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1.
Environ Res ; : 112195, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aircraft noise can affect populations living near airports. Chronic exposure to aircraft noise has been associated with cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. However, previous studies have been limited in their ability to characterize noise exposures over time and to adequately control for confounders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between aircraft noise and incident hypertension in two cohorts of female nurses, using aircraft noise exposure estimates with high spatial resolution over a 20-year period. METHODS: We obtained contour maps of modeled aircraft noise levels over time for 90 U.S. airports and linked them with geocoded addresses of participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) to assign noise exposure for 1994-2014 and 1995-2013, respectively. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hypertension risk associated with time-varying noise exposure (dichotomized at 45 and 55 dB(A)), adjusting for fixed and time-varying confounders. Results from both cohorts were pooled via random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: and Discussion: In meta-analyses of parsimonious and fully-adjusted models with aircraft noise dichotomized at 45 dB(A), hazard ratios (HR) for hypertension incidence were 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07) and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.07), respectively. When dichotomized at 55 dB(A), HRs were 1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.19) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.15), respectively. After conducting fully-adjusted sensitivity analyses limited to years in which particulate matter (PM) was obtained, we observed similar findings. In NHS, the PM-unadjusted HR was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.14) and PM-adjusted HR was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.14); in NHS II, the PM-unadjusted HR was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.22) and the PM-adjusted HR was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.21). Overall, in these cohorts, we found marginally suggestive evidence of a positive association between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension.

3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(9): 97007, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Short-term exposures to air pollution have been associated with AF triggering; less is known regarding associations between long-term air pollution exposures and AF incidence. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the association between long-term exposures to air pollution and distance to road on incidence of AF in a cohort of U.S. women. METHODS: We assessed the association of high resolution spatiotemporal model predictions of long-term exposures to particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and distance to major roads with incidence of AF diagnosis, identified through Medicare linkage, among 83,117 women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative cohort, followed from enrollment in Medicare through December 2012, incidence of AF, or death. Using time-varying Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, study component, body mass index, physical activity, menopausal hormone therapy, smoking, diet quality, alcohol consumption, educational attainment, and neighborhood socioeconomic status, we estimated the relative risk of incident AF in association with each pollutant. RESULTS: A total of 16,348 incident AF cases were observed over 660,236 person-years of follow-up. Most exposure-response associations were nonlinear. NO2 was associated with risk of AF in multivariable adjusted models [Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.24, comparing the top to bottom quartile, p-for-trend=<0.0001]. Women living closer to roadways were at higher risk of AF (e.g., HR=1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13 for living within 50m of A3 roads, compared with ≥1,000 m, p-for-trend=0.02), but we did not observe adverse associations with exposures to PM10, PM2.5, or SO2. There were adverse associations with PM10 (top quartile HR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.16, p-for-trend=<0.0001) and PM2.5 (top quartile HR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.14, p-for-trend=0.002) in sensitivity models adjusting for census region. DISCUSSION: In this study of postmenopausal women, NO2 and distance to road were consistently associated with higher risk of AF. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7683.

4.
Environ Res ; 203: 111929, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a critical environmental factor for dermal conversion of vitamin D, which is suggested to support reproductive health. However, current epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results on the associations between vitamin D levels and ovarian reserve. Further, few studies have considered UV exposure and reproductive aging, which is closely related to declined ovarian reserve. OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the associations of long-term UV exposure and age at natural menopause in a large, nationwide, prospective cohort. METHODS: Participants in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) who were premenopausal at age 40 were included and followed through 2015. Erythemal UV radiation from a high-resolution geospatial model was linked to the participants' residential histories. Early-life UV was estimated using the reported state of residence at birth, age 15, and age 30. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for natural menopause, adjusting for potential confounders and predictors of menopause. RESULTS: A total of 63,801 women reported natural menopause across the 1,051,185 person-years of follow-up among 105,631 eligible participants. We found very modest associations with delayed menopause for long-term UV exposure (adjusted HR comparing highest to lowest quartile of cumulative average UV: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94, 0.99). There was a suggestive inverse association between UV at age 30 with menopause (adjusted HR comparing highest to lowest quartile: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.00) but not with UV at birth and age 15. CONCLUSIONS: Solar UV exposure in adulthood was modestly associated with later onset of menopause. Although consistent with previous findings on vitamin D intake and menopause in the same population, these weak associations found in this study may not be of clinical relevance.

