Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 305
Filtrar
1.
Obes Surg ; 2020 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535785

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity increases the risk of several cancers, but the influence of bariatric surgery on the risk of individual obesity-related cancers is unclear. This study aimed to assess the impact of bariatric surgery on cancer risk in a multi-national setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study included all adults with an obesity diagnosis identified from national patient registries in all Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) from 1980 to 2012. Cancer risk in bariatric surgery patients was compared with non-operated patients with obesity. Multivariable Cox regression provided adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Age, sex, calendar year, country, length of follow-up, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and alcohol-related diseases were evaluated as confounders. RESULTS: Among 482,572 participants with obesity, 49,096 underwent bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery was followed by a decreased overall cancer risk in women (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.92), but not in men (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01). The risk reduction was observed only within the first five post-operative years. Among specific tumours, HRs decreased for breast cancer (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.95), endometrial cancer (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.97) in female bariatric surgery patients, while the risk of kidney cancer increased in both sexes (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.13-1.84). CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery may decrease overall cancer risk in women within the first five years after surgery. This decrease may be explained by a decreased risk of breast and endometrial cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in women.

3.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer is associated with a substantial risk of life-threatening complications and a limited long-term survival. This study aimed to clarify the controversial questions of how age influences short-term and long-term survival. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included almost all patients who underwent curatively intended esophagectomy for esophageal cancer in Sweden in 1987-2010, with follow-up through 2016. The exposure was age, analyzed both as a continuous and categorical variable. The probability of mortality was computed using a novel flexible parametric model approach. The reported probabilities are proper measures of the risk of dying, and the related odds ratios (OR) are therefore more suitable measures of association than hazard ratios. The outcomes were 90-day all-cause mortality, 5-year all-cause mortality, and 5-year disease-specific mortality. A novel flexible parametric model was used to derive the instantaneous probability of dying and the related OR along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for sex, education, comorbidity, tumor histology, pathological tumor stage, and resection margin status. RESULTS: Among 1737 included patients, the median age was 65.6 years. When analyzed as a continuous variable, older age was associated with slightly higher odds of 90-day all-cause mortality (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07), 5-year all-cause mortality (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), and 5-year disease-specific mortality (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.01-1.02). Compared with patients aged < 70 years, those aged 70-74 years had no increased risk of any mortality outcome, while patients aged ≥ 75 years had higher odds of 90-day mortality (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.68-4.84), 5-year all-cause mortality (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.27-1.92), and 5-year disease-specific mortality (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.09-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Patient age 75 years or older at esophagectomy for esophageal cancer appears to be an independent risk factor for higher short-term mortality and lower long-term survival.

4.
Cancer Sci ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359209

RESUMO

The causes of death in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma have not been well characterized. This nationwide population-based cohort study included 56 240 patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma in 1970-2014 in Sweden. We used competing-risks regression to compare cause-specific risks of death in patients with different characteristics and a multiple-cause approach to assess proportions of deaths attributable to each cause. Among 53 049 deaths, gastric cancer was the main (77.7% of all deaths) underlying cause. Other major underlying causes were nongastric malignancies (8.0%), ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease (6.5%), and respiratory diseases (1.4%). Risk of death from gastric cancer steadily decreased in patients with cardia adenocarcinoma over the study period, but remained relatively stable in patients with noncardia adenocarcinoma since the 1980s. Risk of death from other malignancies increased during later calendar periods (subhazard ratio [SHR] = 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.97-2.38, comparing 2001-2014 with 1970-1980). Compared with men, the risk of death in women with cardia adenocarcinoma was higher from gastric cancer (SHR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.10-1.27), but lower from other malignancies (SHR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.71-0.91). In multiple-cause models, 60.4%-71.2% of all deaths were attributable to gastric cancer and 9.5%-12.1% to other malignancies. The temporal trends of cause-specific risks from multiple-cause models were similar to those of underlying causes. Our findings suggest that although most deaths in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma are due to gastric cancer, other causes of death are common. Patients with cardia adenocarcinoma face considerable increasing risk of death from other causes over time, particularly from other malignancies.

