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1.
J Mot Behav ; : 1-12, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387517

RESUMO

Variable practice promotes a higher level of motor learning than constant practice. The glutamate receptors, n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and alfa-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPA), have been associated with the changes in motor cortex that occur throughout the process of motor learning. Considering that, it is possible that variable practice is more associated with the NMDA and AMPA receptors than constant practice. This study aimed ao investigating the association between the glutamate receptors, NMDA and AMPA, and constant and variable practice schedules. Seventy-eight male mice practiced the rotarod task in a constant or variable scheduling, in two consecutive days (acquisition phase). Learning tests were performed 24 h and 10 days after the end of the acquisition phase. Variable practice was more associated with the NMDA receptor and had a greater AMPA receptor expression than constant practice. The results suggest that the benefits of variable practice are result of both the greater dependency on the NMDA receptor and the greater AMPA receptor expression.

2.
Hum Mov Sci ; 66: 578-586, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254810

RESUMO

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that has been used as an ergogenic aid in exercise/sports performance. However, little is known about its effects on highly-trained subjects, as athletes. The present study aimed to verify the effects of bi-hemispheric anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) on the performance of taekwondo athletes. Additionally, we investigated the persistence of the effects of the a-tDCS one hour after it. Nineteen Taekwondo athletes received active or sham bi-hemispheric a-tDCS over the primary motor cortex (M1). a-tDCS was delivered at 1.5 mA for 15 min. Athletes performed Countermovement Jumps (CMJ) and the Frequency Speed of Kick Test (FSKT) immediately (Mo1) and one hour after stimulation (Mo2). The athletes also reported their session-rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE). The total number of kicks (TK) was higher in sham than in the active a-tDCS condition (p < 0.01). In addition, TK was higher at Mo2 than at Mo1 (p < 0.05). Similarly, the session-RPE was higher in the a-tDCS condition (p < 0.05) and was greater one-hour post-stimulation (p < 0.01). No differences were found for CMJ performance (p > 0.05). Thus, bi-hemispheric a-tDCS worsens performance of taekwondo athletes, and the effect remains present even 1 h after the stimulation.

3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844986

RESUMO

Oliveira, MP, Menzel, H-JK, Cochrane, DJ, Drummond, MD, Demicheli, C, Lage, G, and Couto, BP. Individual responses to different vibration frequencies identified by electromyography and dynamometry in different types of vibration application. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The application of mechanical vibration is a common neuromuscular training technique used in sports training programs to generate acute increases in muscle strength. The principal aim of the study was to compare the individual optimal vibration frequency (IOVF) identified by electromyography (EMG) activity and force production in strength training. Twenty well-trained male volunteers (age: 23.8 ± 3.3 years) performed a familiarization and 2 interventions sessions, which included 5 maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the elbow flexors with a duration of 10 seconds and 5-minute intervals between each MVC. The first MVC was performed without vibration followed by 4 randomized MVCs with application of vibration in the direction of the resultant muscle forces' vector (VDF) or whole-body vibration (WBV) at frequencies of 10, 20, 30, or 40 Hz. The mechanical vibration stimulus was superimposed during the MVC. Individual optimal vibration frequency, as identified by EMG, did not coincide with IOVF identified by force production; low agreement was observed between the vibration frequencies in generating the higher EMG activity, maximal force, and root mean square of force. These findings suggest that the magnitude of the vibratory stimulus response is individualized. Therefore, if the aim is to use acute vibration in conjunction with strength training, a preliminary vibration exposure should be conducted to determine the individualized vibratory stimulus of the subject, so that training effects can be optimized.

4.
Hum Mov Sci ; 64: 142-152, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735818

RESUMO

The benefits of less repetitive practice in motor learning have been explained by the increased demand for memory processes during the execution of motor skills. Recently, a new perspective associating increased demand for perception with less repetitive practice has also been proposed. Augmented information gathering and visual scanning characterize this higher perceptual demand. To extend our knowledge about mental effort and perceptual differences in practice organization, the association between oculomotor behavior and type of practice was investigated. We required participants to press four keys with different absolute and relative timing goals during the acquisition phase. An eye-tracker captured visual scanning of the skill's absolute and relative information displayed on the screen. Participants were tested 24 h after acquisition by a retention and transfer test. A higher level of both pupil dilation and amount of eyeblinks indicated an increased mental effort in less repetitive practice compared to more repetitive practice. Visual scanning of the skill's relative and absolute information was specific to the type of practice. The findings indicate many differences in oculomotor behavior associated with the practice schedule.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Motriz (Online) ; 25(2): e101923, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002702

RESUMO

Abstract Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition marked by impairments in the development of motor coordination. The uncoordinated movements of children with DCD lead to performance difficulties in daily life activities and academic settings. Despite the high prevalence of this condition (2-7%) and severe consequences associated with it, DCD is not well recognized in clinical and educational practices, particularly in Brazil. This review provides an overview of DCD and the research evidence - we present definitions and characteristics associated with the condition, the diagnostic criteria, associated difficulties, frequent co-morbidities and a summary of the possible causes. Finally, we review management strategies and intervention approaches for DCD. We also discuss some of the common challenges of the field - while DCD has been largely studied in the last decade, there are still many gaps between research and practice that need to be filled. Awareness and dissemination of relevant, scientific information is necessary. In conclusion, DCD is a significant condition with a clear diagnostic criteria, and requires intervention to improve motor and functional skills, which can improve the associated difficulties as well as the physical and mental health consequences of the condition.

6.
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 20(6): 598-606, Nov.-Dec. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-990557

RESUMO

Abstract The type of practice can influence what is learned from a motor skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the constant and random practice on the learning of Generalized Motor Program and parameters of the volleyball serve. The sample was composed of 20 children between 10 and 12 years old. The participants performed a pre-test whose score was adopted to counterbalance two groups (n=10), random practice and constant practice. During the acquisition phase, the random group performed 252 serves from three different positions, always indicated at the end of each serve, and the constant group performed all serves from only a specific position. The retention test showed that both groups learned the Generalized Motor Program, but random practice conducted to higher parameterization learning, resultant from the variable of practice. During practice of a sport motor skills, although the constant and random practice improve the learning of Generalized Motor Program, only the random practice improves learning of parameters of the motor skill.


Resumo O tipo de prática pode influenciar o que é aprendido de uma habilidade motora. Objetivou-se investigar os efeitos da prática constante e aleatória na aprendizagem do Programa Motor Generalizado e parâmetros do saque do voleibol. A amostra foi composta por 20 crianças entre 10 e 12 anos. Os participantes realizaram um pré-teste, cujo escore foi utilizado para contrabalançar dois grupos (n=10), prática constante e aleatória. Durante a fase de aquisição, o grupo aleatório realizou 252 saques de três posições diferentes, sempre indicada ao final de cada saque e o grupo controle realizou todos os saques somente de uma posição específica. O teste de retenção mostrou que ambos os grupos aprenderam o Programa Motor Generalizado, mas a prática aleatória conduziu para uma melhor aprendizagem dos parâmetros, resultante da prática variada. Durante a prática de habilidades motoras esportivas, apesar de as práticas constante e aleatória melhorarem a aprendizagem do Programa Motor Generalizado, somente a prática aleatória melhora a aprendizagem dos parâmetros da habilidade motora.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Voleibol/educação , Destreza Motora , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Prática (Psicologia) , Retenção (Psicologia)
7.
Acta fisiátrica ; 25(4)dez. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-999747

RESUMO

É da natureza dos seres humanos apresentarem preferências na realização de tarefas do dia-a-dia. Esta preferência está associada à lateralidade. Um dos campos de estudo sobre a lateralidade é a assimetria lateral, que está presente tanto na dimensão da preferência quanto no desempenho. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a assimetria de força de preensão manual entre os sexos, e identificar se há associação entre assimetria de desempenho e assimetria de preferência. Método: A amostra foi composta por 50 estudantes universitários que realizaram teste de força de preensão manual máxima. Resultados: Os resultados indicaram que o os homens apresentaram valores absolutos maiores, maior índice de assimetria e menor consistência quando comparados às mulheres. Além disso, a mão preferida apresentou valores maiores de força em ambos os sexos. Conclusão: Em linhas gerais, sugere-se que fatores genéticos, sociais, culturais e sexo influenciam o comportamento motor dos indivíduos e, consequentemente, as assimetrias de desempenho.