5.
Environ Int ; 156: 106715, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have observed associations between long-term air pollution and cardiovascular disease hospitalization. Little is known, however, about effect modification of these associations by greenness, temperature and humidity. METHODS: We constructed an open cohort consisting of all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, aged ≥ 65, living in the contiguous US from 2000 through 2016 (~63 million individuals). We assigned annual average PM2.5, NO2 and ozone zip code concentrations. Cox-equivalent Poisson models were used to estimate associations with first cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBV) hospitalization. RESULTS: PM2.5 and NO2 were both positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization, after adjustment for potential confounders. Associations were substantially stronger at the lower end of the exposure distributions. For CVD hospitalization, the hazard ratio (HR) of PM2.5 was 1.041 (1.038, 1.045) per IQR increase (4.0 µg/m3) in the full study population and 1.327 (1.305, 1.350) per IQR increase for a subgroup with annual exposures always below 10 µg/m3 PM2.5. Ozone was only positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization for the low-exposure subgroup (<40 ppb). Associations of PM2.5 were stronger in areas with higher greenness, lower ozone and Ox, lower summer and winter temperature and lower summer and winter specific humidity. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 and NO2 were positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization. Associations were more pronounced at low exposure levels. Associations of PM2.5 were stronger with higher greenness, lower ozone and Ox, lower temperature and lower specific humidity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Umidade , Medicare , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Temperatura , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Environ Int ; 156: 106744, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventionally grown fruits and vegetables (FVs) are the main source of general population exposure to pesticide residues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of intake of high- and low-pesticide-residue FVs with cancer risk. METHODS: We followed 150,830 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1998-2016, and Nurses' Health Study II, 1999-2017) and 29,486 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1998-2016) without a history of cancer. We ascertained FV intake via validated food frequency questionnaires and categorized FVs as having high or low pesticide residue levels based on USDA surveillance data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of total and site-specific cancer related to quintiles of high- and low-pesticide-residue FV intake. RESULTS: We documented 23,678 incident cancer cases during 2,862,118 person-years of follow-up. In the pooled multivariable analysis, neither high- nor low-pesticide-residue FV intake was associated with cancer. The HRs (95% CI) per 1 serving/day increase in intake were 0.99 (0.97-1.01) for high- and 1.01 (0.99-1.02) for low-pesticide-residue FVs. Additionally, we found no association between high-pesticide-residue FV intake and risk of specific sites, including malignancies previously linked to occupational pesticide exposure ([HR, 95% CI comparing extreme quintiles of intake] lung [1.17 (0.95-1.43)], non-Hodgkin lymphoma [0.89 (0.72-1.09)], prostate [1.31 (0.88-1.93)]) or inversely related to intake of organic foods (breasts [1.03 (0.94-1.31)]). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that overall exposure to pesticides through FV intake is not related to cancer risk, although they do not rule out associations with specific chemicals or sub-types of specific cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Dieta , Seguimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
7.
Sleep ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283244

