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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125445, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499288

RESUMO

This research compared the distribution and mobility of water in the longissimus thoracis muscle of 51 Apulo-Calabrese and 52 crossbred pigs differing in growth performances. The Apulo-Calabrese and crossbreed pigs were fed the same diet and slaughtered at 135 and 155 kg live weight, respectively. Besides meat quality measurement, water status was assessed from transverse relaxation time (T2) weighted signals registered by Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR). A mixed model indicated that Apulo-Calabrese pigs had higher a* (P-value < 0.0001), chroma (P-value < 0.0001) and total intensity (P-value = 0.011) values. A Principal Component Analysis showed that the samples from Apulo-Calabrese had higher scores along Principal Component (PC) 2 (P-value = 4.07 × 10-5) and lower scores along PC3 (P-value = 1.50 × 10-7). However PC2 and PC3 explained a low fraction of the total variance, suggesting that few differences characterize meat quality traits of the two genetic types.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5656, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827089

RESUMO

The vaginal microbiota, dominated by Lactobacillus spp., plays a key role in preventing HIV-1 transmission. Here, we investigate whether the anti-HIV effect of lactobacilli is mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by these bacteria. Human cervico-vaginal and tonsillar tissues ex vivo, and cell lines were infected with HIV-1 and treated with EVs released by lactobacilli isolated from vaginas of healthy women. EVs released by L. crispatus BC3 and L. gasseri BC12 protect tissues ex vivo and isolated cells from HIV-1 infection. This protection is associated with a decrease of viral attachment to target cells and viral entry due to diminished exposure of Env that mediates virus-cell interactions. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection is associated with the presence in EVs of several proteins and metabolites. Our findings demonstrate that the protective effect of Lactobacillus against HIV-1 is, in part, mediated by EVs released by these symbiotic bacteria. If confirmed in vivo, this finding may lead to new strategies to prevent male-to-female sexual HIV-1 transmission.

3.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 364, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A wide debate is ongoing regarding the role of cutaneous dysbiosis in the pathogenesis and evolution of difficult-to-treat chronic wounds. Nowadays, probiotic treatment considered as an useful tool to counteract dysbiosis but the evidence in regard to their therapeutic use in the setting of difficult-to-treat cutaneous ulcers is still poor. AIM: CLINICAL REPORT: An 83-year-old woman suffering a critical limb ischemia and an infected difficult-to-treat ulcerated cutaneous lesion of the right leg, was complementary treated with local application of a mixture of probiotic bacteria. METHODS: Microbiological and metabolomic analysis were conducted on wound swabs obtained before and after bacteriotherapy. RESULTS: During the treatment course, a progressive healing of the lesion was observed with microbiological resolution of the polymicrobial infection of the wound. Metabolomic analysis showed a significant difference in the local concentration of propionate, 2-hydroxyisovalerate, 2-oxoisocaproate, 2,3-butanediol, putrescine, thymine, and trimethylamine before and after bacteriotherapy. CONCLUSION: The microbiological and metabolomic results seem to confirm the usefulness of complementary probiotic treatment in difficult-to-treat infected wounds. Further investigations are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681634

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) represent the most common agents of sexually transmitted rectal infections among men having sex with other men (MSM). In this study, we assessed the bacterial composition of the rectal microbiota associated with CT and/or NG infections in a cohort of men reporting unsafe rectal intercourse. A total of 125 rectal swabs were collected and four groups were compared: non-infected subjects (n = 53), patients with CT (n = 37), or NG rectal infection (n = 17) and patients with contemporary positivity for CT/NG (n = 18). CT and NG infections were detected by a real-time commercial test and the rectal microbiota composition was analyzed from rectal swabs through sequencing of the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. The rectal microbiota of all subgroups was dominated by Prevotellaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Ruminococcaceae families. Irrespective of the analyzed subgroup, we found that the rectal environment of all the enrolled MSM was rich in Prevotella and Escherichia genera. Moreover, a shift in the bacterial composition between patients with sexually transmitted rectal infections and controls was noticed: infected patients were characterized by a depletion of Escherichia species, associated with an increase of anaerobic genera, including Peptoniphilus, Peptostreptococcus, and Parvimonas. Overall, the presence of rectal symptoms did not significantly modify the rectal microbiota profiles among the four groups of analyzed patients. We confirmed that HIV-positive patients are characterized by a lower bacterial richness than HIV-negative subjects. However, we found that the presence of HIV has a different impact on bacterial rectal communities compared to CT and NG infections, modifying the relative abundance of several genera, including Gardnerella, Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, and Sutterella. Information about the rectal microbiota composition in CT and NG infections could shed light on the pathogenesis of these conditions and could contribute to the onset of new strategies for their control.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14095, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575935