5.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer surgery reduces patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study examined whether comorbidities influence HRQoL in these patients. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included esophageal cancer patients having undergone curatively intended esophagectomy at St Thomas' Hospital London in 2011-2015. Clinical data were collected from patient reports and medical records. Well-validated cancer-specific and esophageal cancer-specific questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-OG25) were used to assess HRQoL before and 6 months after esophagectomy. Number of comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA), and specific comorbidities were analyzed in relation to HRQoL aspects using multivariable linear regression models. Mean score differences with 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 136 patients, those with three or more comorbidities at the time of surgery had poorer global quality of life and physical function and more fatigue compared with those with no comorbidity. Patients with ASA III-IV reported more problems with the above HRQoL aspects and worse social function and pain compared with those with ASA I-II. Cardiac comorbidity was associated with worse global quality of life and dyspnea, while pulmonary comorbidities were related to coughing. Patients assessed both before and 6 months after surgery (n = 80) deteriorated in most HRQoL aspects regardless of comorbidity status, but patients with several comorbidities had worse physical function and fatigue and more trouble with coughing compared with those with fewer comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Comorbidity appears to negatively influence HRQoL before esophagectomy, but appears not to severely impact 6-month recovery of HRQoL.

6.
Helicobacter ; 25(3): e12688, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with lower risks of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma, but whether H. pylori eradication increases the risk of these conditions is unknown. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that H. pylori eradication leads to gradually increased risks of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma over time, while esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was assessed for comparison reasons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This Swedish nationwide, population-based cohort study in 2005-2012 used data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry to assess eradication treatment for H. pylori. Barrett's esophagus was identified from the Swedish Patient Registry, and esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by dividing the observed risk in the H. pylori eradication treatment cohort by the expected risk derived from the Swedish population of the same age, sex, and calendar period. RESULTS: The cohort included 81 919 patients having had eradication treatment. For Barrett's esophagus (n = 178), the overall SIR was increased (SIR 3.67, 95% CI 3.15-4.25), but the SIRs slightly decreased over time after eradication treatment. For esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 11), the overall SIR was 1.26 (95% CI 0.62-2.26), and the SIRs did not increase over time. The SIRs of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 10) were not influenced by eradication treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not provide any evidence of an increasing risk of Barrett's esophagus or esophageal adenocarcinoma (or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma) over time after eradication treatment for H. pylori.

7.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 55(3): 258-264, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045532

RESUMO

Background: Geographical variations in the incidence and tumour stage distribution of oesophageal cancer in Sweden are not well characterised.Methods: Using data from the Swedish Cancer Registry over 45 years (1972-2016), we compared the age-standardised incidence rates of oesophageal cancer by histological type across all seven national areas (in five-year periods) and 21 counties (in 15-year periods) in Sweden, and assessed the geographical distribution of tumour stage at diagnosis since 2004.Results: The incidence rate of oesophageal adenocarcinoma increased in all national areas and counties and in both sexes over time, while the rate of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma decreased from the 1980s onwards. In the latest period (2012- 2016), the incidence rate of adenocarcinoma in men ranged from 3.5/100,000 person-years in West Sweden to 6.2/100,000 person-years in North Middle Sweden. At the county level, the rate of adenocarcinoma in men was lowest in Jämtland (2.7/100,000 person-years) and highest in Gotland (6.2/100 000 person-years) in 2002-2016. The incidence rates of both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in women were below 2/100,000 person-years in all national areas and counties in the latest calendar periods, i.e., 2012-2016 and 2002-2016, respectively. The proportion of patents with tumour stage IV ranged from 22% in Stockholm area to 31% in Middle Norrland, while at the healthcare region level it was lowest in Stockholm healthcare region (23%) and highest in North (30%) and Uppsala-Örebro (29%) healthcare regions.Conclusion: There are considerable geographical variations in the incidence and tumour stage distribution of oesophageal cancer in Sweden.

8.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Aspiration pneumonia is a common and serious complication to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) among neurologically impaired children. Medication of GERD does not effectively prevent aspiration pneumonia, and whether antireflux surgery with fundoplication is better in this respect is uncertain. The objective was to determine whether fundoplication prevents aspiration pneumonia among children with neurological impairment and GERD. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, consisting of neurologically impaired children with GERD who underwent fundoplication. The risk of aspiration pneumonia before fundoplication (preoperative person-time) was compared with the risk after surgery (postoperative person-time). Multivariable Cox regression provided hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Except for confounding adjusted for by means of the "crossover like" design, the HRs were adjusted for age, sex, year of entry and respiratory diseases. RESULTS: Among 578 patients (median age 3.5 years), the preoperative person-time was 956 years and the postoperative person-time was 3324 years. Fundoplication was associated with 56% decreased overall HR of aspiration pneumonia (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.72), and the HRs decreased over time after surgery. The risk of other types of pneumonia than aspiration pneumonia was not clearly decreased after fundoplication (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.59-1.08). The 30-day mortality rate was 0.7% and the complication rate was 3.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Antireflux surgery decreases, but does not eliminate, the risk of aspiration pneumonia among neurologically impaired children with GERD. Fundoplication may be a treatment option when aspiration pneumonia is a recurrent problem in these children. TYPE OF STUDY: Cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognosis study-level I.