It is of the nature of human beings to have preferences to performing daily tasks. This preference is associated with the laterality. One of the fields of the laterality study is lateral asymmetry, that is present in both preference and performance dimensions. Aim: This study aimed to compare manual grip strength asymmetry between genders and to identify if there is an association between asymmetry of performance and preference asymmetry. Method: The sample consisted of 50 university students who performed maximum manual grip strength tests. Results: The results indicated that the men had higher absolute values, higher Asymmetry Index and lower consistency when compared to the women. In addition, the preferred hand presented higher strength values in both sexes. Conclusion: In general, it is suggested that genetic, social, cultural and gender factors influence the motor behavior of the individuals and consequently the appearance of the lateral asymmetries.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Força Muscular , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Lateralidade Funcional , Dominância Cerebral , Identidade de Gênero
8.
Percept Mot Skills ; : 31512518807341, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398959

RESUMO

Many studies have attributed self-controlled feedback benefits associated with motor learning to learners' greater information processing during practice. However, individual learner characteristics like their impulsivity can also influence how people engage cognitively during learning. We investigated possible dissociations between the types of interaction in self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) and learner impulsivity levels in learning a sequential motor task. Ninety volunteers responded to the self-restraint section of the Barkley deficits in executive functioning scale, and those 60 participants with the highest ( n = 30) and lowest ( n = 30) impulsivity scores practiced a motor task involving sequential pressing of four keys in predetermined absolute and relative times. We further divided participants into four experimental groups by assigning the high- and low-impulsivity groups to two forms of KR-self-controlled absolute and yoked. Study results showed no interaction effect between impulsivity and self-controlled KR, and, contrary to expectation, self-controlled KR did not benefit learning, independently of impulsivity. However, low-impulsivity participants performed better than high-impulsivity participants on the absolute dimension of the transfer task, while high-impulsivity learners were better at the relative dimension. Cognitive characteristics of automatic and reflexive processing were expressed by the strategies used to direct attention to relative and absolute task dimensions, respectively. Low-impulsivity learners switched their attention to both dimensions at the end of practice, while high-impulsivity learners did not switch their attention or directed it only to the relative dimension at the end of the practice. These results suggest that the cognitive styles of high- and low-impulsive learners differentially favor learning distinct dimensions of a motor task, regardless of self-controlled KR.

9.
Brain Res Bull ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445182

RESUMO

The influence of individual differences in cognition and behavior may be partly explained by the different genetic polymorphisms. Among the genetic polymorphisms capable of altering cognitive and behavioral functions, the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism regulates the availability of dopamine (DA) in the prefrontal cortex and has a trimodal distribution in the population. The Met allele has higher DA availability in the synaptic clefts and can be associated with cognitive stability. Val homozygous individuals exhibit lower DA concentrations in the synaptic clefts, which can be associated with cognitive flexibility. Heterozygotes have intermediate DA concentrations in the synaptic clefts. In the perspective of motor behavior, greater cognitive stability would be advantageous when the practice requires maintenance and refinement of a movement pattern, while a greater cognitive flexibility would be fundamental for practices demanding motor adaptation caused by disturbances. Thus, this integrative review aimed to analyze, in healthy populations, possible associations between the COMT polymorphism and motor behavior, as well as to investigate whether the effects of the COMT genotypes from the perspective of the roles played by tonic and phasic DA are associated with the stability/flexibility required by the nature of the motor task. The search for the articles was carried out in the PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Scopus databases. Six studies that met all the requirements specified in the inclusion criteria were selected. Results suggest an association between COMT polymorphism and motor behavior. Conflicting results regarding the effects of the different COMT polymorphisms on adaptation and sequential motor tasks were found, as well as on the roles played by tonic and phasic DA. Despite the inconsistencies encountered, it was possible to identify that the different COMT genotypes lead to different effects in relation to the nature of the practiced motor task. Due to the reduced number of articles investigating the association between COMT polymorphism and motor behavior, relevant questions about this relation remain under-investigated.

