R172 mutations in >80% cases. We explored the potential of genome-wide DNA methylation profiling to elucidate tumor biology and improve the diagnosis of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and its histologic mimics. Forty-two cases, including sinonasal undifferentiated, large cell neuroendocrine, small cell neuroendocrine, and SMARCB1-deficient carcinomas and olfactory neuroblastoma, were profiled by Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC array interrogating >850,000 CpG sites. The data were analyzed using a custom bioinformatics pipeline. IDH2 mutation status was determined by the targeted exome sequencing (MSK-IMPACTTM) in most cases. H3K27 methylation level was assessed by the immunohistochemistry-based H-score. DNA methylation-based semi-supervised hierarchical clustering analysis segregated IDH2 mutants, mostly sinonasal undifferentiated (n = 10) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (n = 4), from other sinonasal tumors, and formed a single cluster irrespective of the histologic type. t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding dimensionality reduction analysis showed no overlap between IDH2 mutants, SMARCB1-deficient carcinoma and olfactory neuroblastoma. IDH2 mutants demonstrated a global methylation phenotype and an increase in repressive trimethylation of H3K27 in comparison to IDH2 wild-type tumors (p < 0.001). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed no difference in pathway activation between IDH2-mutated sinonasal undifferentiated and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. In comparison to SMARCB1-deficient, IDH2-mutated carcinomas were associated with better disease-free survival (p = 0.034) and lower propensity for lung metastasis (p = 0.002). ARID1A mutations were common in small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma but not among IDH2 mutants (3/3 versus 0/18 and p < 0.001). IDH2 mutations in sinonasal carcinomas induce a hypermethylator phenotype and define a molecular subgroup of tumors arising in this location. IDH2-mutated sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma likely represent a phenotypic spectrum of the same entity, which is distinct from small cell neuroendocrine and SMARCB1-deficient sinonasal carcinomas. DNA methylation-based analysis of the sinonasal tumors has potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy and classification of tumors arising in this location.

13.
Mod Pathol ; 32(9): 1344-1358, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996253

RESUMO

Amplifications of JAK2, PD-L1, and PD-L2 at 9p24.1 lead to constitutive expression of PD-L1. This, coupled with JAK2-activation dependent upregulation of PD-L1 and adaptive/induced expression leads to higher tumor PD-L1 expression and immune evasion. Renal tumors were therefore evaluated for 9p24.1 amplifications. A combination of next generation sequencing-based copy number analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization for JAK2/INSL6 and PD-L1/PD-L2 and immunohistochemistry for phospho-STAT3 (downstream target of JAK2), PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 was performed. In this study we interrogated a "Discovery" cohort of 593 renal tumors, a "Validation" cohort of 398 high-grade renal tumors, The Cancer Genome Atlas (879 cases) and other public datasets (846 cases). 9p24.1 amplifications were significantly enriched in renal tumors with sarcomatoid transformation (5.95%, 15/252) when compared to all histologic subtypes in the combined "Discovery", "Validation" and public datasets (16/2636, 0.6%, p < 0.00001). Specifically, 9p24.1 amplifications amongst sarcomatoid tumors in public datasets, the "Discovery" and "Validation" cohorts were 7.7% (6/92), 15.1% (5/33), and 3.1% (4/127), respectively. Herein, we describe 13 cases and amplification status for these was characterized using next generation sequencing (n = 9) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 10). Correlation with PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (n = 10) revealed constitutive expression (mean H-score: 222/300, n = 10). Analysis of outcomes based on PD-L1 expression in tumor cells performed on 282 cases ("Validation" cohort) did not reveal a significant prognostic effect and was likely reflective of advanced disease. A high incidence of constitutive PD-L1 expression in tumor cells in the "Validation" cohort (H-Score ≥250/300) was noted amongst 83 rhabdoid (6%) and 127 sarcomatoid renal tumors (7.1%). This suggests additional mechanisms of constitutive expression other than amplification events. Importantly, two patients with 9p24.1-amplified sarcomatoid renal tumors showed significant response to immunotherapy. In summary, a subset of renal tumors with sarcomatoid transformation exhibits constitutive PD-L1 overexpression and these patients should be evaluated for enhanced response to immunotherapy.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(15): 4712-4722, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Targeted next-generation sequencing of DNA has become more widely used in the management of patients with lung adenocarcinoma; however, no clear mitogenic driver alteration is found in some cases. We evaluated the incremental benefit of targeted RNA sequencing (RNAseq) in the identification of gene fusions and MET exon 14 (METex14) alterations in DNA sequencing (DNAseq) driver-negative lung cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Lung cancers driver negative by MSK-IMPACT underwent further analysis using a custom RNAseq panel (MSK-Fusion). Tumor mutation burden (TMB) was assessed as a potential prioritization criterion for targeted RNAseq. RESULTS: As part of prospective clinical genomic testing, we profiled 2,522 lung adenocarcinomas using MSK-IMPACT, which identified 195 (7.7%) fusions and 119 (4.7%) METex14 alterations. Among 275 driver-negative cases with available tissue, 254 (92%) had sufficient material for RNAseq. A previously undetected alteration was identified in 14% (36/254) of cases, 33 of which were actionable (27 in-frame fusions, 6 METex14). Of these 33 patients, 10 then received matched targeted therapy, which achieved clinical benefit in 8 (80%). In the 32% (81/254) of DNAseq driver-negative cases with low TMB [0-5 mutations/Megabase (mut/Mb)], 25 (31%) were positive for previously undetected gene fusions on RNAseq, whereas, in 151 cases with TMB >5 mut/Mb, only 7% were positive for fusions (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Targeted RNAseq assays should be used in all cases that appear driver negative by DNAseq assays to ensure comprehensive detection of actionable gene rearrangements. Furthermore, we observed a significant enrichment for fusions in DNAseq driver-negative samples with low TMB, supporting the prioritization of such cases for additional RNAseq.See related commentary by Davies and Aisner, p. 4586.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Mitógenos , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936194

RESUMO

KRAS G12D-mutant/p53-deficient non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) models are dependent on the NF-κB pathway that can be down-regulated by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Two exceptional responders were observed on prior clinical trials of bortezomib, both of whom had KRAS G12D-mutant NSCLC, prompting the initiation of this single-center phase 2 trial. Patients with advanced KRAS G12D-mutant NSCLC were eligible. Bortezomib was administered at 1.3 mg/m2 subcutaneously (days 1, 4, 8, 11; 21-d cycle) until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary objective was best objective response (RECIST v1.1). Sixteen patients with KRAS G12D-mutant lung adenocarcinomas were treated. Patients had a median pack year smoking history of 4 (range 0-45). A partial response (PR) was observed in one patient (-66% from baseline) and stable disease in five patients on the first stage of this study (overall response rate of 6%, 95% CI: 0.2-30.2), and further patients were not accrued. The median progression-free survival was 1 mo (95% CI: 1-6). The median overall survival was 13 mo (95% CI: 6-NA). The most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (38%) and diarrhea (26%). TP53 status did not predict response on exploratory testing. Of note, the patient with a PR had a unique subtype of lung adenocarcinoma-invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas (IMA)-and had rapid clinical improvement and substantial disease regression, which was also previously observed in two other patients with advanced KRAS G12D-mutant lung cancer with IMAs who received bortezomib on separate clinical trials. Exceptional responses to bortezomib can be achieved in KRAS G12D-mutant NSCLCs. KRAS G12D mutation alone, however, is not a robust predictor of response. Further evaluation should only be performed after further elucidation of other factors such as co-occurring alterations and histologic subtype such as IMA that may predict sensitivity to therapy.

16.
Mod Pathol ; 32(8): 1106-1122, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923345

RESUMO

The spectrum and evolution of proliferation rates in stage IV lung carcinoids is poorly defined. In particular, there are limited data on the prevalence and characteristics of tumors exceeding the standard upper proliferative criteria-as defined largely based on early-stage carcinoids-in metastatic setting. Sixty-six patients with stage IV lung carcinoids were identified, and all evaluable samples (n = 132; mean 2 samples per patient) were analyzed for mitotic counts and Ki-67 rate. Clinicopathologic and genomic features associated with elevated proliferation rates (>10 mitoses per 2 mm2 and/or >20% hot-spot Ki-67), and evolution of proliferation rates in serial specimens were analyzed. We found that mitoses and/or Ki-67 exceeded the standard criteria in 35 of 132 (27%) samples, primarily (31/35 cases) at  metastatic sites. Although neuroendocrine neoplasms with >10 mitoses per 2 mm2 are currently regarded as de facto neuroendocrine carcinomas, the notion that these cases are part of the spectrum of carcinoids was supported by (1) well-differentiated morphology, (2) conventional proliferation rates in other samples from same patient, (3) genetic characteristics, including the lack of RB1/TP53 alterations in all tested samples (n = 19), and (4) median overall survival of 2.7 years, compared to <1 year survival of stage IV neuroendocrine carcinomas in the historic cohorts. In patients with matched primary/metastatic specimens (48 pairs), escalation of mitoses or Ki-67 by ≥10 points was observed in 35% of metastatic samples; clonal relationship in one pair with marked proliferative progression was confirmed by next-generation sequencing. Notably, escalation of proliferation rate was documented in a subset of metastases arising from resected typical carcinoids, emphasizing that the diagnosis of typical carcinoid in primary tumor does not assure low proliferation rate at metastatic sites. In conclusion, stage IV lung carcinoids frequently exceed the standard proliferative criteria established for primary tumors, and commonly exhibit proliferative escalation at metastatic sites. Despite the overlap of proliferation rates, these tumors show fundamental morphologic, genomic and clinical differences from neuroendocrine carcinomas, and should be classified separately from those tumors. Awareness of the increased proliferative spectrum in metastatic carcinoids is critical for their accurate diagnosis. Further studies are warranted to explore the impact of proliferation indices on prognosis and therapeutic responses of patients with metastatic carcinoids.

17.
Cancer Discov ; 9(5): 605-616, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877085

RESUMO

Despite the important role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis in the pathogenesis of cancer, to date there have been few functional oncogenic fusions identified involving the AKT genes. A 12-year-old female with a histopathologically indeterminate epithelioid neoplasm was found to harbor a novel fusion between the LAMTOR1 and AKT1 genes. Through expanded use access, she became the first pediatric patient to be treated with the oral ATP-competitive pan-AKT inhibitor ipatasertib. Treatment resulted in dramatic tumor regression, demonstrating through patient-driven discovery that the fusion resulted in activation of AKT1, was an oncogenic driver, and could be therapeutically targeted with clinical benefit. Post-clinical validation using patient-derived model systems corroborated these findings, confirmed a membrane-bound and constitutively active fusion protein, and identified potential mechanisms of resistance to single-agent treatment with ipatasertib. SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes the patient-driven discovery of the first AKT1 fusion-driven cancer and its treatment with the AKT inhibitor ipatasertib. Patient-derived in vitro and in vivo model systems are used to confirm the LAMTOR1-AKT1 fusion as a tumorigenic driver and identify potential mechanisms of resistance to AKT inhibition.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 565.

18.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 18, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914057

RESUMO

As trials of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies demonstrate responses in only a minority of pleural mesotheliomas (PlMs) and largely exclude patients with the related peritoneal mesothelioma (PeM), clinicians need predictive biomarkers of response and inclusion of PeM patients in future trials. A new study finds that loss of the deubiquitinase BAP1 in PeM correlates with an inflammatory tumor microenvironment, suggesting that BAP1 status might identify PeM, and possibly PlM, patients who would benefit from ICI therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética
19.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(5): 802-815, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple genetic mechanisms have been identified in EGFR-mutant lung cancers as mediators of acquired resistance (AR) to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but many cases still lack a known mechanism. METHODS: To identify novel mechanisms of AR, we performed targeted large panel sequencing of samples from 374 consecutive patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant lung cancer, including 174 post-TKI samples, of which 38 also had a matched pre-TKI sample. Alterations hypothesized to confer AR were introduced into drug-sensitive EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines (H1975, HCC827, and PC9) by using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 genome editing. MSK-LX138cl, a cell line with EGFR exon 19 deletion (ex19del) and praja ring finger ubiquitin ligase 2 gene (PJA2)/BRAF fusion, was generated from an EGFR TKI-resistant patient sample. RESULTS: We identified four patients (2.3%) with a BRAF fusion (three with acylglycerol kinase gene (AGK)/BRAF and one with PJA2/BRAF) in samples obtained at AR to EGFR TKI therapy (two posterlotinib samples and two posterlotinib and postosimertinib samples). Pre-TKI samples were available for two of four patients and both were negative for BRAF fusion. Induction of AGK/BRAF fusion in H1975 (L858R + T790M), PC9 (ex19del) and HCC827 (ex19del) cells increased phosphorylation of BRAF, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and conferred resistance to growth inhibition by osimertinib. MEK inhibition with trametinib synergized with osimertinib to block growth. Alternately, a pan-RAF inhibitor as a single agent blocked growth of all cell lines with mutant EGFR and BRAF fusion. CONCLUSION: BRAF fusion is a mechanism of AR to EGFR TKI therapy in approximately 2% of patients. Combined inhibition of EGFR and MEK (with osimertinib and trametinib) or BRAF (with a pan-RAF inhibitor) are potential therapeutic strategies that should be explored.

20.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 43(5): 662-669, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789359

RESUMO

Undifferentiated uterine sarcoma is a diagnosis of exclusion with limited molecular genetic data available. Recent recognition of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas with diverse genotypes suggests that some tumors classified as undifferentiated uterine sarcomas may represent misdiagnosed high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas. Archival material from 10 tumors diagnosed as undifferentiated uterine sarcomas in 2009 to 2017 were collected. BCOR immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using break-apart probes flanking BCOR, ZC3H7B, CCNB3, YWHAE, NUTM2, JAZF1, and BCORL1 were performed. Tumors lacking or harboring gene rearrangement with no known fusion partner by FISH were subjected to targeted RNA sequencing. Morphology was correlated with FISH and sequencing results. BCOR expression was moderate to strong in ≥50% of cells in 8 tumors, while weak in <5% cells and negative in 2. FISH detected mutually exclusive ZC3H7B-BCOR and YWHAE-NUTM2 fusions in 3 uniform undifferentiated uterine sarcomas; 2 pleomorphic tumors harbored YWHAE rearrangement with no known partner. Targeted RNA sequencing of 5 FISH-negative uniform undifferentiated uterine sarcomas detected BRD8-PHF1 and YWHAE-NUTM2B fusions and BCOR internal tandem duplication in 4 of them. Tumors with YWHAE-NUTM2 fusions and BCOR genetic abnormalities showed morphology characteristic of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas. No fusions were detected by sequencing in the tumor with YWHAE rearrangement only by FISH. Most tumors classified as undifferentiated uterine sarcomas represent misdiagnosed high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas. BCOR expression in ≥50% of cells may help triage tumors for molecular confirmation of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma-related genetic abnormalities. Novel YWHAE rearrangements may define a subset of true undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas.

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