9.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that higher hospital volume decreases endoscopic and surgical re-intervention rates after antireflux surgery. BACKGROUND: Antireflux surgery for gastro-esophageal reflux disease is followed by varying rates of re-interventions. Whether hospital volume influences re-intervention rates is uncertain. METHODS: This population-based cohort study used nationwide data from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden for patients having undergone primary antireflux surgery. Hospitals were divided into tertiles based upon annual volume, that is, 3 equal-sized groups. The outcomes were 30-day surgical re-intervention, endoscopic re-intervention, and secondary antireflux surgery. Multivariable Cox regression provided hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of the first outcome occurrence. Incidence rate ratios were calculated to count all outcome occurrences. All risk estimates were adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, type of antireflux surgery, year of surgery, and country. RESULTS: Among 33,060 patients and a median follow-up of 12 years after antireflux surgery, the frequencies of 30-day re-intervention, endoscopic re-intervention, and secondary antireflux surgery were 1.2%, 4.6%, and 7.0%, respectively. When comparing the highest with the lowest tertiles, higher hospital volume did not decrease HRs of 30-day re-intervention (adjusted HR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.73-1.77), endoscopic re-intervention (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.96-1.51), or secondary antireflux surgery (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), but rather increased point estimates. The incidence rate ratios showed similar patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Higher hospital volume of primary antireflux surgery may not decrease risk of endoscopic or surgical re-intervention, suggesting that centralization will not decrease rates of postoperative complications or recurrence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 147(1): 93-99, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583704

RESUMO

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a risk factor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and the most common indication for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Yet, whether GERD or endoscopy practice influence survival in EAC is largely unknown and was assessed in our study.This nationwide cohort study included all Swedish residents diagnosed with EAC in 1997-2013 with follow-up to 2018. Exposures were history of GERD and endoscopies prior to EAC. The main outcome was EAC-specific 5-year mortality. Multivariable Cox regression provided hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. Among 6,600 EAC patients (79.3% males, median age 70 years) followed for 9,138 person-years, 440 (6.7%) had GERD and 592 (9.0%) had ≥1 endoscopy before EAC diagnosis. GERD was associated with a decreased risk of mortality (adjusted HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.64-0.80), which was only slightly attenuated by adjustment for prior endoscopies (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70-0.90), and further adjustments also for tumor stage and surgical resection (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.62-0.89). Compared to EAC patients without prior endoscopy, mortality was unchanged in GERD patients having undergone 1 or 2 endoscopies before EAC diagnosis (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.80-1.31, for 1 endoscopy; HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.63-1.30, for 2 endoscopies), while the mortality was decreased in patients with ≥3 endoscopies (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.85). Our study indicates that GERD may be associated with a better prognosis in the event of EAC; however, the use of endoscopy screening has a limited impact on survival unless performed very frequently.

12.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(3): 718-723, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691111

RESUMO

Esophagectomy is the mainstay of curative treatment for most patients with a diagnosis of esophageal cancer. This procedure needs to be optimized to secure the best possible chance of cure for these patients. Research comparing various surgical approaches of esophagectomy generally has failed to identify any major differences in long-term prognosis. Comparisons between minimally invasive and open esophagectomy, transthoracic and transhiatal approaches, radical and moderate lymphadenectomy, and high and moderate hospital volume generally have provided only moderate alterations in long-term survival rates after adjustment for established prognostic factors. In contrast, some direct surgeon-related factors, which remain independent of known prognostic factors, seem to influence the long-term survival more strongly in esophageal cancer. Annual surgeon volume is strongly prognostic, and recent studies have suggested the existence of long surgeon proficiency gain curves for achievement of stable 5-year survival rates and possibly also a prognostic influence of surgeon age and weekday of surgery. The available literature indicates a potentially more critical role of the individual surgeon's skills than that of variations in surgical approach for optimizing the long-term survival after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. This finding points to the value of paying more attention to how the skills of the individual esophageal cancer surgeon can best be achieved and maintained. Careful selection and evaluation of the most suitable candidates, appropriate and structured training programs, and regular peer-review assessments of experienced surgeons may be helpful in this respect.