RESUMO

We characterized the vaginal ecosystem during common infections of the female genital tract, as vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, n = 18) and Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CT, n = 20), recruiting healthy (HC, n = 21) and bacterial vaginosis-affected (BV, n = 20) women as references of eubiosis and dysbiosis. The profiles of the vaginal microbiome and metabolome were studied in 79 reproductive-aged women, by means of next generation sequencing and proton based-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Lactobacillus genus was profoundly depleted in all the genital infections herein considered, and species-level analysis revealed that healthy vaginal microbiome was dominated by L. crispatus. In the shift from HC to CT, VVC, and BV, L. crispatus was progressively replaced by L. iners. CT infection and VVC, as well as BV condition, were mainly characterised by anaerobe genera, e.g. Gardnerella, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Roseburia and Atopobium. The changes in the bacterial communities occurring during the genital infections resulted in significant alterations in the vaginal metabolites composition, being the decrease of lactate a common marker of all the pathological conditions. In conclusion, according to the taxonomic and metabolomics analysis, we found that each of the four conditions is characterized by a peculiar vaginal microbiome/metabolome fingerprint.

6.
Food Chem ; 299: 125122, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288165

RESUMO

To ease the mass exchange in fruit tissues, cutting and blanching are traditionally performed. However, recently, unconventional methods such as sonication are becoming more popular, which cause several alterations of physical and chemical properties as well as microstructure changes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the distribution of water inside the cranberry fruits, microstructural changes and sugars content, following traditional and sonication pre-treatments in osmotic solutions. TD-NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the transverse relaxation time (T2) and intensity of proton pools in different cellular compartments. The microstructure of the samples was evaluated by SEM microscopy, sugars content by HPLC and sucrose melting temperature and enthalpy by DSC. Different pre-treatments appeared to promote microstructure alterations and loss of water from vacuole and cytoplasm/extracellular space, more pronounced in cut and blanched samples. Cutting and blanching followed by osmotic dehydration with assisted sonication eased sucrose penetration into the tissue.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Açúcares/análise , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Água/metabolismo , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Dessecação , Frutas/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Osmose , Sonicação , Sacarose/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Vaccinium macrocarpon/ultraestrutura
7.
Food Chem ; 294: 260-266, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126461

RESUMO

This work studied water state of honey during crystallization, obtained statically and dynamically, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), water activity (aw) assessment and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR). Crystallization was induced by adding 5% of crystallized honey to three honey samples with different fructose/glucose ratio, the key characteristic for honey crystallization. Samples were stored at 14 °C. Dynamic crystallization was obtained by using an impeller. DSC showed that the dynamic crystallization was faster than the static one, the latter characterized by two phases, showing different rates. The crystallization rate did not affect aw, that remained below 0.600. TD-NMR allowed to separately observe two kinds of protons, both pertaining to liquid sugars, one chemically exchanging with water and one not exchanging with it. The combination of techniques allowed speculating that the two crystallization methods led to crystals of different size and shape.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Água/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cristalização , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(2): 741-747, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793206

RESUMO

Purpose: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of vitreous humor (VH) is important to discriminate between physiological and pathological conditions and may be particularly helpful when using animal models for ophthalmologic research. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological qualitative/quantitative composition of the VH of the standard pig using a metabolomics approach based on 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A secondary aim was the characterization of the VH of the porcine model of photoreceptor degeneration induced with iodoacetic acid (IAA), widely used in the biomedical field, and comparison with the physiological one. Methods: VH samples were collected from 30 pigs (17 in the physiological condition and 13 treated with IAA) upon vitrectomy and analyzed by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy for characterization. Results: On all analyzed samples, 40 molecules could be identified and quantified, with lactate being the most abundant in both physiological and photoreceptor degeneration conditions. Upon comparison, only 17 molecules showed statistical differences: In the IAA group, glucose and glutamine increased, while lactate, 4-amynobutyrate, hypoxanthine, dicarboxylic acids (succinate and fumarate), amino acids with their derivatives (creatine, alanine, valine, lysine, leucine, glycine, taurine, and isoleucine), and choline with its precursor sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine decreased. Conclusions: The results validate the metabolic impairment determined by glycolysis inhibition upon systemic IAA administration. In conclusion, this work represents the first characterization of the porcine VH metabolome in physiological conditions and provides additional information for the characterization and refinement of the IAA-induced photoreceptor degeneration model.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Degeneração Retiniana/metabolismo , Corpo Vítreo/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Ácido Iodoacético/toxicidade , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Modelos Animais , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração Retiniana/induzido quimicamente , Sus scrofa , Vitrectomia
9.
Food Res Int ; 115: 369-376, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599954

RESUMO

Over the past several decades, as a result of the increasing growth rate and body size of modern hybrid birds, poultry industry has been facing up the occurrence of many breast meat abnormalities, such as White Striping (WS), Wooden Breast (WB) and Spaghetti Meat (SM), whose incidence has recently reached alarming levels. Thus, the present study aimed at simultaneously investigating the implications of WS, WB and SM abnormalities on meat colour, pH, proximate composition, fatty acid profile, collagen, thermal properties as well as texture and water mobility, assessed on both superficial and deep section of Pectoralis major muscle. Overall, the occurrence of breast abnormalities is associated with a higher ultimate pH and a significant increase in moisture and fat level, coupled with a decrease in protein and ash content with WB showing the most detrimental effect. However, fatty acid profile resulted to be mildly modified only by WS. Moreover, WB fillets showed significantly higher (P < .001) collagen content and stromal protein denaturation enthalpy associated with an altered water distribution and mobility within the muscle tissue. On the contrary, SM samples displayed a lower (P < .001) collagen cross-linking and a softer texture after the cooking. Overall, these findings reveal that the occurrence of WB abnormality exerts a more profound and prominent effect on meat quality traits rather than the presence not only of WS, but also of SM.

10.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577558

RESUMO

Einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) is characterized by high content of proteins, bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, fructans, tocols, carotenoids, alkylresorcinols, and phytosterols, and lower α-, ß-amylase and lipoxygenase activities compared to polyploid wheat. These features make einkorn flour a good candidate to provide healthier foods. In the present study, we investigated the effects of einkorn bread (EB) on the intestinal physiology and metabolism of the pig model by characterizing the glycemic and insulinemic response, and the microbiota and metabolome profiles. Sixteen commercial hybrid pigs were enrolled in the study; four pigs were used to characterize postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses and twelve pigs underwent a 30-day dietary intervention to assess microbiota and metabolome changes after EB or standard wheat bread (WB) consumption. The postprandial insulin rise after an EB meal was characterized by a lower absolute level, and, as also observed for glucose, by a biphasic shape in contrast to that in response to a WB meal. The consumption of EB led to enrichment in short-chain fatty acid producers (e.g., Blautia, Faecalibacterium, and Oscillospira) in the gut microbiota and to higher metabolic diversity with lower content of succinate, probably related to improved absorption and therefore promoting intestinal gluconeogenesis. The observed changes, at both a compositional and metabolic scale, strongly suggest that EB consumption may support a health-promoting configuration of the intestinal ecosystem.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Pão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Insulina/sangue , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Triticum , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Farinha/análise , Período Pós-Prandial , Suínos
11.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207478, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440048

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolome of several Klebsiella pneumoniae strains characterized by different resistance patterns. A total of 59 bacterial strains (27 carbapenemase-negative and 32 carbapenemase-positive) were included and their metabolic features were assessed in basal conditions. Moreover, 8 isolates (4 wild-type and 4 KPC-producers) were randomly selected to evaluate the impact of sub-lethal concentrations of meropenem on bacterial metabolism. The metabolomic analysis was performed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy both on filtered supernatants and cell lysates. A total of 40 and 20 molecules were quantified in the intracellular and the extracellular metabolome, respectively. While in basal conditions only five metabolites showed significant differences between carbapenemase-positive and negative strains, the use of meropenem had a profound impact on the whole bacterial metabolism. In the intracellular compartment, a reduction of different overflow metabolites and organic acids (e.g. formate, acetate, isobutyrate) was noticed, whereas, in the extracellular metabolome, the levels of several organic acids (e.g. succinate, acetate, formate, lactate) and amino acids (aspartate, threonine, lysine, alanine) were modified by meropenem stimulation. Interestingly, carbapenemase-positive and negative strains reacted differently to meropenem in terms of number and type of perturbed metabolites. In wild-type strains, meropenem had great impact on the metabolic pathways related to methane metabolism and alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, whereas in KPC-producers the effect was predominant on pyruvate metabolism. The knowledge about the bacterial metabolic profiles could help to set up innovative diagnostic methods and new antimicrobial strategies to fight the global crisis against carbapenemase-positive K. pneumoniae.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455879

