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1.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 106564, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708430

RESUMO

This paper contains five contributions which were presented as part of the novel therapies section of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures. These illustrate recent advances being made in the management and therapy of status epilepticus. The five contributions concern: genetic variations in Na + channel genes and their importance in status epilepticus; the European Reference Network for rare and complex epilepsies EpiCARE; the North American Pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group (pSERG); Fenfluramine as a potential therapy for status epilepticus' and the valproate derivatives, valnoctamide and sec-butylpropylacetamide (SPD), as potential therapies for status epilepticus. This article is part of the Special Issue "Proceedings of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures".

2.
Neuropharmacology ; : 107854, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751548

RESUMO

In contrast to epilepsy in adolescents and adults, neonatal seizures and early onset epilepsy poses unique challenges with significant repercussion for treatment choices. Most importantly, high seizure burden and epileptic encephalopathy are associated with developmental, behavioural and cognitive problems. The causes are multifactorial and include etiology, seizure burden, epileptic encephalopathy, but also antiseizure medication. In contrast to adults and older children only very few drugs have been licenced for infants and neonates, and after a long delay. Very recently, extrapolation of adult data has become possible as a path to speed up drug development for younger children but this is not necessarily possible for infants and neonates. With the advances in understanding the molecular basis of many epilepsies, targeted therapies become available, for example for KCNQ2 mutation related epilepsies, Dravet syndrome or tuberous sclerosis complex. Drug trials in neonates are particularly challenging because of their inconspicuous clinical presentation, the need for continuous EEG monitoring, high co-morbidity, and poor response to antiepileptic drugs. There is an urgent need for development of new drugs, evaluation of safety and efficacy of current antiseizure drugs, as well as for national policies and guidelines for the management of seizures and epilepsy in neonates and infants.

3.
Drugs ; 79(18): 1917-1935, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734883

RESUMO

Rare diseases provide a challenge in the evaluation of new therapies. However, orphan drug development is of increasing interest because of the legislation enabling facilitated support by regulatory agencies through scientific advice, and the protection of the molecules with orphan designation. In the landscape of the rare epilepsies, very few syndromes, namely Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and West syndrome, have been subject to orphan drug development. Despite orphan designations for rare epilepsies having dramatically increased in the past 10 years, the number of approved drugs remains limited and restricted to a handful of epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we describe the current state of orphan drug development for rare epilepsies. We identified a large number of compounds currently under investigation, but mostly in the same rare epilepsy syndromes as in the past. A rationale for further development in rare epilepsies could be based on the match between the drug mechanisms of action and the knowledge of the causative gene mutation or by evidence from animal models. In case of the absence of strong pathophysiological hypotheses, exploratory/basket clinical studies could be helpful to identify a subpopulation that may benefit from the new drug. We provide some suggestions for future improvements in orphan drug development such as promoting paediatric drug investigations, better evaluation of the incidence and the prevalence, together with the natural history data, and the development of new primary outcomes.

4.
Epilepsy Behav ; 102: 106340, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide information on the burden of illness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with epilepsy who experience prolonged acute convulsive seizures (PACS) in the community setting, and to investigate factors that may predict poor HRQoL in this population. METHODS: Noninstitutionalized children (aged 3-16 years) who had experienced at least one PACS within the past year and had currently prescribed PACS rescue medication were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom (Practices in Emergency and Rescue medication For Epilepsy managed with Community-administered Therapy 3 [PERFECT-3]). Clinicians, parents/guardians, and patients completed web-based questionnaires regarding clinical characteristics, PACS frequency, and day-to-day impairment. Patients' HRQoL was rated by clinicians, parents/guardians, and patients themselves using the 5-dimension EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D) and summarized as a utility score. Potential predictors of poor HRQoL were tested in individual univariate generalized linear models and a global multivariable model. RESULTS: Enrolled children (N = 286) had experienced 1-400 PACS (median: 4) in the past year. Clinicians reported that 216/281 patients (76.9%) had learning disabilities of varying severity. Mean EQ-5D utility scores rated by clinicians (n = 279), parents (n = 277), and patients (n = 85) were 0.52 (standard deviation: 0.41), 0.51 (0.39), and 0.74 (0.29), respectively. Increasing PACS frequency, increasing severity of learning disability, and specialist school attendance were significantly associated with decreasing EQ-5D utility score. In the multivariable model, having learning disabilities was the best predictor of poor HRQoL. SIGNIFICANCE: Health-related quality of life was very poor in many children with epilepsy whose PACS were managed with rescue medication in the community, with learning disability being the most powerful predictor of patients' HRQoL. Mean EQ-5D utility scores were lower (worse) than published values for many other chronic disorders, indicating that optimal treatment should involve helping children and their families to manage learning disabilities and day-to-day impairments, in addition to preventing seizures.