13.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(2): 216-223, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sex hormones have been hypothesized to explain the strong male predominance in esophageal adenocarcinoma, but evidence is needed. This study examined how circulating sex hormone levels influence future risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: This case-control study was nested in a prospective Norwegian cohort (Janus Serum Bank Cohort), including 244 male patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma and 244 male age-matched control participants. Associations between prediagnostic circulating levels of 12 sex hormones and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma were assessed using conditional logistic regression. In addition, a random-effect meta-analysis combined these data with a similar prospective study for 5 sex hormones. RESULTS: Decreased odds ratios (ORs) of esophageal adenocarcinoma were found comparing the highest with lowest quartiles of testosterone (OR = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.88), testosterone:estradiol ratio (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72), and luteinizing hormone (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.30-0.98), after adjustment for tobacco smoking and physical activity. These associations were attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.27-1.13 for testosterone; OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.91 for testosterone:estradiol ratio; OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.08 for luteinizing hormone). No associations were observed for sex hormone-binding globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-OH progesterone, progesterone, androstenedione, or free testosterone index. The meta-analysis showed an inverse association between testosterone levels and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (pooled OR for the highest vs lowest quartile = 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.97), whereas no associations were identified for androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin, estradiol, or testosterone:estradiol ratio. DISCUSSION: Higher circulating testosterone levels may decrease the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma in men.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Gonadotropinas Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Androstenodiona/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Progesterona/metabolismo , Prolactina/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Testosterona/metabolismo
14.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(1): 73-78, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Esophageal cancer is a highly fatal malignant neoplasm, with 2 etiologically different histological types. A large prospective study is expected to elucidate the specific risk of the 90% subtype of esophageal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), with metformin therapy. This study aims to determine the association between metformin use and incident ESCC risk. METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based prospective cohort study conducted in Sweden in 2005-2015. Among 8.4 million participants identified in the cohort, 411,603 (5%) were metformin users. The users were compared with 10 times as many frequency-matched nonusers of metformin (n = 4,116,030) by age and sex. Metformin use was treated as a time-varying variate, and multivariable cause-specific proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ESCC, adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, residence area, tobacco smoking, alcohol overconsumption, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or statins. RESULTS: The incidence rates of ESCC were 3.5 per 100,000 person-years among the metformin users and 5.3 per 100,000 person-years in the nonusers. Metformin users overall were at a decreased risk of ESCC compared with nonusers (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.85). The decrease in risk was more pronounced in new metformin users (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.64) and participants aged 60-69 years (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.31-0.66). DISCUSSION: Metformin use decreases the risk of developing ESCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/prevenção & controle , Metformina/farmacologia , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
15.
Ann Surg ; 271(4): 709-715, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After antireflux surgery, highly variable rates of recurrent gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To identify the occurrence and risk factors of recurrent GERD requiring surgical reintervention or medication. METHODS: The Hospital Episode Statistics database was used to identify adults in England receiving primary antireflux surgery for GERD in 2000 to 2012 with follow-up through 2014, and the outcome was surgical reintervention. In a subset of participants, the Clinical Practice Research Datalink was additionally used to assess proton pump inhibitor therapy for at least 6 months (medical reintervention). Risk factors were assessed using multivariable Cox regression providing adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: Among 22,377 patients who underwent primary antireflux surgery in the Hospital Episode Statistics dataset, 811 (3.6%) had surgical reintervention, with risk factors being age 41 to 60 years (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.03-1.44), female sex (HR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.74), white ethnicity (HR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.06-2.77), and low hospital annual volume of antireflux surgery (HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.67). Among 2005 patients who underwent primary antireflux surgery in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink dataset, 189 (9.4%) had surgical reintervention and 1192 (59.5%) used proton pump inhibitor therapy, with risk factors for the combined outcome being age >60 years (HR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.81-3.13) and preoperative psychiatric morbidity (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.25-1.99). CONCLUSION: At least 3.6% of patients may require surgical reintervention and 59.5% medical therapy following antireflux surgery in England. The influence of patient characteristics and hospital volume highlights the need for patient selection and surgical experience in successful antireflux surgery.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797382