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: In an older African-American sample (n=231) we tested associations of the household environment and in-bed behaviors with sleep duration, efficiency, and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO). METHODS: Older adult participants completed a household-level sleep environment questionnaire, a sleep questionnaire, and underwent 7-day wrist actigraphy for objective measures of sleep. Perceived household environment (self-reported) was evaluated using questions regarding safety, physical comfort, temperature, noise, and light disturbances. In-bed behaviors included: watching television, listening to radio/music, use of computer/tablet/phone, playing video games, reading books, and eating. To estimate the combined effect of the components in each domain (perceived household environment and in-bed behaviors), we calculated and standardized a weighted score per sleep outcome (e.g., duration, efficiency, WASO), with a higher score indicating worse conditions. The weights were derived from the coefficients of each component estimated from linear regression models predicting each sleep outcome while adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: A standard deviation increase in an adverse household environment score was associated with lower self-reported sleep duration (ß=-13.9 minutes, 95% confidence interval: -21.6, -1.7) and actigraphy-based sleep efficiency (ß=-0.7%, -1.4, 0.0). A standard deviation increase in the in-bed behaviors score was associated with lower actigraphy-based sleep duration (ß=-9.7 minutes, -18.0, -1.3), sleep efficiency (ß=-1.2%, -0.9, -0.6), and higher WASO (5.3 minutes, 2.1, 8.6). CONCLUSION: Intervening on the sleep environment, including healthy sleep practices, may improve sleep duration and continuity among African-Americans.

8.
Environ Int ; 155: 106666, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure has been linked with diminished fertility. Identifying the metabolic changes induced by periconception air pollution exposure among women could enhance our understanding of the potential biological pathways underlying air pollution's reproductive toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To identify serum metabolites associated with periconception air pollution exposure and evaluate the extent to which these metabolites mediate the association between air pollution and live birth. METHODS: We included 200 women undergoing a fresh assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycle at Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center (2005-2015). A serum sample was collected during stimulation, and untargeted metabolic profiling was conducted using liquid chromatography with ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) was estimated using validated spatiotemporal models. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between the air pollutants, live birth, and metabolic feature intensities. A meet in the middle approach was used to identify overlapping features and metabolic pathways. RESULTS: From the C18 and HILIC chromatography columns, 10,803 and 12,968 metabolic features were extracted. There were 190 metabolic features and 18 pathways that were significantly associated with both air pollution and live birth (P < 0.05) across chromatography columns. Eight features were confirmed metabolites implicated in amino acid and nutrient metabolism with downstream effects on oxidative stress and inflammation. Six confirmed metabolites fell into two intuitive clusters - "antioxidants" and "oxidants"- which could potentially mediate some of the association between air pollution and lower odds of live birth. Tryptophan and vitamin B3 metabolism were common pathways linking air pollution exposure to decreased probability of live birth. CONCLUSION: Higher periconception air pollution exposure was associated with metabolites and biologic pathways involved in inflammation and oxidative stress that may mediate the observed associations with lower probability of live birth following ART.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Biomarcadores , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Reprodução
9.
Fertil Steril ; 116(4): 1052-1060, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between ambient temperature and antral follicle count (AFC), a standard measure of ovarian reserve. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Fertility center at an academic hospital in the northeastern United States. PATIENT(S): 631 women attending the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center (2005-2015) who participated in the Environment and Reproductive Health Study. INTERVENTION(S): Daily temperature at the women's residential address was estimated for the 90 days before their antral follicle scan using a spatially refined gridded climate data set. We evaluated the associations between temperature and AFC using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, adjusting for relative humidity, fine particulate matter exposure, age, education, smoking status, year and month of AFC, and diagnosis of diminished ovarian reserve and ovulation disorders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Antral follicle count as measured with transvaginal ultrasonography. RESULT(S): A 1°C increase in average maximum temperature during the 90 days before ovarian reserve testing was associated with a -1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8, -0.4) lower AFC. Associations remained negative, but were attenuated, for average maximum temperature exposure in the 30 days (-0.9%, 95% CI, -1.8, 0.1) and 14 days (-0.8%, 95% CI, -1.6, 0.0) before AFC. The negative association between average maximum temperature and AFC was stronger in November through June than during the summer months, suggesting that timing of heat exposure and acclimatization to heat may be important factors to consider in future research. CONCLUSION(S): Exposure to higher temperatures was associated with lower ovarian reserve. These results raise concern that rising ambient temperatures worldwide may result in accelerated reproductive aging among women.