5.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 130(9): 1655-1664, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the long-term impact of prenatal exposure to chemotherapy on executive functioning and the contribution of late-prematurity to this effect, using event-related potentials. METHODS: Mothers of the prenatal-exposed children (n = 20) were diagnosed with cancer and received chemotherapeutic treatment during pregnancy. We recruited healthy controls (n = 20) who were matched on a 1:1 ratio regarding prematurity, age and sex. We assessed executive functioning at the age of nine, using two event-related potential paradigms: a Go/Nogo paradigm to investigate processes of response inhibition and conflict monitoring, as well as a Posner paradigm to investigate spatial attention. RESULTS: Lower potentials were found in prenatal-exposed children compared to controls in the Go/Nogo P3 and Posner positive slow wave. Moreover, prenatal-exposed children responded slower on the Posner paradigm compared to controls (p < .033), with more incorrect responses (p = .023). In the control group, the N2 Go/Nogo wave was more pronounced in children born after a longer gestation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that demonstrates an effect of prenatal exposure to chemotherapy on the development of executive functioning, not limited to the effect of late-prematurity. SIGNIFICANCE: This study emphasizes the necessity of a long-term follow-up of prenatal-exposed children to re-inform clinical practice on the costs and benefits of late-premature induction over treatment during pregnancy.

8.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 689-706, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant genetic risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy. As knowledge increases, reanalysis of existing data is essential. Reliable estimates of the contribution of CNVs to epilepsies from sizeable populations are not available. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 1255 patients with preexisting array comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array based CNV data. All patients had "epilepsy plus," defined as epilepsy with comorbid features, including intellectual disability, psychiatric symptoms, and other neurological and nonneurological features. CNV classification was conducted using a systematic filtering workflow adapted to epilepsy. RESULTS: Of 1097 patients remaining after genetic data quality control, 120 individuals (10.9%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as pathogenic; 19 individuals (1.7%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as possibly pathogenic. Eleven patients (1%) carried more than one (possibly) pathogenic CNV. We identified CNVs covering recently reported (HNRNPU) or emerging (RORB) epilepsy genes, and further delineated the phenotype associated with mutations of these genes. Additional novel epilepsy candidate genes emerge from our study. Comparing phenotypic features of pathogenic CNV carriers to those of noncarriers of pathogenic CNVs, we show that patients with nonneurological comorbidities, especially dysmorphism, were more likely to carry pathogenic CNVs (odds ratio = 4.09, confidence interval = 2.51-6.68; P = 2.34 × 10-9 ). Meta-analysis including data from published control groups showed that the presence or absence of epilepsy did not affect the detected frequency of CNVs. SIGNIFICANCE: The use of a specifically adapted workflow enabled identification of pathogenic autosomal CNVs in 10.9% of patients with epilepsy plus, which rose to 12.7% when we also considered possibly pathogenic CNVs. Our data indicate that epilepsy with comorbid features should be considered an indication for patients to be selected for a diagnostic algorithm including CNV detection. Collaborative large-scale CNV reanalysis leads to novel declaration of pathogenicity in unexplained cases and can promote discovery of promising candidate epilepsy genes.