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Yet, some research indicates that weight-reducing bariatric surgery also increases colorectal cancer risk. Our study was undertaken because current evidence examining bariatric surgery and risk of colorectal cancer is limited and inconsistent. This population-based cohort study included adults with a documented obesity diagnosis in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden in 1980-2015. The incidence of colorectal cancer in participants with obesity who had and had not undergone bariatric surgery was compared to the incidence in the corresponding background population by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Additionally, operated and nonoperated participants with obesity were compared using multivariable Cox regression, providing hazard ratios (HR) with 95% CIs adjusted for confounders. Among 502,772 cohort participants with an obesity diagnosis, 49,931(9.9%) underwent bariatric surgery. The overall SIR of colon cancer was increased after bariatric surgery (SIR 1.56; 95% CI 1.28-1.88), with higher SIRs ≥10 years postsurgery. The overall HR of colon cancer in operated compared to nonoperated participants was 1.13 (95% CI 0.92-1.39) and 1.55 (95% CI 1.04-2.31) 10-14 years after bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery did not significantly increase the risk of rectal cancer (SIR 1.14, 95% CI 0.83-1.52; HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.79-1.49), but the risk estimates increased with longer follow-up periods. Our study suggests that bariatric surgery is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, while the support for an increased risk of rectal cancer was weaker.

17.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to clarify the long-term risk development of EAC after antireflux surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) increases EAC risk, but whether antireflux surgery prevents EAC is uncertain. METHODS: Multinational, population-based cohort study including individuals with GERD from all 5 Nordic countries in 1964-2014. First, EAC risk after antireflux surgery in the cohort was compared with the corresponding background population by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Second, multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, providing hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, compared EAC risk in GERD patients with antireflux surgery with those with nonsurgical treatment. RESULTS: Among 942,071 GERD patients, 48,863 underwent surgery and 893,208 did not. Compared to the corresponding background population, EAC risk did not decrease after antireflux surgery [SIR 4.90 (95% CI 3.62-6.47) 1-<5 years and SIR 4.57 (95% CI 3.44-5.95) ≥15 years after surgery]. Similarly, no decrease was found for patients with severe GERD (esophagitis or Barrett esophagus) after surgery [SIR 6.09 (95% CI 4.39-8.23) 1-<5 years and SIR = 5.27 (95% CI 3.73-7.23) ≥15 years]. The HRs of EAC were stable comparing the surgery group with the nonsurgery group with GERD [HR 1.71 (95% CI 1.26-2.33) 1-<5 years and HR 1.69 (95% CI 1.24-2.30) ≥15 years after treatment], or for severe GERD [HR 1.56 (95% CI 1.11-2.20) 1-<5 years and HR 1.57 (95% CI 1.08-2.26) ≥15 years after treatment]. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment of GERD does not seem to reduce EAC risk.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) occurs most frequently in men. We performed a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate whether genetic factors that regulate levels of sex hormones are associated with risk of EAC or Barrett's esophagus (BE). METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using data from patients with EAC (n = 2488) or BE (n = 3247) and control participants (n = 2127), included in international consortia of genome-wide association studies in Australia, Europe, and North America. Genetic risk scores or single-nucleotide variants were used as instrumental variables for 9 specific sex hormones. Logistic regression provided odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Higher genetically predicted levels of follicle-stimulating hormones were associated with increased risks of EAC and/or BE in men (OR, 1.14 per allele increase; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27) and in women (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.03-1.59). Higher predicted levels of luteinizing hormone were associated with a decreased risk of EAC in men (OR, 0.92 per SD increase; 95% CI, 0.87-0.99) and in women (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.79-1.09), and decreased risks of BE (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and EAC and/or BE (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00) in women. We found no clear associations for other hormones studied, including sex hormone-binding globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, progesterone, or free androgen index. CONCLUSIONS: In a Mendelian randomization analysis of data from patients with EAC or BE, we found an association between genetically predicted levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones and risk of BE and EAC.

19.
BMJ ; 367: l5495, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578179
20.
Br J Cancer ; 121(10): 877-882, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether or not the use of metformin decreases the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma is unclear. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study in 2005-2015. Associations between metformin use and gastric non-cardia and cardia adenocarcinomas were examined within two cohorts; a diabetes cohort of participants using anti-diabetes medications, and a matched cohort of common-medication users, where metformin non-users were frequency matched (10:1) with metformin users for sex and age. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analyses provided hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, comorbidity, Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin and use of statins. RESULTS: During the follow-up for a median of 5.8 years, 892 (0.1%) participants in the diabetes cohort and 6395 (0.1%) participants in the matched cohort of common-medication users developed gastric adenocarcinoma. Metformin users had no significantly decreased risk of gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (diabetes cohort: HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.78-1.12; matched cohort: HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.18-1.42) or cardia adenocarcinoma (diabetes cohort: HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.02; matched cohort: HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.38-1.81) compared with non-users in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort study with <10 years of follow-up suggests metformin use may not prevent gastric adenocarcinoma.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA