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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(10): 107002, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median=19.5y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. ≤40 dB) (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.27), but not with higher exposure (≥50 dB, HR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8949.

2.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
3.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 3: 100048, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557798

RESUMO

Background: Throughout the industrialized world, demand for low skilled labour is falling. The length of schooling is increasing in response, but so is the proportion of individuals not finishing upper secondary school. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between labour market positions at age 18 and all-cause and suicide- and accident-specific mortality in later adulthood. Methods: Labour market positions at age 18 were categorized for all Swedes born 1972-77 (n=630 959) into four main groups: employed, successful students, students not about to qualify (SNAQs), and individuals not in employment, education or training (NEETs). Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess all-cause, suicide and accident mortality up to 2016 (ages 39-44), adjusting for high school grades, parental and own prior psychiatric diagnoses, and childhood socioeconomic status. Findings: SNAQs had substantially increased all-cause (men: HR=2.10; 95% CI 1.92-2.28, women: HR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.44-1.86), suicide (men: HR=2.16; CI: 1.86-2.51, women: HR=2.10; 95% CI 1.64-2.69), and accident specific (men: HR=2.08; 95% CI 1.77-2.44, women: 1.87; 95% CI 1.33;2.62) mortality risks compared to successful students. The risks were similar for NEETs. There was no increased risk among full-time employed compared to successful students. Interpretation: Expanding the educational system may be a natural response to falling demand for low skilled labour but not by far one that corrects the major societal challenge of it. Unless educational systems adequately respond to this challenge, only more inequality is to be expected ahead. Funding: This work was supported by a grant to FR and AL from the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life, and Welfare with contract number (2014-2009).

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046040, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate concentration-response relationships for particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) in relation to mortality in cohorts from three Swedish cities with comparatively low pollutant levels. SETTING: Cohorts from Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umeå, Sweden. DESIGN: High-resolution dispersion models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and BC, at individual addresses during each year of follow-up, 1990-2011. Moving averages were calculated for the time windows 1-5 years (lag1-5) and 6-10 years (lag6-10) preceding the outcome. Cause-specific mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death registry. Cohort-specific HRs were estimated using Cox regression models and then meta-analysed including a random effect of cohort. PARTICIPANTS: During the study period, 7 340 cases of natural mortality, 2 755 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 817 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed among in total 68 679 individuals and 689 813 person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: Both PM10 (range: 6.3-41.9 µg/m3) and BC (range: 0.2-6.8 µg/m3) were associated with natural mortality showing 17% (95% CI 6% to 31%) and 9% (95% CI 0% to 18%) increased risks per 10 µg/m3 and 1 µg/m3 of lag1-5 exposure, respectively. For PM2.5 (range: 4.0-22.4 µg/m3), the estimated increase was 13% per 5 µg/m3, but less precise (95% CI -9% to 40%). Estimates for CVD mortality appeared higher for both PM10 and PM2.5. No association was observed with respiratory mortality. CONCLUSION: The results support an effect of long-term air pollution on natural mortality and mortality in CVD with high relative risks also at low exposure levels. These findings are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
6.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e620-e632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence is unclear on the health effects of exposure to pollutant concentrations lower than current EU and US standards and WHO guideline limits. Within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and warm-season ozone (O3) with the incidence of stroke and acute coronary heart disease. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of individual data from six population-based cohort studies within ELAPSE, from Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany (recruited 1992-2004), and harmonised individual and area-level variables between cohorts. Participants (all adults) were followed up until migration from the study area, death, or incident stroke or coronary heart disease, or end of follow-up (2011-15). Mean 2010 air pollution concentrations from centrally developed European-wide land use regression models were assigned to participants' baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazards models with increasing levels of covariate adjustment to investigate the association of air pollution exposure with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease. We assessed the shape of the concentration-response function and did subset analyses of participants living at pollutant concentrations lower than predefined values. FINDINGS: From the pooled ELAPSE cohorts, data on 137 148 participants were analysed in our fully adjusted model. During a median follow-up of 17·2 years (IQR 13·8-19·5), we observed 6950 incident events of stroke and 10 071 incident events of coronary heart disease. Incidence of stroke was associated with PM2·5 (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 1·01-1·21] per 5 µg/m3 increase), NO2 (1·08 [1·04-1·12] per 10 µg/m3 increase), and black carbon (1·06 [1·02-1·10] per 0·5 10-5/m increase), whereas coronary heart disease incidence was only associated with NO2 (1·04 [1·01-1·07]). Warm-season O3 was not associated with an increase in either outcome. Concentration-response curves indicated no evidence of a threshold below which air pollutant concentrations are not harmful for cardiovascular health. Effect estimates for PM2·5 and NO2 remained elevated even when restricting analyses to participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the EU limit values of 25 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2. INTERPRETATION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease, even at pollutant concentrations lower than current limit values. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença das Coronárias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias/induzido quimicamente , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
7.
Heliyon ; 7(7): e07419, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296003