9.
Neuropsychol Rev ; 29(2): 190-219, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927148

RESUMO

The rise in cancer survival rates has raised concerns about the long-term adverse effects of cancer treatment, including neurocognitive impairment. Neurocognitive deficits such as attention and processing speed are frequently observed and can have a profound, lifelong impact in daily life of cancer patients. Interestingly, large interpatient variability exists in cognitive outcomes. Emerging evidence indicates that such differences may be related to genetic variation. The aim of our review was to systematically summarize the current literature on the modulatory effects of germline genetic polymorphisms on cancer treatment-induced cognitive changes and the potential age-dependent impact in cancer survivors. The PubMed/Medline database was screened using an extensive search string focusing on four components: "cancer", "cancer treatment", "neurocognitive outcome" and "germline genetic variation". Seventeen studies meeting predefined eligibility criteria were analyzed, including sixteen candidate gene studies and one genome-wide association study. 38 polymorphisms in 15 genes across proposed pathophysiological pathways, including (1) neural plasticity and repair, (2) neuroinflammation and defenses against oxidative stress, (3) neurotransmission, and (4) folate metabolism pathway, were reported to be significantly associated with treatment-related neurocognitive dysfunction or neuroimaging abnormalities. Still, some study results remained discordant, partly due to the methodological heterogeneity (i.e. in test assessments, age, cancer-type populations). Future large-scale, (epi-)genome studies integrating neurocognitive assessments and advanced neuroimaging techniques, are recommended in order to investigate neurotoxicity throughout the lifespan. Hence, adverse neurodevelopmental problems during childhood and neurodegenerative processes later in life could be minimized based on genetic risk classifications.

10.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617784

RESUMO

Evidence is building for an association between the level of anxiety experienced by a mother during pregnancy and offspring cognition and structural and functional brain correlates. The current study uses fMRI to examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety and brain activity associated with endogenous versus exogenous cognitive control in 20-year-old males. Endogenous cognitive control refers to the ability to generate control over decisions, strategies, conflicting information and so on, from within oneself without external signals, while exogenous control is triggered by external signals. In line with previous results of this long-term follow-up study we found that 20-year-olds of mothers reporting high levels of anxiety during weeks 12-22 of pregnancy exhibited a different pattern of decision making in a Gambling paradigm requiring endogenous cognitive control, compared to adults of mothers reporting low to average levels of anxiety. Moreover, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in a number of prefrontal cortical areas was modulated by the level of antenatal maternal anxiety. In particular, a number of right lateralized clusters including inferior frontal junction, that were modulated in the adults of mothers reporting low to average levels of anxiety during pregnancy by a task manipulation of cognitive control, were not modulated by this manipulation in the adults of mothers reporting high levels of anxiety during pregnancy. These differences in brain functional correlates provide a neurobiological underpinning for the hypothesis of an association between exposure to maternal anxiety in the prenatal life period and a deficit in endogenous cognitive control in early adulthood.

11.
Seizure ; 65: 72-79, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616222

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate costs associated with the current management of Dravet syndrome (DS), explore psychosocial aspects of the disease in caregivers and siblings, and identify patient characteristics associated with higher costs in a large, predominantly European survey cohort of patients and their caregivers conducted in 2016. METHODS: Health and social care resource use, productivity and quality of life (QoL) data were summarised. Costs for European five (EU5) countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK) were calculated and patients with high and low current seizure burden compared. Direct healthcare costs and out-of-pocket costs were calculated using literature reported health service costs and participant reported costs, respectively. RESULTS: Direct annual costs of management of non-seizure-related symptoms ($7929) contributed to approximately 50% of all costs (including medication). Excluding medication, non-seizure-related costs dominated costs of care. Cost for patients with high seizure burden were higher for seizure-related healthcare use and physiotherapy, but lower for other therapies. Most (80%) caregivers reported an influence on their career choices and 28% of those in work had missed over three working days in the past four weeks for emergency or routine needs of their child. Caregivers had little free time, relied on family members for support and respite, and experienced emotional stress and uncertainty about their child's future healthcare needs. CONCLUSION: Families caring for a DS patient manage considerable social and financial impacts. Total direct costs of DS patients (excluding drugs) are driven by non-seizure-related healthcare use and high seizure burden is associated with higher healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Fisioterapeutas/economia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Custos e Análise de Custo , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/economia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/enfermagem , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/psicologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/reabilitação , Europa (Continente) , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Irmãos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Neurol ; 266(3): 691-698, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617908