10.
Environ Res ; 199: 111331, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an infectious disease that has killed more than 555,000 people in the US. During a time of social distancing measures and increasing social isolation, green spaces may be a crucial factor to maintain a physically and socially active lifestyle while not increasing risk of infection. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether greenness was related to COVID-19 incidence and mortality in the US. METHODS: We downloaded data on COVID-19 cases and deaths for each US county up through June 7, 2020, from Johns Hopkins University, Center for Systems Science and Engineering Coronavirus Resource Center. We used April-May 2020 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, to represent the greenness exposure during the initial COVID-19 outbreak in the US. We fitted negative binomial mixed models to evaluate associations of NDVI with COVID-19 incidence and mortality, adjusting for potential confounders such as county-level demographics, epidemic stage, and other environmental factors. We evaluated whether the associations were modified by population density, proportion of Black residents, median home value, and issuance of stay-at-home orders. RESULTS: An increase of 0.1 in NDVI was associated with a 6% (95% Confidence Interval: 3%, 10%) decrease in COVID-19 incidence rate after adjustment for potential confounders. Associations with COVID-19 incidence were stronger in counties with high population density and in counties with stay-at-home orders. Greenness was not associated with COVID-19 mortality in all counties; however, it was protective in counties with higher population density. DISCUSSION: Exposures to NDVI were associated with reduced county-level incidence of COVID-19 in the US as well as reduced county-level COVID-19 mortality rates in densely populated counties.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Afro-Americanos , Humanos , Incidência , Densidade Demográfica , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 31(3): 442-453, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many vulnerable populations experience elevated exposures to environmental and social stressors, with deleterious effects on health. Multi-stressor epidemiological models can be used to assess benefits of exposure reductions. However, requisite individual-level risk factor data are often unavailable at adequate spatial resolution. OBJECTIVE: To leverage public data and novel simulation methods to estimate birthweight changes following simulated environmental interventions in two environmental justice communities in Massachusetts, USA. METHODS: We gathered risk factor data from public sources (US Census, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and Massachusetts Department of Health). We then created synthetic individual-level data sets using combinatorial optimization, and probabilistic and logistic modeling. Finally, we used coefficients from a multi-stressor epidemiological model to estimate birthweight and birthweight improvement associated with simulated environmental interventions. RESULTS: We created geographically resolved synthetic microdata. Mothers with the lowest predicted birthweight were those identifying as Black or Hispanic, with parity > 1, utilization of government prenatal support, and lower educational attainment. Birthweight improvements following greenness and temperature improvements were similar for all high-risk groups and were larger than benefits from smoking cessation. SIGNIFICANCE: Absent private health data, this methodology allows for assessment of cumulative risk and health inequities, and comparison of individual-level impacts of localized health interventions.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Mães , Peso ao Nascer , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
12.
Environ Res ; 197: 111162, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural vegetation, or greenness, is thought to improve health through its ability to buffer and reduce harmful environmental exposures as well as relieve stress, promote physical activity, restore attention, and increase social cohesion. In concert, these effects could help mitigate the detrimental effects of air pollution on reproductive aging in women. METHODS: Our analysis included 565 women attending the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center (2004-2014) who had a measured antral follicle count (AFC), a marker of ovarian reserve. We calculated peak residential greenness in the year prior to AFC using 250 m2 normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Terra and Aqua satellites operated by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Validated spatiotemporal models estimated daily residential exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) for the 3 months prior to AFC. Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to estimate the association between peak greenness, average PM2.5 exposure, and AFC adjusted for age, BMI, smoking status, education, year, and season. RESULTS: Women in our study had a mean age of 35.2 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 4.3 years (min: 20 years, max: 45 years). The peak residential NDVI ranged from 0.07 to 0.92 with a SD of 0.18. There was no statistically significant association between peak residential greenness and AFC; however, higher exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower AFC (-6.2% per 2 µg/m3 [1 SD increase] 95% CI -11.8, -0.3). There was a significant interaction between exposure to PM2.5 and peak greenness on AFC (P-interaction: 0.03). Among women with an average PM2.5 exposure of 7 µg/m3, a SD increase in residential peak greenness was associated with a 5.6% (95% CI -0.4, 12.0) higher AFC. Conversely, among women with a PM2.5 exposure of 12 µg/m3, a SD increase in residential peak greenness was associated with a 5.8% (95% CI -13.1, 2.1) lower AFC. CONCLUSIONS: Residing in an area with high levels of greenness may slow reproductive aging in women only when exposure to PM2.5 is low.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Reserva Ovariana , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
13.
Environ Int ; 146: 106272, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238229

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 raised numerous questions on the interactions between the occurrence of new infections, the environment, climate and health. The European Union requested the H2020 HERA project which aims at setting priorities in research on environment, climate and health, to identify relevant research needs regarding Covid-19. The emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be related to urbanization, habitat destruction, live animal trade, intensive livestock farming and global travel. The contribution of climate and air pollution requires additional studies. Importantly, the severity of COVID-19 depends on the interactions between the viral infection, ageing and chronic diseases such as metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and obesity which are themselves influenced by environmental stressors. The mechanisms of these interactions deserve additional scrutiny. Both the pandemic and the social response to the disease have elicited an array of behavioural and societal changes that may remain long after the pandemic and that may have long term health effects including on mental health. Recovery plans are currently being discussed or implemented and the environmental and health impacts of those plans are not clearly foreseen. Clearly, COVID-19 will have a long-lasting impact on the environmental health field and will open new research perspectives and policy needs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Animais , Clima , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116216, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316492

RESUMO

Evidence has shown associations between air pollution and traffic-related exposure with accelerated aging, but no study to date has linked the exposure with age at natural menopause, an important indicator of reproductive aging. In this study, we sought to examine the associations of residential exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and distance to major roadways with age at natural menopause in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II), a large, prospective female cohort in US. A total of 105,996 premenopausal participants in NHS II were included at age 40 and followed through 2015. Time-varying residential exposures to PM10, PM2.5-10, and PM2.5 and distance to roads was estimated. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for natural menopause using Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounders and predictors of age at menopause. We also examined effect modification by region, smoking, body mass, physical activity, menstrual cycle length, and population density. There were 64,340 reports of natural menopause throughout 1,059,229 person-years of follow-up. In fully adjusted models, a 10 µg/m3 increase in the cumulative average exposure to PM10 (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.04), PM2.5-10 (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05), and PM2.5 (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.06) and living within 50 m to a major road at age 40 (HR: 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.06) were associated with slightly earlier menopause. No statistically significant effect modification was found, although the associations of PM were slightly stronger for women who lived in the West and for never smokers. To conclude, we found exposure to ambient PM and traffic in midlife was associated with slightly earlier onset of natural menopause. Our results support previous evidence that exposure to air pollution and traffic may accelerate reproductive aging.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Menopausa , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260804