RESUMO

Background: Due to the important functions of arginine in poultry, it should be questioned whether the currently adopted dietary Arg:Lys ratios are sufficient to meet the modern broiler requirement in arginine. The present study aimed, therefore, to evaluate the effects of the dietary supplementation of L-arginine in a commercial broiler diet on productive performance, breast meat quality attributes, incidence and severity of breast muscle myopathies and foot pad dermatitis (FPD), and plasma and muscle metabolomics profile in fast-growing broilers. Results: A total of 1,170 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks was divided into two experimental groups of 9 replicates each fed either a commercial basal diet (CON, digestible Arg:Lys ratio of 1.05, 1.05, 1.06 and 1.07 in each feeding phase, respectively) or the same basal diet supplemented on-top with crystalline L-arginine (ARG, digestible Arg:Lys ratio of 1.15, 1.15, 1.16 and 1.17, respectively). Productive parameters were determined at the end of each feeding phase (12, 22, 33, 43 d). At slaughter (43 d), incidence and severity of FPD and breast myopathies were assessed, while plasma and breast muscle samples were collected and analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance-spectroscopy. The dietary supplementation of arginine significantly reduced cumulative feed conversion ratio compared to the control diet at 12 d (1.352 vs. 1.401, P < 0.05), 22 d (1.398 vs. 1.420; P < 0.01) and 33 d (1.494 vs. 1.524; P < 0.05), and also tended to improve it in the overall period of trial (1.646 vs. 1.675; P = 0.09). Body weight was significantly increased in ARG compared to CON group at 33 d (1,884 vs. 1,829 g; P < 0.05). No significant effect was observed on meat quality attributes, breast myopathies and FPD occurrence. ARG birds showed significantly higher plasma concentration of arginine and leucine, and lower of acetoacetate, glutamate, adenosine and proline. Arginine and acetate concentrations were higher, whereas acetone and inosine levels were lower in the breast of ARG birds (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Taken together, these data showed that increased digestible Arg:Lys ratio had positive effects on feed efficiency in broiler chickens probably via modulation of metabolites that play key roles in energy and protein metabolism.

13.
J Breath Res ; 12(4): 046015, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168442

RESUMO

The present work characterized the metabolomic profile of tracheal wash (TW) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in healthy horses and horses with respiratory disease. Six asthma-affected horses (group A) and six healthy controls (group H) underwent clinical, endoscopic and cytologic examinations of upper airways to confirm the active phase of asthma. TW and EBC samples were collected from each animal and investigated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) metabolomic analysis. A total of ten out of 38 metabolites found in the TW were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05). Higher concentrations of histamine and oxidant agents, such as glutamate, valine, leucine and isoleucine, as well as lower levels of ascorbate, methylamine, dimethylamine and O-phosphocholine, were found in group A compared to group H. Eight metabolites were found in equine EBC, namely methanol, ethanol, formate, trimethylamine, acetone, acetate, lactate and butanone, previously observed also in human EBC. Despite the fact that this was a pilot study, the results showed that the metabolomic analysis of TW and EBC has the potentiality to serve as a basis for diagnostic tools in horses with asthma.

14.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 125(2): 654-660, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672225

RESUMO

The attention of sports community toward probiotic supplementation as a way to promote exercise and training performance, together with good health, has increased in recent years. This has applied also to horses, with promising results. Here, for the first time, we tested a probiotic mix of several strains of live bacteria typically employed for humans to improve the training performance of Standardbred horses in athletic activity. To evaluate its effects on the horse performance, we measured lactate concentration in blood, a translational outcome largely employed for the purpose, combined with the study of hematological and biochemical parameters, together with urine from a metabolomics perspective. The results showed that the probiotic supplementation significantly reduced postexercise blood lactate concentration. The hematological and biochemical parameters, together with urine molecular profile, suggested that a likely mechanism underlying this positive effect was connected to a switch of energy source in muscle from carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids. Three sulfur-containing molecules differently concentrated in urines in connection to probiotics administration suggested that such switch was linked to sulfur metabolism. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Probiotic supplementation could reduce postexercise blood lactate concentration in Standardbred horses in athletic activity. Blood parameters, together with urine molecular profile, suggest the mechanism underlying this positive effect is connected to a switch of energy source in muscle from carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids. Sulfur-containing molecules found in urines in connection to probiotics administration suggested that such switch was linked to sulfur metabolism.

15.
Ann Neurol ; 83(6): 1147-1161, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effect of a probiotic on the gut microbiome and peripheral immune function in healthy controls and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: MS patients (N = 9) and controls (N = 13) were orally administered a probiotic containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus twice-daily for two months. Blood and stool specimens were collected at baseline, after completion of the 2-month treatment, and 3 months after discontinuation of therapy. Frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used for immune cell profiling. Stool samples were used for 16S rRNA profiling and metabolomics. RESULTS: Probiotic administration increased the abundance of several taxa known to be depleted in MS such as Lactobacillus. We found that probiotic use decreased the abundance of taxa previously associated with dysbiosis in MS, including Akkermansia and Blautia. Predictive metagenomic analysis revealed a decrease in the abundance of several KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways associated with altered gut microbiota function in MS patients, such as methane metabolism, following probiotic supplementation. At the immune level, probiotic administration induced an anti-inflammatory peripheral immune response characterized by decreased frequency of inflammatory monocytes, decreased mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD80 on classical monocytes, as well as decreased human leukocyte antigen (HLA) D related MFI on dendritic cells. Probiotic administration was also associated with decreased expression of MS risk allele HLA-DQA1 in controls. Probiotic-induced increase in abundance of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium was associated with decreased expression of MS risk allele HLA.DPB1 in controls. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that probiotics could have a synergistic effect with current MS therapies. Ann Neurol 2018.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 600, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643849

RESUMO

The vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining the health and functioning of the female genital tract, preventing the colonization of urogenital pathogens and sexually transmitted infections. In this study, we characterized the vaginal bacterial communities and the metabolome associated to Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CT: 20 women), compared to healthy condition (H: 22 women) and bacterial vaginosis (BV: 19 women). A microarray-based tool (VaginArray), implemented with a real-time PCR for Gardnerella vaginalis, was used to determine the vaginal bacterial composition, whereas the metabolic profiles were assessed by a proton-based nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. CT infection was characterized by bacterial and metabolic signatures similar to healthy condition, even though higher amounts of Lactobacillus iners, as well as depletion of some amino acids, biogenic amines, and succinate marked CT infection. Moreover, the frequency of Lactobacillus crispatus was higher in asymptomatic CT-positive patients than in women with CT-correlated symptoms. We also confirmed the marked differences in the microbiome and metabolome between healthy and BV-affected women. In conclusion, we highlighted microbial and metabolic peculiarities of the vaginal ecosystem in the case of CT infection, even though further studies are needed to understand if the observed alterations precede the infection onset or if the pathogen itself perturbs the vaginal environment.

17.
J Nutr Biochem ; 56: 152-164, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571009

RESUMO

Diminished colonic health is associated with various age-related pathologies. Calorie restriction (CR) is an effective strategy to increase healthy lifespan, although underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Here, we report the effects of lifelong CR on indicators of colonic health in aging C57Bl/6J mice. Compared to an ad libitum control and moderate-fat diet, 30% energy reduction was associated with attenuated immune- and inflammation-related gene expression in the colon. Furthermore, expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was higher upon CR, which may point towards efficient regulation of energy metabolism. The relative abundance of bacteria considered beneficial to colonic health, such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, increased in the mice exposed to CR for 28 months as compared to the other diet groups. We found lower plasma levels of interleukin-6 and lower levels of various metabolites, among which are bile acids, in the colonic luminal content of CR-exposed mice as compared to the other diet groups. Switching from CR to an ad libitum moderate-fat diet at old age (24 months) revealed remarkable phenotypic plasticity in terms of gene expression, microbiota composition and metabolite levels, although expression of a subset of genes remained CR-associated. This study demonstrated in a comprehensive way that CR affects indicators of colonic health in aging mice. Our findings provide unique leads for further studies that need to address optimal and feasible strategies for prolonged energy deprivation, which may contribute to healthy aging.