10.
Percept Mot Skills ; 125(5): 951-965, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096989

RESUMO

This study compared decision-making (DM) of experienced and novice volleyball coaches while measuring blood flow brain activation with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We sampled 34 coaches (mean [ M] age of 32.5, standard deviation [ SD] = 9.4 years) divided into two experience groups: (a) novice ( M = 2.8, SD = 1.9 years) and (b) experienced (M = 19, SD = 7.2 years). We evaluated coaches' DM through their responses to video-based scenarios of attacks performed in the extremities of the net within the Declarative Tactical Knowledge Test in Volleyball. We found no significant DM differences between the two groups of coaches ( p = .063), though novice (vs. experienced) coaches showed greater blood flow of the prefrontal cortex when visualizing the game situations. While experienced coaches may have better prefrontal neural efficiency during DM in these situations, further research is needed to evaluate other cerebral areas; since blood flow is an indirect measure of neural efficiency, and activity in remaining cortical components was unknown in this study.

11.
J Mot Behav ; : 1-9, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791274

RESUMO

In aiming movements the limb position drifts away from the defined target after some trials without visual feedback, a phenomenon defined as proprioceptive drift (PD). There are no studies investigating the association between the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and PD in aiming movements. Therefore, cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were applied to the left PPC concomitantly with the performance of movements with or without vision. Cathodal tDCS applied without vision produced a higher level of PD and higher rates of drift accumulation while it decreased peak velocity and maintained the number of error corrections, not affecting movement amplitude. The proprioceptive information seems to produce an effective reference to movement, but with PPC stimulation it causes a negative impact on position.

12.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 29: e2904, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893606

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The association between contextual interference effect (CIE) and kinematic measures has been little investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the CIE on velocity and acceleration kinematic profiles of upper limb. Thirty-two subjects (23,7 ± 3,3 years) were assigned to groups of blocked practice (GPB) and random practice (GPA). The task consisted in achieve three targets in three specific sequences as quickly and accurately as possible. The study was designed in acquisition phase and transfer test. The variables of performance were reaction time, movement time, and response time and the kinematic variables were peak of speed, relative time to peak of speed, and number of peak acceleration points. The main findings showed that GPA showed lower movement time and response time than GPB. Regression analysis indicated that change in peak velocity during practice was associated to the change of the reaction time from practice to the transfer test. As peak velocity is a measure related to preprogramming, it is suggested that central control was essential to the CIE.


RESUMO Pouco se sabe a respeito da associação entre o efeito da interferência contextual (EIC) e medidas cinemáticas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o EIC nos perfis cinemáticos de velocidade e aceleração do membro superior. Vinte e dois participantes (23,7 ± 3,3 anos) foram alocados em dois grupos de prática: em blocos (GPB) e aleatória (GPA). A tarefa consistiu em acertar três alvos apresentados no monitor em três sequências pré-determinadas o mais rápido e preciso possível. O estudo foi dividido em fase de aquisição e teste de transferência. As variáveis de desempenho foram tempo de reação, tempo de movimento e tempo de resposta e as variáveis cinemáticas foram pico de velocidade, tempo relativo para o pico de velocidade e número de correções para alcançar o alvo. Os principais achados mostraram que o GPA apresentou menor tempo de movimento e de resposta do que o GPB. Análise de regressão indicou que a mudança observada ao longo da prática para a medida de pico de velocidade estava associada à mudança do tempo de reação da fase de aquisição para o teste de transferência. Como o pico de velocidade é uma medida associada à pré-programação, sugere-se que o controle central seja essencial para a observação do EIC.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Aprendizagem , Memória
13.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 29: e2934, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-954469

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The research aimed at comparing the decision making of volleyball coaches through visual search strategies (number and duration of visual fixations) based on their years of experience. The sample consisted of thirty-four volleyball coaches (n = 34) with a mean age of 32.5 ± 9.4 years. Thus, two groups were formed: beginners (2.8 ± 1.9 years of practice) and experienced (19 ± 7.2 years of practice). To assess the tactical knowledge related to aspects of decision-making, the coaches conducted the analysis of the end-attack scenes of the Declarative Tactical Knowledge Test in Volleyball. The results not related significant differences to the visual strategies, decision-making and declarative tactical knowledge in the analysis of the scenes between the two groups (p> 0.05), and the power of the effect ranged from small to moderate for the analyzed variables. In this context, it was noticed that the visual strategies used between the coaches with different times of experience were similar.