RESUMO

The concept of functional modularity in human visual processing was proposed 25 years ago with the distinction between a ventral pathway for object recognition and a dorsal pathway for action processing. Lesions along these pathways yield selective deficits. A 15-year-old patient (MW) presented with a seizure due to a lesion in the left occipitotemporal cortex. Surgical resection of the lesion was performed with sparing of the classic language areas and visual fields. Postoperatively MW had great difficulty reading and had a specific agnosia for more complex visual stimuli in the right hemifield. No deficit was seen for lower level visual discrimination tasks. Gradual improvement of hemi-agnosia was paralleled by slower reaction times reflecting a speed-accuracy trade-off. Absolute reading speed improved markedly over time, doubling at 6 weeks. MW fully recovered after 18 months. Postoperative functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) illustrated an overlap of the lesion with object and word processing areas. Diffusion Tensor Imaging showed damage to the white matter tracts [inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF)] interconnecting ventral temporal areas. A transient higher order deficit can result from a disruption of the neural network supporting visual word and object processing. Most visual system research has focused on cortical areas, while the underlying subcortical network received much less attention. We believe that white matter tracts, in particular the ILF, play a critical role in object perception by connecting visual areas along the ventral visual stream. Lesions of the ILF should be taken into consideration in agnosia.


Assuntos
Agnosia/fisiopatologia , Lobo Occipital/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adolescente , Agnosia/etiologia , Agnosia/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Substância Branca/cirurgia
13.
Epilepsia ; 60(2): e8-e13, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663052

RESUMO

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe genetic epileptic encephalopathy with onset during the first year of life. Zebrafish models recapitulating human diseases are often used as drug discovery platforms, but also for drug repurposing testing. It was recently shown that pharmacological modulation of three serotonergic (5-HT) receptors (5-HT1D , 5-HT2C , 5-HT2A ) exerts antiseizure effects in a zebrafish scn1Lab-/- mutant model of DS. Using the zebrafish DS model, our aim was to examine the possibility of repurposing efavirenz (EFA), lisuride (LIS), and rizatriptan (RIZA), marketed medicines with a 5-HT on- or off-target profile, as antiepileptic drugs for DS. To examine whether these compounds have a broader antiseizure profile, they were tested in pentylenetetrazol and ethyl ketopentenoate (EKP) zebrafish models. Pharmacological effects were assessed by locomotor behavior, local field potential brain recordings, and bioluminescence. EFA was active in all models, whereas LIS was selectively active in the zebrafish DS model. Mainly, a poor response was observed to RIZA. Taken together, our preclinical results show that LIS could be a potential candidate for DS treatment. EFA was also active in the EKP model, characterized by a high level of treatment resistance, and hence these data are potentially important for future treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1022-1029, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526861

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies characterized by refractory seizures and developmental impairment. Sequencing approaches have identified causal genetic variants in only about 50% of individuals with DEEs.1-3 This suggests that unknown genetic etiologies exist, potentially in the ∼98% of human genomes not covered by exome sequencing (ES). Here we describe seven likely pathogenic variants in regions outside of the annotated coding exons of the most frequently implicated epilepsy gene, SCN1A, encoding the alpha-1 sodium channel subunit. We provide evidence that five of these variants promote inclusion of a "poison" exon that leads to reduced amounts of full-length SCN1A protein. This mechanism is likely to be broadly relevant to human disease; transcriptome studies have revealed hundreds of poison exons,4,5 including some present within genes encoding other sodium channels and in genes involved in neurodevelopment more broadly.6 Future research on the mechanisms that govern neuronal-specific splicing behavior might allow researchers to co-opt this system for RNA therapeutics.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
15.
Eur J Pediatr ; 177(12): 1735-1743, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194525