18.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194827, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566085

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the urine metabolome of women with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) uro-genital infection (n = 21), comparing it with a group of CT-negative subjects (n = 98). By means of a proton-based nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, we detected and quantified the urine metabolites of a cohort of 119 pre-menopausal Caucasian women, attending a STI Outpatients Clinic in Italy. In case of a CT positive result, CT molecular genotyping was performed by omp1 gene semi-nested PCR followed by RFLP analysis. We were able to identify several metabolites whose concentrations were significantly higher in the urine samples of CT-positive subjects, including sucrose, mannitol, pyruvate and lactate. In contrast, higher urinary levels of acetone represented the main feature of CT-negative women. These results were not influenced by the age of patients nor by the CT serovars (D, E, F, G, K) responsible of the urethral infections. Since the presence of sugars can increase the stability of chlamydial proteins, higher levels of sucrose and mannitol in the urethral lumen, related to a higher sugar consumption, could have favoured CT infection acquisition or could have been of aid for the bacterial viability. Peculiar dietary habits of the subjects enrolled, in term of type and amount of food consumed, could probably explain these findings. Lactate and pyruvate could result from CT-induced immunopathology, as a product of the inflammatory microenvironment. Further studies are needed to understand the potential role of these metabolites in the pathogenesis of CT infection, as well as their diagnostic/prognostic use.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/urina , Chlamydia trachomatis , Metaboloma , Urinálise/métodos , Infecções Urinárias/urina , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Itália , Metabolômica/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutrients ; 10(2)2018 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the effectiveness and the safety of a probiotic-mixture (Vivomixx®, Visbiome®, DeSimone Formulation®; Danisco-DuPont, Madison, WI, USA) for the treatment of infantile colic in breastfed infants, compared with a placebo. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in exclusively breastfed infants with colic, randomly assigned to receive a probiotic-mixture or a placebo for 21 days. A structured diary of gastrointestinal events of the infants was given to the parents to complete. Samples of feces were also collected to evaluate microbial content and metabolome using fecal real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based analysis. Study registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01869426). RESULTS: Fifty-three exclusively-breastfed infants completed three weeks of treatment with a probiotic-mixture (n = 27) or a placebo (n = 26). Infants receiving the probiotic-mixture had less minutes of crying per day throughout the study by the end of treatment period (68.4 min/day vs. 98.7 min/day; p = 0.001). A higher rate of infants from the probiotic-mixture group responded to treatment (defined by reduction of crying times of ≥50% from baseline), on day 14, 12 vs. 5 (p = 0.04) and on day 21, 26 vs. 17 (p = 0.001). A higher quality of life, assessed by a 10-cm visual analogue scale, was reported by parents of the probiotic-mixture group on day 14, 7.1 ± 1.2 vs. 7.7 ± 0.9 (p = 0.02); and on day 21, 6.7 ± 1.6 vs. 5.9 ± 1.0 (p = 0.001). No differences between groups were found regarding anthropometric data, bowel movements, stool consistency or microbiota composition. Probiotics were found to affect the fecal molecular profile. No adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of a probiotic-mixture appears safe and reduces inconsolable crying in exclusively breastfed infants.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cólica/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Choro , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pais , Qualidade de Vida , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Metabolomics ; 14(8): 106, 2018 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics has been recognized as a powerful approach for disease screening. In order to highlight potential health issues in subjects, a key factor is the possibility to compare quantitatively the metabolome of their biofluids with reference values from healthy individuals. Such efforts towards the systematic characterization of the metabolome of biofluids in perfect health conditions, far from concluded for humans, have barely begun on horses. OBJECTIVES: The present work attempts, for the first time, to give reference quantitative values for the molecules mostly represented in the urine metabolome of horses at rest and under light training, as observable by 1H-NMR. METHODS: The metabolome of ten trotter horses, four male and six female, ranging from 3 to 8 years of age, has been observed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy before and after three training sessions. RESULTS: We could characterize and quantify 54 molecules in trotter horse urine, originated from diet, protein digestion, energy generation or gut-microbial co-metabolism. CONCLUSION: We were able to describe how gender, age and exercise affected their concentration, by means of a two steps protocol based on univariate and robust principal component analysis.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Urinálise/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos , Masculino
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