RESUMO A pesquisa objetivou a comparação da tomada de decisão de treinadores de voleibol por meio das estratégias de busca visual (número e duração das fixações visuais) em função dos seus anos de experiência. A amostra constituiu-se por trinta e quatro treinadores de voleibol (n=34) com idade média de 32,5 ± 9,4 anos. Assim, configuraram-se dois grupos: principiantes (2,8 ± 1,9 anos de prática) e experientes (19 ± 7,2 anos de prática). Para avaliação do conhecimento tático relacionado aos aspectos da tomada de decisão os treinadores realizaram a análise das cenas de ataque de extremidade do Teste de Conhecimento Tático Declarativo no Voleibol. Os resultados não apontaram diferenças significativas nas estratégias visuais, tomada de decisão e conhecimento tático declarativo na análise das cenas entre os dois grupos (p>0,05), sendo que o poder do efeito variou entre pequeno e moderado para as variáveis analisadas. Neste contexto, percebeu-se que as estratégias visuais utilizadas entre os treinadores com diferentes tempos de experiência foram semelhantes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Cognição , Voleibol , Capacitação de Professores
14.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(3): e015017, 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-955146

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate how different age groups of older adults perform and control movements in a goal-directed aiming task and the importance of visual feedback during these movements. Methods: Participants included 22 old adults, divided in two age groups: younger (60-70 yr) and older (80-90 yr). Subjects performed the task in a condition with vision and in a condition where vision was deprived. Results: In the vision condition, younger subjects showed smaller movement and reaction times, smaller radial errors, higher peak velocities, lower relative times to reach peak velocity than older subjects. In the vision-deprived condition the same results were found, except for radial error measure, where no significant effect for age groups was found. Conclusion: Younger subjects seemed to rely more on visual online feedback than older subjects and older subjects use other sensory sources to meet the possible deficits of information obtained by vision.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Idoso , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Movimento
15.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1992, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209247

RESUMO

Impulsivity has mainly been described as a negative or dysfunctional characteristic associated with several disorders. However, impulsivity is not only related to dysfunctional outcomes and may explain individual differences in optimal human functioning as well. The Dickman Impulsivity Inventory (DII) is a self-report instrument measuring both the dysfunctional and the functional aspects of impulsivity. In this study, we performed the translation and cultural adaptation of the DII to the Brazilian context and analyzed its psychometric properties. Translation and cultural adaptation followed a rigorous process, which relied on an expert panel in the cross-cultural adaptation of psychological instruments. Data from 405 undergraduate students were obtained for the Brazilian version of the DII (Br-DII). The 23 items of the Br-DII was considered unsuitable according to model fit indices of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (both for Oblique and Orthogonal models). Exploratory Factor Analysis showed an 18 items version of the Br-DII to be suitable (CFI = 0.92; TLI = 0.90, and RMSEA = 0.057). The DII's 18 items version also showed adequate Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, and convergent and discriminant validity with the BIS-11. Therefore, the Br-DII demonstrated reliability and validity in the measurement of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity.

16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14764, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116242

RESUMO

Explanatory hypotheses proposed in behavioral studies assumed that less repetitive practice schedules, such as random practice, seem to demand greater cognitive effort than more repetitive types of practice organization, such as constant. All of these hypotheses emphasize the enhanced demand to memory processes promoted by less repetitive practice schedules. In the present study, we investigated the cognitive effort involved in random and constant practice schedules with an electrophysiological approach. Twenty-one male participants practiced a sequential key-pressing task with two goals: learning the relative timing dimension and learning the absolute timing dimension. Sixty trials were performed in a constant practice schedule (only one absolute timing goal), and sixty trials were performed in random order (three absolute timing goals). Two electroencephalography based measures of cognitive states were used: (a) task engagement (sensory processing and attention resources) and (b) mental workload (working memory load). The results showed that random practice induced greater cognitive effort than constant practice when task engagement was analyzed. Throughout practice, both task engagement and mental workload decreased more in the constant practice condition than in the random practice condition. The increased demand for sensory processing observed in random practice opens a new exciting field of study in practice organization.

17.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0185939, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073273

RESUMO

This study compared the effects of two levels of performance stabilization on the adaptation to unpredictable perturbations in an isometric control force task with the goal of controlling 40% of the maximum force. The experiment consisted of pre-exposure and exposure phases. In the pre-exposure two levels of performance stabilization were manipulated: a stabilization group (SG) performed three trials in a row while maintaining 40% of the maximum force for three seconds and an absolute error less than or equal to 5% (i.e., the criteria of performance), and a superstabilization group (SSG) performed six blocks of the same criteria. During the exposure phase, the task was the same as that in the pre-exposure phase; however, it was inserted 9 trials of perturbations when the task goal changed to 60% of the maximum force. We measured the %RMSE, RMS from the biceps and triceps brachii and co-contraction. In the pre-exposure phase, both groups showed similar performance and muscle activity. When exposed to the perturbations, SSG performance more quickly returned to the previous level of accuracy, showed lower muscle activation and demonstrated a greater muscle co-contraction than did SG. The results give support to the adaptive process model on motor learning.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica , Destreza Motora , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Percept Mot Skills ; 124(2): 380-392, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28361648

RESUMO

The Grooved Pegboard Test, in its standard use, has well-documented utility. However, a revised methodology needs further study, leading us to investigate whether duration of eye fixation could predict performance on different task conditions of the Grooved Pegboard Test (place and remove pegs) with the preferred and nonpreferred hands. Fifty-two right-handed undergraduate students (33 male and 19 female), with a mean age of 22.22 (±3.57) years, performed the Grooved Pegboard Test. SensoMotoric eye-tracking glasses with a binocular time resolution of 30 Hz were used to measure eye fixation. The videos were recorded in iView software, and data were analyzed using BeGaze software. The number and duration of eye fixations were statistically different with preferred and nonpreferred hands and also differed across tasks. Simple linear regression showed eye fixation duration to predict movement time in the place task (preferred hand: R2 = 31%; nonpreferred hand: R2 = 41%) and in the remove task (preferred hand: R2 = 11%; nonpreferred hand: R2 = 25%). Thus, duration of eye fixation during the Grooved Pegboard Test differentially predicted performance with each hand and on preferred and different subtests of this instrument.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Motriz (Online) ; 23(1): 22-32, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-841827

RESUMO

Abstract BACKGROUND There is aconsensus that repetition observed in constant practice producesminimalbenefits to the transfer of learning. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigatein 3 experiments the effects of constant practicein transfer contexts. METHODOLOGY Participants were asked during acquisition phase, in all experiments, to press four keys sequentially with different requirements of absolute timing in a same relative timing structure. In the transfer tests, they were tested in a novel absolute timing criterion. RESULTS The results of experiment 1 and 2 showed that the relative timing structure was maintained only when the transfer required parameter scaling close to the parameter value practiced in acquisition. The transfer parameter that is far to the parameter practiced did not affect the movement parameterization. The result of experiment 3 showed that relative timing structure is disrupted in the transfer test when constant practice has high and low amount of practice. CONCLUSION Some specific aspects interfere in the transfer test when constant practice is experienced.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Atividade Motora , Destreza Motora , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)
20.
Motriz (Online) ; 23(3): e101766, 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-895008

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the comparison between sex and manual aiming control in different cognitive and motor constraints of the task. METHODS: Eighty-four right-handed participants (42 women) performed 110 trials of a manual aiming task with a non-inking pen on a digitizing tablet. The aiming task required four different conditions of execution. The control condition appeared on the computer screen in 70% of the trials, and the other three conditions, (a) distractor, (b) inhibition of response and (c) higher index of difficulty, each appeared in 10% of the trials. RESULTS: Compared with women, men produced shorter movement and response times, as well as higher peak velocity in the control and distractor conditions. When the index of difficulty of the task increased, men produced only higher peak velocity. Women produced more corrective movements to achieve the target only in the control condition. CONCLUSION: Our results corroborate those of previous studies that indicate sex-specific response strategies when the sensory motor system is challenged by different task constraints.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Desempenho Psicomotor , Mãos/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Destreza Motora , Distribuição por Sexo
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