RESUMO

Whether to initiate or to withhold Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) in children with severe developmental disability (DD) remains a topic of intense debate. The present study investigated the opinion of professionals on this difficult issue and proposed a checklist with guiding questions for decision-making. Clinicians affiliated to different organizations involved in pediatric nephrology worldwide were invited to respond to a web-based survey. This survey focused on the collection of demographic data of the respondents together with their opinion concerning the decision-making regarding RRT in a particular case and for children with severe DD in general. A total of 286 professionals responded to the survey. Sixty-six percent supported initiating RRT in the child of the case report, with pre-emptive transplantation being the preferred modality. Important arguments pro RRT initiation in children with severe DD in general were parental preference, decrease of suffering, and improvement of survival and quality of life. Important contraindications included low IQ, severe comorbidities, and inability of the patient to take medication or for the family to provide sufficient care.Conclusion: The present study presents an inventory on the opinions of health care professionals involved in RRT in children regarding the treatment of children with DD and assists in the decision-making process by identifying important medical and psychosocial arguments for initiating or withholding RRT in severe DD patients. What is Known: •Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) in children with severe developmental disability (DD) is a topic of intense debate. •Previous studies on the opinion of professionals mainly focused on the use of IQ as an argument in the decision-making whether or not starting RRT. What is New: •The present study investigated the opinion of professionals with regard to considering initiation or withholding RRT in children with severe DD and identified medical and psychosocial arguments playing a role in the decision-making process. •Based on these arguments, a checklist with guiding questions for decision-making is proposed.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Adulto , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrologia/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Epilepsia ; 59(10): 1881-1888, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a drug-resistant, childhood onset electroclinical epilepsy syndrome with multiple seizure types and diagnostic electroencephalogram findings. ZX008 (fenfluramine HCl oral solution) was well tolerated and reduced seizure frequency in Dravet syndrome, prompting this phase 2, open-label, dose-finding study of add-on ZX008 in patients with LGS (NCT02655198). METHODS: Eligible treatment-refractory patients with LGS aged 3-18 years with ≥4 documented convulsive seizures (CS) in the prior 4 weeks were administered adjunctive ZX008 twice daily at an initial dose of 0.2 mg/kg/d, with incremental dose escalations up to 0.8 mg/kg/d or 30 mg/d (maximum dose) every 4 weeks in nonresponders (<50% reduction in CS frequency). After 20 weeks (core study), responders were offered entry into a long-term extension study. Seizures were captured via diary. Cardiac safety was monitored by Doppler echocardiography and electrocardiogram. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were enrolled (mean age = 11.7 years, range = 3-17). Ten (77%) patients completed 20 weeks of ZX008 treatment. During the core study, there was a 53% median reduction (N = 13) in CS; median reduction was 60% in the 10 completers. Eight patients (62%) had a ≥50% CS reduction; three (23%) patients had a ≥75% reduction. Nine (69%) patients entered the long-term extension study. At 15 months (n = 9), median reduction in CS was 58%; six (67%) patients had a ≥50% reduction, and three (33%) patients had a ≥75% reduction. The most common adverse events were decreased appetite (n = 4, 31%) and decreased alertness (n = 2, 15%). No echocardiographic signs of cardiac valvulopathy or pulmonary hypertension were observed. SIGNIFICANCE: ZX008 provided clinically meaningful reduction (≥50%) in CS frequency in the majority of patients with LGS in this pilot study and was generally well tolerated. A phase 3, randomized, controlled study is ongoing.

17.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 22(5): 738-748, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880258

RESUMO

Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are at very high risk for developing epilepsy, and the majority experience seizure onset during the first year of life. Early targeted interventions increase the probability of seizure-freedom and may protect neurodevelopment. In 2012, clinical recommendations for the management of epilepsy in patients with TSC were published by a panel of European experts. Since that time novel studies, reports, and expert opinions in preclinical and clinical TSC-related sciences prompted the need for updated recommendations, including epileptogenesis in TSC, the potential role of predictive biomarkers, the possible benefits of presymptomatic diagnosis and preventive treatment, and new treatment options including mTOR inhibitors. A reconvened panel reviewed the current literature to answer specific questions and five panelists discussed the findings, followed by a general discussion during which all issues were debated to achieve consensus regarding recommendations. A draft manuscript based on these discussions and recommendations was then circulated several times among the panelists, who added their own comments. All the panelists/authors agreed with the final manuscript, which was then submitted for publication. The panel concluded that the need for early diagnosis of TSC-associated seizures is now established, electroencephalographic monitoring has good predictive value for epilepsy before seizure onset in TSC, and, until conclusive data from the EPISTOP trial are available, administration of vigabatrin may be considered in children with subclinical epileptiform EEG discharges. The panel also supported the role of adjunctive everolimus for TSC-associated drug-refractory seizures and emphasized the necessity of early surgical evaluation.

18.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934818

RESUMO

This study aims to detect the neural substrate underlying the language impairment in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. Deterministic DTI tractography was performed in a group of right-handed children with DLD (N = 17; mean age 10;07 ± 2;01 years) and a typically developing control group matched for age, gender and handedness (N = 22; mean age 11;00 ± 1;11 years) to bilaterally identify the superior longitudinal fascicle, arcuate fascicle, anterior lateral segment and posterior lateral segment (also called dorsal language network) and the middle and inferior longitudinal fascicle, extreme capsule fiber system and uncinate fascicle (also called ventral language network). Language skills were assessed using an extensive, standardized test battery. Differences in language performance, white matter organization and structural lateralization of the language network were statistically analyzed. Children with DLD showed a higher overall volume and higher ADC values for the left-hemispheric language related WM tracts. In addition, in children with DLD, the majority (88%; 7/8) of the studied language related WM tracts did not show a significant left or right lateralization pattern. These structural alterations might underlie the language impairment in children with DLD.

19.
Seizure ; 59: 48-53, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Automated seizure detection at home is mostly done using either patient-independent algorithms or manually personalized algorithms. Patient-independent algorithms, however, lead to too many false alarms, whereas the manually personalized algorithms typically require manual input from an experienced clinician for each patient, which is a costly and unscalable procedure and it can only be applied when the patient had a sufficient amount of seizures. We therefore propose a nocturnal heart rate based seizure detection algorithm that automatically adapts to the patient without requiring seizure labels. METHODS: The proposed method initially starts with a patient-independent algorithm. After a very short initialization period, the algorithm already adapts to the patients' characteristics by using a low-complex novelty detection classifier. The algorithm is evaluated on 28 pediatric patients with 107 convulsive and clinical subtle seizures during 695 h of nocturnal multicenter data in a retrospective study that mimics a real-time analysis. RESULTS: By using the adaptive seizure detection algorithm, the overall performance was 77.6% sensitivity with on average 2.56 false alarms per night. This is 57% less false alarms than a patient-independent algorithm with a similar sensitivity. Patients with tonic-clonic seizures showed a 96% sensitivity with on average 1.84 false alarms per night. CONCLUSION: The proposed method shows a strongly improved detection performance over patient-independent performance, without requiring manual adaptation by a clinician. Due to the low-complexity of the algorithm, it can be easily implemented on wearables as part of a (multimodal) seizure alarm system.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Frequência Cardíaca , Monitorização Fisiológica , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Eletroencefalografia , Reações Falso-Positivas , Coração/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Fotoperíodo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Epilepsy Behav ; 83: 50-58, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term effects of adjunctive perampanel on cognition, efficacy, growth, safety, and tolerability in adolescents with inadequately controlled partial seizures. METHODS: Study 235, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, Phase II study with an open-label extension phase (NCT01161524), was primarily designed to assess the effects of adjunctive perampanel on cognition. Patients (aged ≥12 to <18years) had a diagnosis of epilepsy with inadequately controlled partial seizures, with or without secondary generalization, despite receiving 1-3 antiepileptic drugs. During the double-blind phase, adjunctive perampanel or placebo was administered over a 6-week titration period and a 13-week maintenance period up to 12mg/day. During the extension phase, all patients received perampanel. Data from the extension phase are presented here. Study endpoints included change from baseline in Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) measures of cognition, seizure frequency, growth, development, the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), and laboratory values. RESULTS: A total of 114 patients entered the extension phase (prior double-blind treatment: placebo, n=41; perampanel, n=73). Perampanel had no effect on the CDR system global cognition score, continuity of attention, quality of episodic memory, quality of working memory, or speed of memory but was associated with a significant decline in power of attention at end of treatment compared with baseline (p=0.03). There were no effects on language skills or manual dexterity from baseline to end of treatment. At Weeks 40-52, median reduction in seizure frequency was 74.1%, and 50% responder rate was 66.0%. There were no clinically relevant effects of perampanel on growth or development at end of treatment compared with baseline. Overall, 84.2% of patients experienced at least one TEAE and 70.2% experienced at least one treatment-related TEAE. The most common TEAEs were dizziness (29.8%) and somnolence (19.3%). The TEAEs resulted in the discontinuation of treatment in 6.1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: In keeping with the 19-week double-blind phase, long-term adjunctive treatment with perampanel did not have any significant overall effects on the CDR system global cognition score in adolescent patients with inadequately controlled partial seizures. Similar trends were observed across the individual CDR system domains. Adjunctive perampanel showed sustained long-term seizure control and had a safety and tolerability profile similar to that observed in prior clinical studies.

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