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth has health implications both in childhood and adulthood. Birthweight is partially determined by prenatal environmental exposures. We aim to identify important predictors of birthweight out of a set of environmental, built environment exposures, and socioeconomic environment variables during pregnancy (i.e., fine particulate matter (PM2.5), temperature, greenness, walkability, noise, and economic indices). We included all singleton live births of mothers who resided in urban census block-groups and delivered in Massachusetts between 2001 and 2011 (n = 640,659). We used an elastic-net model to select important predictors of birthweight and constructed a multivariate model including the selected predictors, with adjustment for confounders. We additionally used a weighted quantile sum regression to assess the contribution of each exposure to differences in birthweight. All exposures were selected as important predictors of birthweight. In the multivariate model, lower birthweight was significantly associated with lower greenness and with higher temperature, walkability, noise, and segregation of the "high income" group. Treating the exposures individually, nighttime noise had the highest weight in its contribution to lower birthweight. In conclusion, after accounting for individual confounders, maternal environmental exposures, built environment exposures, and socioeconomic environment during pregnancy were important predictors of birthweight, emphasizing the role of these exposures in fetal growth and development.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Peso ao Nascer , Ambiente Construído , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , População Urbana , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Gravidez
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(12): 127012, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased respiration during physical activity may increase air pollution dose, which may attenuate the benefits of physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and overall mortality. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the multiplicative interaction between long-term ambient residential exposure to fine particulate matter <2.5 microns (PM2.5) and physical activity in the association with CVD risk and overall mortality. METHODS: We followed 104,990 female participants of the U.S.-based prospective Nurses' Health Study from 1988 to 2008. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the independent associations of 24-months moving average residential PM2.5 exposure and physical activity updated every 4 y and the multiplicative interaction of the two on CVD (myocardial infarction and stroke) risk and overall mortality, after adjusting for demographics and CVD risk factors. RESULTS: During 20 years of follow-up, we documented 6,074 incident CVD cases and 9,827 deaths. In fully adjusted models, PM2.5 exposure was associated with modest increased risks of CVD [hazard ratio (HR) for fifth quintile ≥16.5 µg/m3 compared to first quintile <10.7 µg/m3: 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.20; ptrend=0.05] and overall mortality (HR fifth compared to first quintile: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.19; ptrend=0.07). Higher overall physical activity was associated with substantially lower risk of CVD [HR fourth quartile, which was ≥24.4 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-h/wk, compared to first quartile (<3.7MET-h/wk): 0.61, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.66; ptrend<0.0001] and overall mortality (HR fourth compared to first quartile: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.42; ptrend<0.0001). We observed no statistically significant interactions between PM2.5 exposure and physical activity (overall, walking, vigorous activity) in association with CVD risk and overall mortality. DISCUSSION: In this study of U.S. women, we observed no multiplicative interaction between long-term PM2.5 exposure and physical activity; higher physical activity was strongly associated with lower CVD risk and overall mortality at all levels of PM2.5 exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7402.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Circulation ; 142(23): e432-e447, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147996

RESUMO

In 2010, the American Heart Association published a statement concluding that the existing scientific evidence was consistent with a causal relationship between exposure to fine particulate matter and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and that fine particulate matter exposure is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Since the publication of that statement, evidence linking air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health has continued to accumulate and the biological processes underlying these effects have become better understood. This increasingly persuasive evidence necessitates policies to reduce harmful exposures and the need to act even as the scientific evidence base continues to evolve. Policy options to mitigate the adverse health impacts of air pollutants must include the reduction of emissions through action on air quality, vehicle emissions, and renewable portfolio standards, taking into account racial, ethnic, and economic inequality in air pollutant exposure. Policy interventions to improve air quality can also be in alignment with policies that benefit community and transportation infrastructure, sustainable food systems, reduction in climate forcing agents, and reduction in wildfires. The health care sector has a leadership role in adopting policies to contribute to improved environmental air quality as well. There is also potentially significant private sector leadership and industry innovation occurring in the absence of and in addition to public policy action, demonstrating the important role of public-private partnerships. In addition to supporting education and research in this area, the American Heart Association has an important leadership role to encourage and support public policies, private sector innovation, and public-private partnerships to reduce the adverse impact of air pollution on current and future cardiovascular health in the United States.

18.
Environ Epidemiol ; 4(4): e0105, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903352

RESUMO

Background: Differences in multiple sclerosis (MS) risk by latitude have been observed worldwide; however, the exposures driving these associations are unknown. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has been explored as a risk factor, and ambient temperature has been correlated with disease progression. However, no study has examined the impact of all three exposures. We examined the association between these exposures and incidence of MS within two nationwide prospective cohorts of women, the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). Methods: Both cohorts were followed with biennial questionnaires to ascertain new diagnoses and risk factors. Time-varying exposures to latitude, cumulative average July temperature (°C), and cumulative average July erythemal UV (mW/m2) were predicted at each participant's biennially updated residential addresses. Using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for MS risk factors, we calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) within each cohort and pooled via meta-analyses. Results: In multivariable models, there were suggestions that decreasing latitude (meta-analysis multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.55, 0.94 for women living <35.73° compared with those ≥42.15°, P-for-trend = 0.007) and increasing cumulative average July temperature (meta-analysis multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.81; 95% CI 0.72, 0.91 for each interquartile range increase [3.91°]) were associated with decreasing risk of MS. There was no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. We did not observe consistent associations with cumulative average UV. Conclusion: Our results suggest that adult exposures to decreasing latitude and increasing temperature, but not UV, were associated with reduced MS risk in these two cohorts of women. Studies of MS incidence may want to consider temperature as a risk factor.

19.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an infectious disease that has killed more than 175,000 people in the US. During a time of social distancing measures and increasing social isolation, green spaces may be a crucial factor to maintain a physically and socially active lifestyle while not increasing risk of infection. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether greenness is related to COVID-19 incidence and mortality in the United States. METHODS: We downloaded data on COVID-19 cases and deaths for each US county up through June 7, 2020, from Johns Hopkins University, Center for Systems Science and Engineering Coronavirus Resource Center. We used April-May 2020 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, to represent the greenness exposure during the initial COVID-19 outbreak in the US. We fitted negative binomial mixed models to evaluate associations of NDVI with COVID-19 incidence and mortality, adjusting for potential confounders such as county-level demographics, epidemic stage, and other environmental factors. We evaluated whether the associations were modified by population density, proportion of Black residents, median home value, and issuance of stay-at-home order. RESULTS: An increase of 0.1 in NDVI was associated with a 6% (95% Confidence Interval: 3%, 10%) decrease in COVID-19 incidence rate after adjustment for potential confounders. Associations with COVID-19 incidence were stronger in counties with high population density and high median home values, and in counties with stay-at-home orders. Greenness was not associated with COVID-19 mortality in all counties; however, it was protective in counties with high percentages of Black residents, high median home value, and higher population density. DISCUSSION: Exposures to NDVI had beneficial impacts on county-level incidence of COVID-19 in the US and may have reduced county-level COVID-19 mortality rates, especially in densely populated counties.

20.
Environ Res ; 191: 110201, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937174

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that air pollution increases pregnancy loss; however, most previous studies have focused on case identification from medical records, which may underrepresent early pregnancy losses. Our objective was to investigate the association between acute and chronic exposure to ambient air pollution and time to pregnancy loss among women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) who are closely followed throughout early pregnancy. We included 275 women (345 human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-confirmed pregnancies) undergoing ART at a New England academic fertility center. We estimated daily nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) exposures using validated spatiotemporal models estimated from first positive hCG test until day of failure or live birth. Air pollution exposures were averaged over the past week and the whole pregnancy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazards ratio (HR) for pregnancy loss for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant exposure. We tested for violation of proportional hazards by considering an interaction between time (in days) since positive hCG (<30 days vs. ≥30 days) and air pollution. The incidence of pregnancy loss was 29 per 100 confirmed pregnancies (n = 99). Among pregnancies not resulting in live birth, the median (IQR) time to loss was 21 (11, 30) days following positive hCG. Average past week exposures to NO2, O3, PM2.5, and BC were not associated with time to pregnancy loss. Exposure throughout pregnancy to NO2 was not associated with pregnancy loss; however, there was a statistically significant interaction with time (p-for-interaction<0.001). Specifically, an IQR increase in exposure to NO2 was positively associated with pregnancy loss after 30 days (HR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.58), but not in the first 30 days after positive hCG (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.57, 1.20). Overall pregnancy exposure to O3, PM2.5, and BC were not associated with pregnancy loss regardless of timing. Models evaluating joint effects of all pollutants yielded similar findings. In conclusion, acute and chronic exposure to NO2, O3, PM2.5, and BC were not associated with risk of pregnancy loss; however, higher exposure to NO2 throughout pregnancy was associated with increased risk of loss 30 days after positive hCG. In this cohort, later pregnancy losses appeared more susceptible to the detrimental effects of air pollution exposure.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Aborto Espontâneo/induzido quimicamente , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , New England , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
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