RESUMO

Aims: To study if machine learning methodology can be used to detect persons with increased type 2 diabetes or prediabetes risk among people without known abnormal glucose regulation. Methods: Machine learning and interpretable machine learning models were applied on research data from Stockholm Diabetes Preventive Program, including more than 8000 people initially with normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes to determine high and low risk features for further impairment in glucose tolerance at follow-up 10 and 20 years later. Results: The features with the highest importance on the outcome were body mass index, waist-hip ratio, age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and diabetes heredity. High values of these features as well as diabetes heredity conferred increased risk of type 2 diabetes. . The machine learning model was used to generate individual, comprehensible risk profiles, where the diabetes risk was obtained for each person in the data set. Features with the largest increasing or decreasing effects on the risk were determined. Conclusions: The primary application of this machine learning model is to predict individual type 2 diabetes risk in people without diagnosed diabetes, and to which features the risk relates. However, since most features affecting diabetes risk also play a role for metabolic control in diabetes, e.g. body mass index, diet composition, tobacco use, and stress, the tool can possibly also be used in diabetes care to develop more individualized, easily accessible health care plans to be utilized when encountering the patients.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12494, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127722

RESUMO

Although exposure to overweight and obesity at different ages is associated to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, the effect of different patterns of exposure through life remains unclear. We aimed to characterize life-course trajectories of weight categories and estimate their impact on the incidence of type 2 diabetes. We categorized the weight of 7203 participants as lean, normal or overweight at five time-points from ages 7-55 using retrospective data. Participants were followed for an average of 19 years for the development of type 2 diabetes. We used latent class analysis to describe distinctive trajectories and estimated the risk ratio, absolute risk difference and population attributable fraction (PAF) associated to different trajectories using Poisson regression. We found five distinctive life-course trajectories. Using the stable-normal weight trajectory as reference, the stable overweight, lean increasing weight, overweight from early adulthood and overweight from late adulthood trajectories were associated to higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The estimated risk ratios and absolute risk differences were statistically significant for all trajectories, except for the risk ratio of the lean increasing trajectory group among men. Of the 981 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, 47.4% among women and 42.9% among men were attributable to exposure to any life-course trajectory different from stable normal weight. Most of the risk was attributable to trajectories including overweight or obesity at any point of life (36.8% of the cases among women and 36.7% among men). The overweight from early adulthood trajectory had the highest impact (PAF: 23.2% for woman and 28.5% for men). We described five distinctive life-course trajectories of weight that were associated to increased risk of type 2 diabetes over 19 years of follow-up. The variability of the effect of exposure to overweight and obesity on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes was largely explained by exposure to the different life-course trajectories of weight.


Assuntos
Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Distribuição de Poisson , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47009, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between long-term exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] components and mortality have been reported, partly related to challenges in exposure assessment. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 elemental components and mortality in a large pooled European cohort; to compare health effects of PM2.5 components estimated with two exposure modeling approaches, namely, supervised linear regression (SLR) and random forest (RF) algorithms. METHODS: We pooled data from eight European cohorts with 323,782 participants, average age 49 y at baseline (1985-2005). Residential exposure to 2010 annual average concentration of eight PM2.5 components [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] was estimated with Europe-wide SLR and RF models at a 100×100 m scale. We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations between components and natural and cause-specific mortality. In addition, two-pollutant analyses were conducted by adjusting each component for PM2.5 mass and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) separately. RESULTS: We observed 46,640 natural-cause deaths with 6,317,235 person-years and an average follow-up of 19.5 y. All SLR-modeled components were statistically significantly associated with natural-cause mortality in single-pollutant models with hazard ratios (HRs) from 1.05 to 1.27. Similar HRs were observed for RF-modeled Cu, Fe, K, S, V, and Zn with wider confidence intervals (CIs). HRs for SLR-modeled Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn remained above unity and (almost) significant after adjustment for both PM2.5 and NO2. HRs only remained (almost) significant for RF-modeled K and V in two-pollutant models. The HRs for V were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10) for SLR- and RF-modeled exposures, respectively, per 2 ng/m3, adjusting for PM2.5 mass. Associations with cause-specific mortality were less consistent in two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to V in PM2.5 was most consistently associated with increased mortality. Associations for the other components were weaker for exposure modeled with RF than SLR in two-pollutant models. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8368.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise
11.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248972, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750976

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Readmissions are very costly, in monetary terms but also for the individual patient's safety and health. Only by understanding the reasons and drivers of readmissions, it is possible to ensure quality of care and improve the situation. The aim of this study was to assess inpatient readmissions during the first three months after discharge from geriatric inpatient care regarding main diagnosis and frequency of readmission. Furthermore, the aim was to analyze association between readmission and patient characteristics including demography and socioeconomics, morbidity, physical function, risk screening and care process respectively. METHODS: The study includes all individuals admitted for inpatient care at three geriatric departments operated by the Stockholm region during 2016. Readmission after discharge was studied within three different time intervals; readmission within 10 days after discharge, within 11-30 days and within 31-90 days, respectively. Main diagnosis at readmission was assessed. RESULTS: One fourth of the individuals discharged from inpatient geriatric care was readmitted during the first three months after discharge. The most common main diagnoses for readmission were heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia. Statistically significant risk factors for readmission included age, sex, number of diagnoses at discharge, and to some extent polypharmacy and destination of discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Several clinical risk factors relating to physical performance and vulnerability were associated with risk of readmission. Socioeconomic information did not add to the predictability. To enable reductions in readmission rates, proactive monitoring of frail individuals afflicted with chronic conditions is necessary, and an integrated perspective including all stakeholders involved is crucial.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico , Geriatria , Pacientes Internados , Assistência ao Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 128, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body image concerns may give rise to a multitude of risk behaviors, such as unhealthy weight control practices, disordered eating behaviors (e.g., compensatory purging or preoccupation with food), smoking, excessive alcohol intake, or sunbed use. However, the distribution of these risk behaviors across adulthood has rarely been studied. METHODS: The aim of this study was to explore health risk behaviors as correlates of body image perception in a randomly selected study population of 30,245 individuals aged 30-66 in Stockholm, Sweden, utilizing data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort. Bivariate correlations were explored and a hierarchic binary logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of body image discrepancy was higher among smokers and respondents displaying disordered eating behaviors. In contrast, alcohol and sunbed use were inversely correlated to body image discrepancy. Body mass index was the substantially strongest explanatory factor behind the observed variance in body image discrepancy, followed by loss-of-control eating. Notably, no major gender differences in body image perception were detected. Some unexpected patterns of association between variables other than body image perception, such as those between smoking, alcohol use, and sunbed use, were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the patterns differ substantially from what has previously been found in adolescent and young adult samples, indicating that the synergy and aggregation of risk behaviors observed among younger individuals may not apply to adults aged 30-66.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(5): 817-826, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226079

RESUMO

Intervening on modifiable risk factors to prevent dementia is of key importance, since progress-modifying treatments are not currently available. Education is inversely associated with dementia risk, but causality and mechanistic pathways remain unclear. We aimed to examine the causality of this relationship in Sweden using, as a natural experiment, data on a compulsory schooling reform that extended primary education by 1 year for 70% of the population between 1936 and 1949. The reform introduced substantial exogenous variation in education that was unrelated to pupils' characteristics. We followed 18 birth cohorts (n = 1,341,842) from 1985 to 2016 (up to ages 79-96 years) for a dementia diagnosis in the National Inpatient and Cause of Death registers and fitted Cox survival models with stratified baseline hazards at the school-district level, chronological age as the time scale, and cohort indicators. Analyses indicated very small or negligible causal effects of education on dementia risk (main hazard ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.04). Multiple sensitivity checks considering only compliers, the pre-/post- design, differences in health-care-seeking behavior, and the impact of exposure misclassification left the results essentially unaltered. The reform had limited effects on further adult socioeconomic outcomes, such as income. Our findings suggest that without mediation through adult socioeconomic position, education cannot be uncritically considered a modifiable risk factor for dementia.


Assuntos
Causalidade , Demência/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Classe Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
Autism ; 25(4): 1036-1046, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246359

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Obtaining a quality education is important for any individual's chances of leading a healthy and thriving life. Currently, educational policies in many countries underscore the rights of students with autism to be educated in mainstream schools. While there is some knowledge on school outcomes among students with autism from older studies, little is known about rates of qualification for upper secondary education among children with autism in mainstream schools today. This lack of knowledge is problematic since autism is diagnosed more widely, and prior evidence may not be relevant for individuals with autism and their families today. Using Swedish registers, we therefore examined this in a study including all children and young people in Stockholm County in 2001 through 2011. We found that about two thirds of children with autism without intellectual disability qualified for upper secondary education at the expected age, in comparison with about nine in ten among typically developing peers. We also found that girls with autism had further difficulties obtaining such qualification than boys and that those who were additionally diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were particularly at risk of non-qualification. Finally, students with autism without intellectual disability had a greater chance of completing compulsory education if given an extended period to graduate. These findings underline the need for supportive interventions for children with autism during compulsory school. They may also challenge the inclusive education policy adopted by majority of western countries, at least in the wake of addressing special needs in mainstream schooling.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Deficiência Intelectual , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Criança , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(6): 2041-2050, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health consequences of the use of Swedish snus, including its relationship with mortality, have not been fully established. We investigated the relationship between snus use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality (death due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases and all other reasons, respectively) in a nationwide collaborative pooling project. METHODS: We followed 169 103 never-smoking men from eight Swedish cohort studies, recruited in 1978-2010. Shared frailty models with random effects at the study level were used in order to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality associated with snus use. RESULTS: Exclusive current snus users had an increased risk of all-cause mortality (aHR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20-1.35), cardiovascular mortality (aHR 1.27, 95% CI 1.15-1.41) and other cause mortality (aHR 1.37, 95% CI 1.24-1.52) compared with never-users of tobacco. The risk of cancer mortality was also increased (aHR 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.26). These mortality risks increased with duration of snus use, but not with weekly amount. CONCLUSIONS: Snus use among men is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, with death from other causes and possibly with increased cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Tabaco sem Fumaça , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos
16.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(12): 1002-1007, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor academic performance in childhood is associated with suicide attempt in adulthood, but the mechanisms are not known. We investigated educational attainment as a possible pathway. METHODS: We followed two sets of cohorts, born around 1950/1970, respectively, in the Swedish population-representative 'Evaluation Through Follow-up' study for a first suicide attempt in national records up to 2013. Data on grade point average (GPA) at age 13/16 and educational attainment (years of schooling) in adulthood were used. The path models included linear and Cox proportional hazards regressions. A model with matched age range during follow-up was used to compare the cohorts. RESULTS: In the 1970 cohort, the association between GPA and suicide attempt between age 26 and 46 was partly mediated by attained education (total association, ß=-0.82; via education: -0.29, per SD increase in GPA), but GPA also had a direct path to suicide attempt (ß=-0.53). There was no evidence of such a pathway in the 1950 cohort between age 41 and 65. In the age-matched analysis, at age 26-46, the association between GPA and suicide attempt was stronger in the 1970 cohort compared to the 1950 cohort (ß=-0.72 and -0.24, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in attained education seem to partly explain the associations of academic performance with suicide attempt up to middle age. Furthermore, there is some indication that academic performance may have become more important for young people's mental health than it was in previous generations.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Escolaridade , Classe Social , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
17.
Scand J Public Health ; : 1403494820919572, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466721

RESUMO

Aims: Worldwide, smokeless-tobacco use is a major risk factor for oral cancer. Evidence regarding the particular association between Swedish snus use and oral cancer is, however, less clear. We used pooled individual data from the Swedish Collaboration on Health Effects of Snus Use to assess the association between snus use and oral cancer. Methods: A total of 418,369 male participants from nine cohort studies were followed up for oral cancer incidence through linkage to health registers. We used shared frailty models with random effects at the study level, to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for confounding factors. Results: During 9,201,647 person-years of observation, 628 men developed oral cancer. Compared to never-snus use, ever-snus use was not associated with oral cancer (adjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.09). There were no clear trends in risk with duration or intensity of snus use, although lower intensity use (⩽ 4 cans/week) was associated with a reduced risk (HR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.94). Snus use was not associated with oral cancer among never smokers (HR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.57, 1.32). Conclusions: Swedish snus use does not appear to be implicated in the development of oral cancer in men.

18.
J Nutr Sci ; 9: e14, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284862

RESUMO

A low intake of fruit and vegetables is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the size of the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) of a low intake and to investigate possible sex differences. In this regard, this study used a longitudinal data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort located in Sweden, collected in 2010 and 2014. The analysis included 14 718 men and 20 589 women aged 25 to 84 years. Fruit and vegetable intake, separately <2 servings/d or combined <4 servings/d (one serving corresponding to 100 g) was set as a cut-point for low intake. The sex difference at baseline was examined. Sex-stratified logistic regression was performed with onset of T2D as the outcome and fruit and vegetable intake at baseline as the exposure with adjustment for other known risk factors. Results indicate that men consumed significantly (P < 0⋅001) less fruit and vegetables compared with women. A 62 % higher risk to develop T2D over the 4-year period was observed in men who had low vegetable intake compared with high intake after adjusting for age, education, BMI, smoking, alcohol and physical activity (OR 1⋅62; 95 % CI 1⋅00, 2⋅63). In women, a significantly higher risk of T2D was also observed with a low intake of vegetables, but not after adjustment. The present study suggests that higher consumption of vegetables seems to be protective for the onset of T2D in men. Thus, increasing the intake of vegetables in men should be a public health priority.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Verduras , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
19.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690003

RESUMO

Diabetes risk can be controlled and even reversed by making dietary changes. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of how older persons with a high risk of developing Type 2 diabetes manage and relate to information about diabetes risk over a ten-year period. Fifteen qualitative interviews were conducted among participants from the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP). The participants were asked to recall the health examinations conducted by the SDPP related to their prediabetes and to describe their experiences and potential changes related to diet and physical activity. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The main theme found was that T2D (type 2 diabetes) risk is not perceived as concrete enough to motivate lifestyle modifications, such as changing dietary patterns, without other external triggers. Diagnosis was recognized as a reason to modify diet, and social interactions were found to be important for managing behavior change. Diagnosis was also a contributing factor to lifestyle modification, while prognosis of risk was not associated with efforts to change habits. The results from this study suggest that the potential of reversing prediabetes needs to be highlighted and more clearly defined for older persons to serve as motivators for lifestyle modification.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Estado Pré-Diabético/dietoterapia , Idoso , Glicemia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107012, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but few studies have considered incident disease in relation to PM from different sources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study associations between long-term exposure to different types of PM and sources, and incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in three Swedish cities. METHODS: Based on detailed emission databases, monitoring data, and high-resolution dispersion models, we calculated source contributions to PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10µm (PM10), PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) from road wear, traffic exhaust, residential heating, and other sources in Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Umeå. Registry data for participants from four cohorts were used to obtain incidence of IHD and stroke for first hospitalization or death. We constructed time windows of exposure for same-year, 1- to 5-y, and 6- to 10-y averages preceding incidence from annual averages at residential addresses. Risk estimates were based on random effects meta-analyses of cohort-specific Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: We observed 5,166 and 3,119 incident IHD and stroke cases, respectively, in 114,758 participants. Overall, few consistent associations were observed between the different air pollution measures and IHD or stroke incidence. However, same-year levels of ambient locally emitted BC (range: 0.01-4.6 µg/m3) were associated with a 4.0% higher risk of incident stroke per interquartile range (IQR), 0.30 µg/m3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 7.8]. This association was primarily related to BC from traffic exhaust. PM10 (range: 4.4-52 µg/m3) and PM2.5 (range: 2.9-22 µg/m3) were not associated with stroke. Associations with incident IHD were observed only for PM2.5 exposure from residential heating. DISCUSSION: Few consistent associations were observed between different particulate components and IHD or stroke. However, long-term residential exposure to locally emitted BC from traffic exhaust was associated with stroke incidence. The comparatively low exposure levels may have contributed to the paucity of associations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4757.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Material Particulado , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Carbono , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Suécia/epidemiologia , Emissões de Veículos
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